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Developing Competency-Based Emergency Management Degree Programs Naim Kapucu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration Programs Coordinator,

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Competency-Based Emergency Management Degree Programs Naim Kapucu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration Programs Coordinator,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Competency-Based Emergency Management Degree Programs Naim Kapucu, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Public Administration Programs Coordinator, Emergency Management & Homeland Security Director, Center for Public and Nonprofit Management (CPNM) University of Central Florida 1

2 Objectives Analyzing changing environments of disasters and emergencies Identifying core competencies for emergency & disaster managers Sharing experience in emergency management academic program development Developing emergency management programs based on core competencies Discussing curriculum design and delivery strategies 2

3 Introduction Emergency management (EM) field requires competent leaders and practitioners Educational programs need to be designed and adjusted accordingly Core competencies of emergency managers Collaborative focus in curriculum design and delivery 3

4 Context Disasters have changed in scope and severity Today’s disasters overwhelm the capacity, capabilities and skills of emergency management leaders and practitioners Adjustment is imperative through training and more responsive academic programs 4

5 Literature Review Over the years, the effectiveness of emergency management tools, techniques, and strategies has waned, and to address this issue more up-to-date emergency management skills are required (Waugh & Tierney, 2007) New skills and competencies are needed because of: -increased scope and diverse nature of the disasters -heightened expectations and demands by societies and communities to serve them during catastrophic events -advancements and innovations in technology demanding more sophistication -impact of globalization demanding networking with different societies across the world 5

6 EM in Public Affairs & Administration 6 Significant attention to Emergency Management in the field of public administration over the last three decades Increased research and publications on EM: - Public Administration Review (PAR) has devoted three issues to emergency and disaster management (1985, 2002 – on the Implications of September 11 terrorist attacks, and 2007– on Administrative Failure in the Wake of Hurricane Katrina) Increase in academic programs: master’s, certificates, minors, and concentrations have been developed in schools/departments of public affairs and administration

7 EM Programs in the US 7 Source: FEMA Emergency Management Institute, 2009 According to FEMA Emergency Management Institute (2009), there are 173 college EM programs: -59 certificates, minors, diplomas, tracks, and foci -39 associate degrees -26 bachelor degrees -42 masters-level programs -7 doctoral-level programs

8 EM Context 8 Emergencies are characterized by several factors: -Uncertainty -Complexity -Time pressure -Lack of necessary information -Fast decision-making under stress -Networks & complexity

9 Collaboration in EM 9 In addition, today collaboration, partnerships and networks are imperative to tackle large-scale emergencies: National Response Framework envisions comprehensive all-hazards approach to enhance local response Engagement of all levels of government, private organizations, nonprofit organizations, and individual citizens in response to man-made and natural disasters is critical

10 Core Competencies Analysis 10 Core competencies derived from reports, national and local plans, as well as EM research Barbera et al. (2005) describe competency as a “specific capability required for effective performance, within the context of a job’s responsibilities, which achieves the objectives of the organization” (p. 3) Competencies should enable and empower emergency managers to perform in most effective, efficient, and proactive way

11 Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies 11 DEPTH - Awareness: understanding of knowledge, skills, and abilities encompassed by a specific competency - Operations: knowledge, skills, and the necessary abilities to effectively perform assigned tasks, functions, and activities within an organizational system, including technicality of the process - Expertise: operations-level proficiency, as well as knowledge, skills and abilities required for judgmental and analytical processes and complex decision-making situations

12 Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies 12 SCOPE - Small Scope: competency limited only to a scientific/ academic knowledge base - Medium Scope: added understanding of psychological, social and political environment and realities when performing his/her job - Large Scope: implementation and application stage in which emergency managers combine their competencies pertaining to the two scopes above and deliver their services; entails effective application of the four emergency management phases

13 Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies 13 NATURE - Core Competencies: required for technicians and practitioners to perform emergency management functions - Critical Understanding: critical understanding required by managers to address a problem at hand in a holistic perspective and to direct lower-level functions in that regard - Integrated Solutions: creation of integrated solutions by senior policy makers who address problems at a systemic level and come up with fundamental changes and implementations throughout the emergency management field - Critical Research: critical research by relevant emergency management scholars who present research and studies to establish a better and sound base for implementation in light of past experiences

14 Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies 14 TYPE - Knowledge: what emergency managers should know - Skills: what emergency managers should do - Tools: what emergency managers should use

15 Levels of Analysis of EM Competencies 15

16 Core Competencies Identified Clarity of Role: Responsibilities and duties are easy and manageable as long as they are clearly defined for respective emergency operation actors to effectively perform their job (especially for routine disasters, not for catastrophic ones) Effective Organizational Management: Emergency Management should start from effective internal organizational management including resource and personnel management, budgeting, strategic planning, etc. 16

17 Core Competencies Identified (con’t) Technology and Research-integrated Applications: Emergency Management should benefit from relevant technology education/training in order to effectively address natural and manmade disasters. This approach should be strengthened by contemporary developments and improvements in related sciences Interdisciplinary Approach to Problem Solving: Emergency Management should not be limited to emergency management operations only, but should also address social, political, legal, policy, and ethical issues related to mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Likewise, the field should focus on and incorporate issues relating to other disciplines and entities when needed 17

18 Core Competencies Identified Effective Leadership through Communication and Analytical Skills: Effective Emergency Management is only possible through effective leaders who know the power of communication in affecting and convincing others. Effective leaders also possess strong judgmental and analytical skills needed to make quality decisions in times of uncertainty, time pressure and limited information Effective Networking, Coordination, Partnerships, and Collaboration: Because of the nature and scope of disasters faced by communities today, it is impossible for local governments to effectively respond to disasters alone, and it is imperative to collaborate in terms of such parameters as information, resources, personnel, etc. Such collaboration also necessitates coordination and interoperability skills to successfully perform assigned tasks and functions 18

19 Core Competencies Identified (con’t) Environment and Community-sensitive Practices: Effective leadership is inevitably possible only through thorough analysis and consideration of political, social, economic, and environmental factors and their incorporation into the general picture of the emergency situation faced All-hazards, Holistic, and Proactive Approach to Emergency Situations: Emergency Management needs an all-hazards and holistic approach, which not only addresses issues in an environment-sensitive way, but also tries to progressively solve problems during all phases of the emergency management cycle 19

20 Core Competencies Identified Knowledge, Training and Experience-based Critical Decision-making: Since Emergency Management is an applied and practical field, ample resources should be invested in developing knowledge and theory-based training, along with empowering the inexperienced and employing the experienced personnel so that emergency operations do not suffer from lack of experience while conducting and managing emergency management operations Horizontal, Egalitarian, and Trustful Relationships: This factor is especially important when networking and collaborative efforts are considered. A collaborative initiative would be ineffective and most probably fail when there is lack of inter-actor trust and acceptance, as well as when imbalanced power relationships exist between actors. This is true for both intra- and inter- organizational relationships in emergency management Rule-oriented though Flexible Structures, Operations, and Thinking: Any emergency operation should follow a certain chain of command and rules described by organizational norms and culture, though such practice should be easily avoided when and if needed for achieving a higher goal for the organization or public. Flexible structures and innovative thinking do not imply disorderly actions, but instead imply alternative approaches to solve problems 20

21 EM Programs at UCF Minor in Emergency Management and Homeland Security - Approved in academic year -55 active students as of fall credit hours: -5 core courses -PAD 4110 Intergovernmental Administration -PAD 4392 Emergency Management and Homeland Security -PAD 4712 Information Systems for Public Managers and Planners -PAD 4395 Disaster Response and Recovery -PAD 4390 Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness -1 restricted elective course -DSC 4012 Conflict and Terrorism -DSC 4013 Homeland Security and Criminal Justice -HSA 4938 Health Issues in Disasters 21

22 EM Programs at UCF Certificate in Emergency Management and Homeland Security -Developed in active students as of fall credit hours: -4 core courses -PAD 6399 Foundations of Emergency Management and Homeland Security -PAD 6397 Managing Emergencies and Crises -PAD 6716 Information Systems for Public Managers and Planners -PAD 6825 Cross-Sector Governance -2 restricted elective courses from two groups: -Planning emphasis -PAD 5336 Urban Design -PAD 5338 Land Use and Planning Law -PAD 5356 Managing Community and Economic Development -PAD 6353 Environmental Program Management Research -PUR 6403 Crisis Public Relations -CGN 6655 Regional Planning, Design, and Development -Management and Policy Emphasis -PAD 5142 Nonprofit Organizations -PAD 6037 Public Organizations Management -PAD 6387 Transportation Policy -CCJ 6021 Criminal Justice Responses to Terrorism -HSA 5198 Health Care Decision Sciences and Knowledge Mgmt -INR 6136 Seminar in American Security Policy -INR 6071 Seminar in Weapons of Mass Destruction 22

23 Delivery: Collaborative Learning Collaborative learning refers to an instruction method in which learners at various performance levels work together in small groups toward a common goal – Active class contribution – Work with other students on projects during class – Work with classmates outside of class – Participate in a community-based projects (advisory council) – Discuss ideas from readings/classes with others – Involvement and experience – Ability to learn from peers (co-learning) 23

24 Collaborative Learning Collaborative learning supports modern paradigms on learning: – Deeper level learning (Biggs 1987) – Shared understanding/knowledge (Mulder, Swaak, & Kessels 2002) – Critical thinking (Bullen 1998) Combined with an authentic context: – Social construction of knowledge (Jonassen 1992, 1994) – Competence-based learning (Keen 1992) 24

25 Hierarchical vs. Collaborative Model Hierarchical Model Teachers detain knowledge while students consume knowledge Instructional methods based on memorization of information and individual study 25 Collaborative Model Students and teachers are, at the same time, producers and consumers of knowledge Instructional methods based on teams of students working together toward

26 Collaborative Learning Activities Discussions Games/Simulations FEMA Professional Development Series NIMS Courses Case studies Discussion groups – Position & response papers Brainstorming Group projects – community-based service-learning projects 26

27 Analytical Reasoning: Basics of Network Measures Centrality – Degree – Closeness – Betweenness – Flow Betweenness Cliques & Sub-groups – N-cliques – N-Clans 27

28 Friendship Network Analysis Before After 28

29 Advice Network Analysis Before After 29

30 Affiliation Networks Before After 30

31 Conclusion Emergency Management field needs effective, skillful and competent leaders and emergency managers to deal with complex emergencies and disasters Respective EM programs need to meet the current need of the practice Collaborative, inter-governmental, and inter- sector practices are to be included in the curriculum Collaborative nature of EM should be reflected in curriculum design and delivery 31

32 Thank You! Questions & Comments? 32


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