Presentation on theme: "13 th Annual Emergency Management Higher Ed Conference, 20101 Irmak Renda-Tanalı, D.Sc. Associate Professor, Program Director, Homeland Security Management."— Presentation transcript:
13 th Annual Emergency Management Higher Ed Conference, 20101 Irmak Renda-Tanalı, D.Sc. Associate Professor, Program Director, Homeland Security Management & Emergency Management Graduate School of Management and Technology, University of Maryland University College Maryland E-mail: email@example.com, Tel: firstname.lastname@example.org A Critical Analysis of Turkish Emergency Management System
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System2 Eastern Mediterranean sector of Alpine-Himalayan Belt
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System4 Republic of Turkey Population: ~72 million (2 nd largest in Europe) Capital: Ankara (3.4 mil) Government: Parliamentary Republic f(declaration: 1923) Population (largest cities) Istanbul 9.4 mil, Ankara 3.4, izmir 2.4, Bursa 1.2, Adana 1.2 Language: Turkish (official) Land area: ~800,000 sq km / ~300,000 sq mi Latitude-longitude: 39° 00'N, 35° 00'E Landforms: European side rolling hills, across Bosphorus Strait into Central Turkey: wide plains, all surrounded by high, rugged mountains (Taurus, Koroglu, Pontic) Many peaks exceed 10,000 ft, highest peak Mt Ararat 16,945 ft. Along Mediterranean coast, land is lower and fertile. Major rivers Tigris, Kizilirmak, Sakarya, Euphrates. Largest lake; Lake Van. Land Division: 81 provinces Neighbors: Greece, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria GDP: $880 billion (2009) Per capita $8700 Currency: New Turkish Lira (TRY) www.turkey.org
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System5 Republic of Turkey Facts (cont.): Multi-party parliamentary since 1946 A secular democracy in predominantly Moslem population Member of : NATO (1952), Council of EU, EU candidate Free market economy, free and privately owned media Strategically located: Bordering 12 nations, straddling between Europe and Asia,Outlet for Blacksea basin countries to Mediterranean, energy terminal for Caspian oil and natural gas Contributor to UN peacekeeping ops worldwide Supporter of the Southeast European Countries Cooperation Process and initiator of the Multinational Peace Force Southeastern Europe; participant in the Kosova International Security Force and in Afghanistan and the Lebanon. Supporter of the Middle East Peace Process and the only regional country which participates in the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) upon the request of both the Palestinian and Israeli sides. www.turkey.org
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System6 6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System6 Republic of Turkey Facts (cont.): A modern telecommunication and transportation network. 17th largest and 4th fastest growing economy in the world. 4th biggest donor country in the world with respect its GNP. Donor of $3.5 billion in economic and technical assistance including credits and $500 million in humanitarian aid to several countries. Russia alone, the investments of Turkish private enterprises amount to $10 billion. With an average annual growth rate of 5%, the fastest growing country in the Mediterranean. Exports to 155 countries, ranging from cable for the Channel Tunnel to cars to China. Europe's largest supplier of textiles and apparel. The only F-16 fighter plane factory outside the US. A regional center for international companies such as Coca-Cola, Chase Manhattan, Philips and Siemens. Privatization program including state enterprises active in airlines, banking, telecommunications and petroleum. One of the 10 big emerging markets. www.turkey.org
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System7 Frequent seismic activity Earthquakes: Turkey lies on Eastern Mediterranean sector of Alpine-Himalayan earthquake belt. 90% national territory and >70% of population subject to seismic risk Floods, Landslides Avalanches Fires (building, brush – deforestation) Hazardous material spill—Environmental pollution Traffic accidents (cars, vessels in Bosphorus straits) Terrorism (PKK, far left, radical Islamists) Hazards
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System8 Avalanches killing >300 people in Eastern Anatolia Major flooding/landslides in Western Blacksea region– dozen deaths, hundreds homeless Nine major earthquakes measuring over 6.0 Richter magnitude, caused >20,000 deaths, >15 billion $$ 1ncludes 1999 Marmara Earthquake that accounts for 90% of death toll, 95% financial toll – resulted in sea change in Turkish disaster management and risk perceptions. Major events in past two decades
Turkish Emergency Management System 9 Policy Framework TR Emergency Management system is based on two major pillars of legislation: Disasters Law 7269:1959) and Development Law (3194:1985) Emergency Management evolved mainly as a reaction to frequent occurrence and losses from devastating earthquakes. ◦ First Comprehensive Relief Legislation (financial, housing, and family aid) introduced as a result of 1939 Erzincan Earthquake that caused 30,000 deaths (3773:1940) ◦ Continued to date as a politically engrained, socially expected practice ◦ Continuous floods in 1940s led to first flood mitigation legislation (4373:1943) ◦ Until 1944 disaster mitigation policies not harmonious with urbanization and industrialization policies.
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System10 At national level, separate frameworks used for dealing with natural hazards and civil conflicts/terrorist attacks National Disaster Declaration authority vests with Cabinet (2935:1983): “Extraordinary Situation” Law(2935:1983) -- Declaration of statewide disasters is provided in the same law. (authority vested in the Cabinet) concerns natural disasters, pandemic events, economic depression, use of violence threatening free democratic regime and personal rights and freedoms. Policy Framework
Policy Framework (cont.) Disasters Law (7269:1959) After devastating earthquakes between 1939- 1944,causing over 40,000 lives lost, first EQ zoning map + seismic design code developed (4263:1944) was then comparable to Japan, US, and Italy, elevated Turkey to 4th nation having legislation on seismic risk mitigation based on scientific studies. However Law 4263 did not address permanent settlement practices Ministry of Public Works and Settlement formed to carry out the mandate ◦ later led to Disasters Law (7269:1959) – still in use with many modifications Turkish Emergency Management System 11
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System12 Disasters Law (cont.) (7269:1959) Combined discrete laws under one. Includes disasters fund (authority previously vested with Ministry of Public Works and Settlement through its General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (GDDA) founded (1964) –tasked with nationwide disaster management, main post-disaster reconstruction agency task shifted to Prime Ministry in 1996 Applies to all hazards/ includes Disasters Fund outside state budget Deals with determining property damages and provision of shelter and housing to victims of disasters on an eligibility basis. Policy Framework (cont.)
Development Law (3184:1985) Mass urbanization + rapid industrialization in 1950s resulted in hastily built structures, hazardous practices – Led to Urbanization legislation (6785:1956), led to development law with modifications to date Authority vested with Ministry of Public Works and Settlement Regulation instrument for physical development One of the two pillars of emergency management Not tied well with Disasters Law, the other pillar? Turkish Emergency Management System 13
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System14 Turkish Emergency Management System 14 EM Framework Civil Defense Law (7126:1958) tasks General Directorate of Civil Defense (MOI) with response and rescue activities including all hazards Turkish Atomic Energy Council responsible for physical security of nuclear energy production
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System15 6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System15 Turkish Emergency Management System 15 EM Framework ◦ After 1999 Marmara Earthquakes, dozens of laws, law- amending ordnances, by-laws issued to improve policies ◦ TEMAD founded in 2000 (similar to FEMA) ◦ Natural Disasters Insurance Administration (DASK) founded with Compulsory Earthquake Insurance (CEI) introduced (587:1999) ◦ Emergency Management Higher Council – permanent undersecretaries of involved ministries (depts) and TRC
Policy Framework Until recently, State level actors: General Directorate of Disaster Affairs (under MPWS), Civil Defense General Directorate (under MOI), Turkish Red Crescent Turkish Emergency Management Agency (PM) Other Ministries: Transportation, Social Welfare, Interior, Energy and Natural Resources, Industry and Trade, Forestry etc. Turkish Emergency Management System 16
Policy Framework (cont.) Kocaeli and Düzce earthquakes: Resulted in sea change in attitudes, legislation, government and NGOs General Directorate of Civil Defense for Rescue and Emergency (Ministry of Interior) General Directorate of Emergency Management (TAY) (reporting to PM) Compulsory Earthquake Insurance and Natural Disasters Insurance Administration (DASK) created Commission Reports, studies, microzonation maps, building code amendments, new construction inspection standards, changes in government tender law, etc. Turkish Emergency Management System 17
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System18 Turkish Emergency Management System 18Observations No effective disaster mitigation policies or not harmonious with settlement, development, industrialization for the first 30 years of modern Republic led to haphazard settlement practices – still continues Organized industrial regions development ignored needs, resources, geological formation – too close to population centers, or located on fertile agricultural lands etc leads to disasters TR Emergency Management system has been based on two major pillars of legislation: Disasters Law 7269:1959) and Development Law (3194:1985) – separate
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System19 6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System19 Turkish Emergency Management System 19Observations More emphasis on disaster relief/immediate response than mitigation and risk management policies Risk mitigation still largely unattended Municipalities tasked to keep maps, resources – no trusted central authority exists Too many actors, overlapping duties – new reorganization intends to fix that (see next slide) Clear policies for sustainable development needed US model does not necessarily fit Turkish system!!
Reorganization Turkish Emergency Management System 20 GDDA CDCG TEMAD A new Turkish Emergency Management Agency A new Turkish Emergency Management Agency Office of Planning and Preparation Response Office Recovery Office Civil Protection Office Earthquake Office Administrative Services Office
Disaster Time Line Turkish Emergency Management System 21
6/9/2010 Turkish Emergency Management System22 YearEventNo. of Deaths Outcomes or legislative changesSource 1939Erzincan Earthquake30,000First comprehensive relief legislation (no.3773, 1940) Şimşek, 1998; Yılmaz, 2000 1940 s Flooding eventsFirst flood mitigation legislation (no.4373, 1943) TBMM, 1999; Çorbacıoğlu and Kapucu, 2006 1940- 1944 Niksar-Erbaa, Hendek, Ladik, Bolu-Gerede, and 5 more earthquakes* 11,000 + First comprehensive earthquake mitigation law (no.4623, 1944- 1955); first earthquake zoning map; first earthquake code (1944)* TBMM, 1944; TBMM 1999; Yılmaz, 2000; Ergünay 1999 1946- 1959 Varto-Hınıs, Karlıova, Kurşunlu, Yenice, Eskişehir earthquakes, Adıyaman and Çankırı flash floods, Fethiye and Abant earthquakes ** 880+Urbanization Law (no. 6785, 1956); Law 7116 creating MPWH in 1958; Civil Defense Law (no.7126, 1958); Disasters Law (no.7269, 1959)** TBMM, 1999; MPWS, 2009; ITÜ, 2002; Balamir, 2002; Çorbacıoğlu & Kapucu, 2006 1959- 1968 Varto, Mudurnu, Pülümür, Bartın earthquakes, Mersin floods** 2600+Law No. 1051 amending Law no. 7269** TBMM, 1999; Yilmaz, 2000; Corbacioglu & Kapucu, 2006, 1969- 1971 Alaşehir, Gediz, Burdur, Bingöl 2000+Earthquakes Fund (law no. 1571) created, GDDA Earthquake Research Directorate founded (1971) TBMM, 1999; Çorbacıoğlu & Kapucu, 2006 1983- 1985 Erzurum-Kars earthquakes** 1155+Extraordinary situation law (no.2935, 1983); Development Law (no.3194) supersedes no.6785 Yılmaz, 2000; ITÜ 2002; TBMM 1999 1999- 2001 Kocaeli and Düzce earthquakes 18,200 + TEMAD (no.583, 1999, 600/2000), CEI and DASK (no.587,1999); NEC 8 major laws; 32 major decrees; 13 major cabinet decrees; numerous circulars Gülkan, 2002; Balamir, 2002; Keleş, 2003, Mançebo & Renda-Tanalı; 2009; Çorbacıoğlu & Kapucu, 2006; www.tumgazeteler.com Event driven policy outcomes Erzincan earthquake is also a main influence together with the earthquakes of 1940-1944 for the outcomes listed, ** No direct linkages were identified from literature between these disasters and the listed legislation outcomes. However, the disasters preceding the legislation outcomes imply indirect relationship at the very least. A more rigorous breakdown of the events and their linkages may be identified at later stages of the research.
Turkish Emergency Management System 23 Turkey’s Disaster Time Line
To be continued Renda-Tanali, I & Ozceylan, D. (2009) ‘Turkey’s disaster time line: Is the past prologue?’, Proceedings of the 16 th Annual TIEMS conference. Istanbul, Turkey. Mancebo, F & Renda-Tanali, I. (2009). ‘Toward an integrated policy of risk management: A critical analysis of Turkey and France’, Int. J. Emergency Management, Vol. 6, No.1, pp.99-115. Turkish Emergency Management System 24 Irmak Renda-Tanalı, D.Sc. Associate Professor, Program Director, Homeland Security Management & Emergency Management (coming up Fall 2010) Graduate School of Management and Technology, University of Maryland University College Maryland E-mail: email@example.com, Tel: firstname.lastname@example.org