2The Bill of Rights (1791)A series of Amendments to the Constitution designed to protect people and the states from the abuses of government
3Amendment I Freedom of Religion Freedom of Assembly Freedom of PetitionFreedom of PressFreedom of SpeechRemember RAPPS?
4Amendment IIA well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
5Amendment IIINo Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
6Amendment IV No illegal search and seizures Searches may only take place under a warrant OR with reasonable suspicion
7Amendment V Indictment by a Grand Jury No Double Jeopardy No self-incriminationNo person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of lawGovernment may not take private property without fair compensation (eminent domain)
8Amendment VI Right to a speedy and public trial Right to trial by an impartial juryRight to be confronted with the witnesses against himRight to an attorney
9Provides for trial by jury in civil cases (lawsuits) Amendment VIIProvides for trial by jury in civil cases (lawsuits)
10Amendment VIIINo excessive bailNo excessive finesNo cruel and unusual punishments
11Amendment IXThe enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
12Amendment XThe powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people
13Amendment XI (1795)Establishes “sovereign immunity” – citizens cannot sue a state in federal court for monetary damages, but may sue a state if the state is in violation of federal law
14Amendment XII (1804)Changes the rules for electing the president and vice-presidentOld rules – whoever got the most votes for president won, whoever got the second most votes became vice-president!
15All men created equal?Originally, only WHITE, PROPERTY OWNING MEN were allowed to vote in the US!
16Role of Women Primary role was as wives, mothers, and homemakers Poor, single women might work outside the home as servantsHad few property rights, could not vote
17Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams Pushed for women’s rights to education, own property, and have a voice in politics-voting(suffrage)"...remember the ladies … Do not put such unlimited power into the hands of the Husbands … all Men would be tyrants if they could … [we] will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation.”
18Native American Relations As more white settlers pushed west, they came into increasing conflict with Native AmericansNatives were NOT considered US citizens, and so had few rightsUS law protected settlers over native interests
19Tennessee & Kentucky become states First settled by whites in the 1750s and 1760sLed to conflicts with native groupsKentucky became the 15th state in 1792Tennessee became the 16th state in 1796
20Western Indian Confederacy Many Great Lakes area tribes worked together to present a united front against US expansionBadly defeated US troops in battles in 1790 and 1791
21Battle of Fallen Timbers August 20, 1794, near Toledo, OhioUS troops under “Mad” Anthony Wayne defeated Indian Confederation under Blue JacketEnded the Northwest Indian War
22Tecumseh Shawnee tribal leader Attempted to unite all Natives against USOpposed treaties with US governmentAllied himself with the British during the War of 1812Killed during the war
23Treaty of Greenville August 2, 1795 Natives agreed to surrender most of Ohio and areas that are today Detroit and Chicago for $20,000 in goods and the creation of a permanent boundary between US and Indian territoryFuture settlers ignored the negotiated boundary
24Battle of Tippecanoe Nov. 7, 1811 US forces under Harrison attacked Tecumseh’s Indian alliance’s HQ in Indiana, shattering the new Indian confederacyTecumseh fled to Canada and joined with the BritishBritish support of the Indians would be a contributing factor to the start of the War of 1812
25William Henry Harrison Governor of the Indiana TerritoryBecame a national hero due to his victories in both Tecumseh’s War and the War of 1812Known as “Old Tippecanoe”Later elected President of the US
26Slavery: a “necessary evil” 3/5ths Compromise in Constitution only counted slaves as 3/5 of a personSlaves were NOT citizens and had no legal rightsSome free blacks in the North did enjoy citizenshipBy 1800, close to 1 million slaves in US, or about 1/6 of the population
27Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin Machine that separated usable cotton from its seedsMade cotton farming more profitable and led to the rise of “King Cotton”, the South’s dependency on the cotton tradeGrowth in the cotton trade led to further growth in slavery
29Beginnings of the Abolitionist movement Many people opposed slaveryMost northern states passed laws ending slavery thereEven though many Southerners questioned the morality of slavery, they considered it a “necessary evil” from which they could not escape.