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CHAPTER 29 The Civil Rights Movement 1954-1968. SECTION 1 Leaders and Strategies.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 29 The Civil Rights Movement 1954-1968. SECTION 1 Leaders and Strategies."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 29 The Civil Rights Movement

2 SECTION 1 Leaders and Strategies

3 I.EXPLAIN HOW THE ACTIVITIES OF EXISTING CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS LAID THE GROUNDWORK FOR THE MOVEMENT OF THE 1960S. A. Groundwork 1) Grassroots efforts 2) Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) B. NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People 1) Interracial organization – both African American 2) 1920s and 30s challenged segregation 3) Worked to secure legal equality 4) W.E.B. Du Bois and Thurgood Marshall

4 I.EXPLAIN HOW THE ACTIVITIES OF EXISTING CIVIL RIGHTS ORGANIZATIONS LAID THE GROUNDWORK FOR THE MOVEMENT OF THE 1960S. C. National Urban League 1) Helped newcomers to cities by helping them find jobs and housing D. CORE – Congress of Racial Equality 1) Founded by pacifists and directed by James Farmer 2) Pursued its goals through peaceful confrontation

5 II.DESCRIBE THE PHILOSOPHY THAT MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. BROUGHT TO THE MOVEMENT. A. Nonviolent protest 1) A peaceful way of protesting against policies 2) Did not resist even when attacked B. SCLC – Southern Christian Leadership Conference 1) Introduced the concept of nonviolent protest in ) Organized by African American clergymen 3) Shifted the focus of the civil rights movement from the North to the South

6 II.DESCRIBE THE PHILOSOPHY THAT MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR. BROUGHT TO THE MOVEMENT. C. Martin Luther King, Jr. 1) Organized SCLC 2) Influenced by Gandhi and nonviolent protest 3) Became leader of civil rights movement 4) Tremendous poise and courage – Nobel Peace Prize 5) Assassinated 1968 – Memphis, TN – James Earl Ray

7 III.EXPLAIN WHY SOME STUDENTS FORMED THEIR OWN CIVIL RIGHTS COMMITTEE. A. SNCC – Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 1) Gave young African Americans activists a voice in the civil rights movement 2) Young student activists made decisions about priorities and tactics 3) We Shall Overcome 4) Robert Moses

8 SECTION 2 The Struggle Intensifies

9 I.DESCRIBE THE GOALS OF SIT-INS AND FREEDOM RIDES AND THE REACTIONS THEY PROVOKED. A. Sit-ins Challenge Segregation 1) Sit-in is a protest technique in which African Americans occupied a segregated establishment and demanded service 2) Often led to time spent in jail Badge of Honor

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11 I.DESCRIBE THE GOALS OF SIT-INS AND FREEDOM RIDES AND THE REACTIONS THEY PROVOKED. B. The Freedom Rides 1) Civil rights workers traveling on interstate buses to protest segregation at terminals 2) Organized to test a Supreme Court decision (1960) to allow African Americans to exercise rights 3) Violently attacked across South, especially in Anniston, Alabama – as a result they received federal protection. 4) Supported by Attorney General Robert Kennedy

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13 II.SUMMARIZE CIVIL RIGHTS PROTESTS IN ALBANY, GEORGIA AND AT OLE MISS A. Albany Movement 1) Failed largely because the police chief prevented the protesters from gaining public sympathy B. Integration at Ole Miss 1) James Meredith advanced the cause of civil rights when he tried to enroll at Ole Miss 2) President Kennedy responded to the riot by sending U.S. Army troops to restore order and protect Meredith

14 I.EXPLAIN HOW VIOLENCE AGAINST PROTESTERS IN BIRMINGHAM AFFECTED ATTITUDES THROUGHOUT THE NATION. A. Birmingham, Alabama 1) Civil rights leaders targeted Birmingham in 1963 because the city was highly segregated 2) MLK called it the most segregated city in the country 3) Treatment of demonstrators by Birmingham police angered most Americans – Americans were appalled by police violence 4) MLKs Letter from Birmingham Jail 5) Birmingham police commission Bull Connor

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16 SECTION 3 The Political Response

17 I.ANALYZE HOW PRESIDENT KENNEDYS POLICIES ON CIVIL RIGHTS CHANGED BETWEEN 1961 AND A. Kennedy on Civil Rights 1) Senator Kennedy won the support of the black community 2) As President, Kennedy moved slowly on civil rights to avoid offending southern Democratic leaders. 3) The Birmingham brutality prompted Kennedy to propose a strong civil rights bill: a) prohibited segregation in public places b) advance school desegregation c) Southerners in Congress filibustered

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20 II.DESCRIBE THE POLITICAL IMPACT OF THE MARCH ON WASHINGTON. A. March on Washington 1) August 1963 – 200,000 joined in D.C. to support civil rights legislation 2) Participants hoped to convince Congress to pass civil rights legislation jobs and freedom 3) Highlight: MLKs I Have a Dream speech

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22 III.SUMMARIZE THE PROGRESS IN CIVIL RIGHTS MADE UNDER LYNDON JOHNSON. A. Johnson on Civil Rights 1) Honor Kennedys memory - passage of the civil rights bill 2) To gain passage of his civil rights legislation, Johnson had to overcome Senate filibuster using the cloture rule B. The Civil Rights Act ) Considered to be landmark in American history 2) Banned discrimination in all public facilities

23 III.SUMMARIZE THE PROGRESS IN CIVIL RIGHTS MADE UNDER LYNDON JOHNSON. C. Freedom Summer 1) Voter registration in Mississippi 2) Three workers were murdered 3) Church and house burnings D. Democratic Convention 1) Mississippi Freedom Democratic party organized and sent delegates to the Democratic National Convention

24 III.SUMMARIZE THE PROGRESS IN CIVIL RIGHTS MADE UNDER LYNDON JOHNSON. E. Selma March 1) Goal: to get voting rights legislation passed 2) Selma, Alabama – MLK led a march of 25,000 from Selma to Montgomery (50 miles)

25 III.SUMMARIZE THE PROGRESS IN CIVIL RIGHTS MADE UNDER LYNDON JOHNSON. F. Voting Rights Act ) After Congress passed it, many African Americans were elected to office at all levels G. Legal Landmarks 1) Civil Rights Act ) Voting Rights Act ) 24 th Amendment – barred use of a poll tax in federal elections

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27 SECTION 4 The Challenge of Black Power

28 I. COMPARE THE WAYS THAT JAMES BALDWIN, MALCOLM X, AND OTHER AFRICAN AMERICANS EXPRESSED ANGER AT THE PACE OF PROGRESS TOWARD CIVIL RIGHTS. A. The civil rights movement was divided over the issues of nonviolence and integration with white society B. James Baldwin 1) Wrote about the violent consequences of segregation 2) Warned Americans that African Americans were angry and tired of promises

29 I. COMPARE THE WAYS THAT JAMES BALDWIN, MALCOLM X, AND OTHER AFRICAN AMERICANS EXPRESSED ANGER AT THE PACE OF PROGRESS TOWARD CIVIL RIGHTS. C. Malcolm Little – Malcolm X 1) Father was a Baptist minister but died early in life 2) Malcolm turned to life of crime – jail by age 20 3) More militant movement 4) Nation of Islam – group that believed Allah would create a Black Nation – founded by Elijah Mohammed 5) Black Nationalism – belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community 6) Opposition to Integration – races should be separate 7) Shot to death in 1965

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31 II. EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES AND TACTICS USED BY ADVOCATES OF BLACK POWER. A. Stokely Carmichael – SNCC leader – increased militant activity 1) Black Power – idea that African Americans should take charge of their communities B. Black Panthers 1) Wanted African Americans to lead their own communities 2) Black is Beautiful racial pride

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33 II. EXPLAIN THE PRINCIPLES AND TACTICS USED BY ADVOCATES OF BLACK POWER. C. Riots in the Streets 1) de jure segregation – rigid pattern of legal separation of the races dictated by law 2) de facto segregation – racial separation imposed by poverty and ghetto conditions – facts of life 3) Watts Riots – neighborhood of Los Angles California 4) Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassination ) Kerner Commission 1968 – reported that the nation was moving toward two separate and unequal societies

34 III. SUMMARIZE THE LEGACY OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT. A. Legacy 1) Thousands of African Americans could vote for the first time 2) Segregation is made illegal 3) Political process open for participation 4) A new sense of racial/ethnic pride


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