2Where did legal segregation come from? Plessy v. FergusonThe state of Louisiana enacted a law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites.
3Plessy v. FergusonIn 1892, Homer Adolph Plessy--who was seven-eighths Caucasian--took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested.
4Supreme Court ruled that what happened to Mr. Plessy was legal “Separate but equal” became the rule of law.that separate facilities for blacks and whites satisfied the Fourteenth Amendment so long as they were equal. (The phrase, "separate but equal" was not part of the opinion.)
8Early “Cracks” In the Segregation Divides 1947 – Brooklyn Dodgers was the first to hire a “colored” player.JACKIE ROBINSONMost Valuable Player 1949.Many other African Americans began to join what had been “white only” sports.
9The NAACPNAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleLegal Affairs team sought cases to fight against segregation in the courts.Rosa Parks was represented by the NAACP.
10The NAACP: “Mr. Civil Rights” Thurgood MarshallTook on “Separate but equal” laws as unconstitutional.
11What eventually happened to Thurgood Marshall? First African American Supreme Court Justice in 1967.Served until his death in 1993.
12Brown v. Board of Education 1951 Topeka, KansasSegregated Schools8 year old Linda Brown tries to go to school.
131954: US Supreme Court rules on Brown v. Board of Education Unanimous decision.Separate but equal is unconstitutional.Ordered desegregation of Topeka schools “with all deliberate speed.”
14Linda Brown todayWorks for St. Louis Public Schools as an administrative assistant.
15Public Reaction to Brown v. Board of Education? African Americans rejoicedSome whites thought this would bring about a peaceful desegregation
16Public Reaction to Brown v. Board of Education? The Klan did NOT approve.Klan violence went up against African Americans and others who supported the changes.
17Public Reaction to Brown v. Board of Education? “The good people of Georgia will not tolerate the mixing of the races in the public schools or any other tax-supported institutions.”Governor Herman Talmadge
1890 Members of CONGRESS banned together to create the “Southern Manifesto” “We pledge ourselves to use all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision, which is contrary to the Constitution, and to prevent the use of force in its implementation.”
19Notes on the Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr.MLK organized PASSIVE RESISTANCE movement.
20Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted a YEAR 50,000 African Americans refused to get on the busesEven though the bus service was losing money – they still refused to give up.Supreme Court ordered the desegregation of buses in 1956.
21Resistance in Little Rock, Arkansas Fall of 1957, Governor Faubus posted National Guard troops around Central High School to turn away 9 African American students who were going to attend.
2215-year old Elizabeth Eckford The National Guardsman glared at me with a mean look and I was very frightened and didn’t know what to do.
2315-year old Elizabeth Eckford “I turned around and the crowd came toward me. They moved closer and closer. Somebody started yelling “Lynch her! Lynch her!”“I tried to see a friendly face somewhere in the mob – someone who maybe would help.”
2415-year old Elizabeth Eckford “I looked into the face of an old woman and it seemed a kind face, but when I looked at her again, she spat on me.”
25Eisenhower’s Reaction Saw what was happening in Little Rock as a challenge to federal authority (the President’s and the Supreme Court’s)Ordered US soldiers to escort the kids to school.
26Other Voices of Protest 1947 – Mexican Americans sued to be able to attend the same schools as whites.Native Americans protested against policies of “termination” of reservations.
27Leaders and Strategies of the Civil Rights Movement NAACPInterracial groupAppealed mostly to people with education.National Urban LeagueHelped African Americans moving from the South to find jobs and homes.COREInterracialOrganized peaceful protests against segregation.
28Leaders and Strategies of the Civil Rights Movement SCLCSouthern Christian Leadership Conference1957 – created by Martin Luther King, Jr. and other ministers wanting civil rights changes.Use of nonviolent protest.
29SCLC was differentIt was primarily focused on the South and was not dominated by African Americans / whites from the North.Used Gandhi’s ideas on nonviolence as the only way to achieve victory against stronger foes.
30Leaders and Strategies of the Civil Rights Movement MARTIN LUTHER KING, Jr.1929 – 1968Son and grandson of Baptist ministers.Had white playmates as a child but at school age became aware of segregation.
31MLK Eloquent and inspiring. Gave an example of dignity despite all the prejudice around him.Arrested, beaten physically and verbally many times.Nobel Prize for Peace in 1964
33Martin Luther King Assassination April 1968Memphis, TennesseeCame to give support to the striking garbage men.Prophetic Speech the night before his death.
34The Killer? James Earl Ray Caught in 1969 Sentenced to 99 years. Toward the end of his life, met with King’s son and said he hadn’t been alone in the killing.
35Nonviolence as a form of protest Those who fight for justice must peacefully refuse to obey unjust laws.MUST remain nonviolent, regardless of reactions.Required TREMENDOUS courage and discipline.
3617 Rules for Nonviolent Protest “Pray for guidance and commit yourself to complete nonviolence in word and action as you enter the bus … Be loving enough to absorb evil and understanding enough to turn an enemy into a friend.”
3717 Rules for Nonviolent Protest “If cursed, do not curse back. If pushed, do not push back. If struck, do not strike back, but evidence love and good will at all times …
3817 Rules for Nonviolent Protest “If another person is being molested, do not arise to go to his defense, but pray for the oppressor and use moral and spiritual force to carry on the struggle for justice.”
39SNCC: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Students who wanted to be in the Civil Rights movement.Didn’t want to be a part of church leaders work.Sought more immediate change than the SCLC did.Interracial at first.
40The Struggle Intensifies “As a child in the rural Mississippi town of Centreville, I grew up wondering what ‘the white folks’ secret’ was.“There homes were large and beautiful with indoor toilets. Every house I ever lived in was a one or two room shack with an outdoor toilet.”Anne Moody - SNCC
41Anne Moody (cont.)“I was horrified when 14-year old Emmett Till, visiting from Chicago, was killed in Mississippi for whistling at a white woman.”
42Anne Moody (cont.)“After I was jailed for my involvement in the Civil Rights demonstrations, it wasn’t as bad as the reaction I got from home.”
43Anne Moody“My mother, afraid for the lives of her relatives, begged me to end my involvement.”“My brother was beaten up and almost lynched by a group of white boys.”
44Anne Moody“The local sheriff warned me never to return to my hometown.”“My sister angrily told me that my activism was threatening the lives of every colored in Centreville.”
45Sit-ins Challenge Segregation Sitting-in a place and disrupting business until they were served or arrested.
46Sit-insIt was a Woolworth in the heart of the downtown area, and we occupied every seat at the lunch counter, every seat in the restaurant ….
47Sit-ins“A group of young white men came in and they started pulling and beating primarily the young women. They put lighted cigarettes down their backs, in their hair, and they were really beating people.”
48Sit-ins“In a short time, police officials came in and placed all of us under arrest, and not a single member of the white group., the people that were opposing our sit-in was arrested.”John Lewis
49Sit-ins MLK called participation a “Badge of Honor” 70,000 participated by the end of 1960.3,600 had been arrested.People were witnessing how wrong segregation was.
50The Freedom Rides1960, Supreme Court ruled that interstate bus segregation was illegal.Protestors decided to “test” this in “Freedom Rides” in 1961
51As they traveled into the Deep South troubles happened. Anniston, Alabama, white mob attacked the bus in the terminal, then followed, boarded the bus, disabled it, closed the door and barred it and threw a firebomb into the bus.
52Freedom RideThrough a broken window the students escaped, but were beaten by the mob.
53Freedom RideThere were thoughts of calling it off, but instead it was decided to send more buses.Violence in Birmingham and Montgomery.More volunteers arrived.
54Freedom RideFinally, Attorney General Robert Kennedy saw the need to send Federal Marshals to protect the Freedom Riders in 1961.Nation was horrified by the violence.
55Integration of Colleges 1961 James Meredith was turned down for college at “Old Miss.”1962 Supreme Court ordered Mississippi to admit Meredith.The Governor himself blocked Meredith from entering the Admissions Office.
56James Meredith’s Struggles for an Education White crowds attacked the Federal Marshal cars and threw bottles at Meredith’s dorm room windows.Two people killed in the riots.
57James Meredith Received his college degree. Shot while on the Voter Registration March in Recovered to finish the March with MLK at his side.
58James Meredith todayHas worked as a Congressional aide for former segregationist Jesse Helms.Writes history books about Mississippi today.
59Clash in Birmingham, April 1963 Birmingham, AL – 40% black, but “most segregated city in America.”King was arrested.Marchers were attacked.
60A Nation WatchesEven Americans that didn’t approve of Civil Rights were horrified by the violence inflicted on the peaceful protestors.
61Birmingham had to agree to change New hiring practicesPublic facilities were desegregated.Bi-racial committee to have more communication between people.
62The Political Response to the Civil Rights Movement? Eisenhower – sent troops to integrate Little Rock High Schools.But didn’t do much afterward.FBI was NOT protecting the Civil Rights workers.OPPOSITE under J. Edgar Hoover.HATED MLK
63The Political Response to the Civil Rights Movement? President John Kennedy (JFK)Slower to reactAttorney General Robert Kennedy (RFK)Once he saw the violence he used Federal Marshals
64JFK Speech, June 1963“We preach freedom around the world … but what are we to say to the world and each other that this is the land of the free … except for the Negros?“Now is the time for the nation to fulfill its promise.”
65Reaction to JFK’s Speech? Klan murder of Medgar Evers.NAACP workerOrganized voter registration drives.Gunned down in front of his home.
66Medgar Evers Murder Byron de la Beckwith charged with the murder. Two white juries were hung – he was released in 1964.Retrial in 1994 FINALLY saw him convicted and jailed for life.
67The March on Washington August 1963200,000 came from all over the country to call for “jobs and freedom”Kennedy feared the marchers would bring more violence and anger Congress.
68Civil Rights Act of 1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson got it passed. -considering he was from the SOUTH, it was unusual that he supported reforms.
69Civil Rights Act 1964Banned use of different voter registration standards for blacks and whites.Prohibited discrimination in “pubic accommodations”Motels, restaurants, gas stations, theaters, sports events
70Civil Rights Act 1964Allowed government to withhold funds to schools that practice discriminationBanned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin by employers and unions.Created EEOCEqual Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate claims of discrimination.
71Freedom Summer 1964Focus of the Civil Rights Movement to register voters in Mississippi.Went right for the “heart” of the Klan.
72Murders of Civil Rights Workers 80 mob attacks3 men “disappeared” and were found buried in an earthen dam.**Thousand arrests.African American churches and homes were burned or bombed.
73Basis of the movie Mississippi Burning No convictions for the murders until 2005.Baptist minister Ray Killen.Said KKK was a “peaceful” group.
74Voting Rights Act 1965 / 24th Amendment Eliminated literacy tests, poll taxes, and most barriers to voting.By ,000 African Americans were registered to vote in the Deep South
75The Movement Takes a New Turn: Malcolm X and Black Nationalism Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, NE in 1925.-Father a Baptist minister who died when he was young.- Drifted to Detroit, Boston, NYC and lived life of crime.-Jailed by time he was 20.
76Malcolm X Converted to Islam and specifically Black Islam. Believed Allah would someday reward them with a black nation.Meantime live separately and be self-sufficient.
77Malcolm X and Black Nationalism Released from prison in 1952 Malcolm changed his name and preached his message of black nationalism.
78Opposition to Integration Disagreed with MLK and the March on Washington.Disagreed with non-violent protest.“Why would anyone want to join white society?”
79Malcolm X leaves Nation of Islam 1964, had disagreements with the group’s leader Elijah Muhammad.Made a pilgrimage to MeccaSeeing millions of all nations and colors worshipping together made him rethink his ideas of separation.
80Malcolm X1965 returned to US with a new attitude and want to create integration.Enemies from the Nation of Islam did not like these changes in him.Killed him nine months later.
81Black Power Movement Stokely Carmichael NO to peaceful protest NO more going to jailNO more submitting to beatings.BLACK POWER!“We shall overrun” instead of “We shall overcome”
82The Black Panthers Bobby Seale and Huey Newton – 1966 Direct confrontation with white authorities.“Power flows from the barrel of a gun.”“Black is Beautiful”
83Riots in the Street: “Burn Baby Burn!” Black Panthers in Omaha, NE blew up an Omaha cop in 1970.1967 Watts neighborhood riot in LA.34 people dead
84De Facto v. De Jure Segregation Laws creating segregation.Common in SouthDe FactoNot a law, but social conditions create segregation.Common in the North
85Twin Tragedies in 1968MLK assassination in April.Memphis, TN
86Twin Tragedies in 1968RFK’s assassination in June 1968.Los Angeles
87The Legacy of the Movement Segregation became illegal.We HOPE! (Omaha)Voter registration has changed the power base in the South.1970 – 1975 the number of African Americans elected to office went UP 88%
88John Kennedy and “Camelot” Side Note:John Kennedy and “Camelot”
89John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK) Youngest President.First Catholic PresidentCame from one of the richest and most powerful families in the country.
90Many think of the Kennedy years as “Camelot” JFK and wife represented how most Americans saw – or wanted to see – themselves as.
91Many like to think of JFK as a perfect president He did give great speeches!“Ask not what your country can do for you – but what you can do for your country.”
92What Kennedy did do:Worked on programs to combat poverty and inequality.Increased minimum wageGave surplus food to unemployed peopleRedevelopment grants for communities with long-term unemployment
93What Kennedy did do Continued the Arms Race with the Soviets Signed a Nuclear Test Ban TreatyBay of Pigs DisasterSent troops into VietnamQuestions on Civil Rights commitments
94Cuban Missile Crisis The CLOSEST we ever came to nuclear war. 10-Days in October 1961.Cuba / Russia tried to put nuclear missiles in Cuba to be able to launch an attack on DC in less than 5 minutes.First strike capability with maybe no chance the US could respond?
95Jackie Style Jacqueline Kennedy Mother Remodeled the White House with historical accuracySeen as a style-setter for US women.People always wanted to see what she wore.
96November 22, 1963: Assassination in Dallas, TX Questions about if Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone still linger today.Zagruder film
97Pictures that no baby boomer can forget about JFK’s death / funeral
101JFK’s assassin: Lee Harvey Oswald Difficult childhood but doted / domineered on by mother.18 years old – joined Marines. Failure.19 – years old – defected to Russia.
102Lee Harvey OswaldEven though he married and had a daughter, he wasn’t content in Russia.Came back to the US.Could only get menial jobs and troubles in his marriage.
103Lee Harvey Oswald 1962 – 1963: Weird time in Oswald’s life. Attempted Assassination of an anti-communist / segregationist.Sometimes Pro-Castro ; Sometimes Anti- Castro.Traveled to Mexico, New Orleans, back to Dallas.
104November 22, 1963 Did Oswald act alone? He also killed a Dallas cop that day that tried to stop him.
105OswaldIn interviews over two days, he said that he was a “patsy” and being set up.
106What happened to Oswald? Murdered days after being taken into custody.Jack Ruby – local small-time mobster and dying of cancer.