Presentation on theme: "Launch List 1. Where was the first shot fired of the civil war?"— Presentation transcript:
1Launch List 1. Where was the first shot fired of the civil war? 2. Where did the surrender take place?3. Who took over for Lincoln as President?
2Morrill Land Grant Act (1861) Provided for the sale of public lands in each state.Profits went to fund colleges to teach the agricultural and mechanical arts.
3Homestead Act (1862) “They’re just givin’ away free land!” Allowed anyone to file for a quarter-section of free land (160 acres).The land was yours at the end of five years if you had built a house on it, dug a well, broken (plowed) 10 acres, fenced a specified amount, and actually lived there.
4Pacific Railroad Act (1862) “to aid in the construction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Missouri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of the same for postal, military, and other purposes,"
5Pacific Railroad Act (1862) Authorizes 2 Union companies he “Union Pacific” and the “Central Pacific” companies to build a transcontinental railroadFrom the railroads received more than 175 million acres (708,000 km²) of public land - an area more than one tenth of the whole United States and larger than Texas.
6National Bank Acts (1862)Lincoln was concerned with financing the war so he proposed a system of national banks authorized to issue national bank notes fully backed by federal bonds. The system would provide a uniform national currency and would bring banks that entered it under federal control.
7Major Innes Randolph, C.S.A. "A Good'Ole Rebel“Major Innes Randolph, C.S.A.
8Oh, I’m a good ‘old rebel Now that’s just what I am ‘N for this Yankee nation, I do not give a damn I’m glad I fought agin’ her I only wish we’d won I ain’t asked any pardon For anything I’ve done.
9I hates the Yankee nation And everything they do I hates the Declaration Of Independence, too I hates the glorious Union ‘Tis dripping with our blood I hates their strip’ed banner I fit it all I could.
10I rode with Robert E. Lee For three years, thereabout Got wounded in four places And I starved at Point Lookout I catched the rheumatism A-campin’ in the snow But I killed a chance of Yankees And I’d like to kill some more.
11Three hundred thousand Yankees A-stiff in Southern dust We got three hundred thousand Before they conquered us They died of Southern fever And Southern steel and shot I wish they were three million Instead of what we got!
12I can’t take up my musket And fight ‘em now no more But I ain’t gonna love ‘em Now that is certain sure And I don’t want no pardon For what I was and am I won’t be reconstructed And I do not give a damn!..
13Oh, I’m a good ‘old rebel Now that’s just what I am ‘N for this Yankee nation, I do not give a damn I’m glad I fought agin’ her I only wish we’d won I ain’t asked any pardon For anything I’ve done.
14I ain’t asked any pardon, For anything I’ve done!!
15Lyrics Written by: Major Innes Randolph, C. S. A. (1865)
16Sung by: Hoyt Axton From “Songs of the Civil War” (Columbia Records)
201. R E C O N S T R U C T I O NReconstruction: 1865 and 1877Federal Government programs carried out to repair the damage to the South and restore the southern states to the Union.
211. R E C O N S T R U C T I O NISSUES:Freedmen (freed slaves) were starting out their new lives in a poor region with slow economic activity.Plantation owners lost slave labor worth $3 billion. (4 million freed slaves)Poor white Southerners could not find work because of new job competition from Freedmen.South totally destroyed:The war had destroyed two thirds of the South’s shipping industry and about 9,000 miles of railroad.
24Lincoln aimed to take it easy on the south. No Malice = No revenge. 2. LINCOLN'S 2ND INAUGURAL SPEECHLincoln’s speech“With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work weLincoln aimed to take it easy on the south.No Malice = No revenge.are in; to bind up the nation’s wounds….to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”
263. Competing Notions of Freedom Southern Whites- Want freedom from tyrannical NorthBlacks- Want freedom.Voting RightsEconomic Freedom- (land, jobs, education)
27President Andrew Johnson Jacksonian Democrat. (Lincoln was a Rep.)White Supremacist.Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union.“Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”-AJ
284. President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) Offered amnesty upon simple oath to all except: Confederate military officersNew state constitutions, they must accept minimum conditions rejecting slavery, secession and state debts.
29President Johnson’s Plan (10%+) 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations.EFFECTS?3. Northern Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
30Growing Northern Alarm! Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum (10%) requirements.Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.Revival of southern defiance.BLACK CODES
31Restricted the freedom of movement. Limited rights of free people. 5. BLACK CODESSimilar to Slave Codes.Restricted the freedom of movement.Limited rights of free people.
32BLACK CODESAs southern states were restored to the Union under President Johnson’s plan, they began to enact black codes, laws that restricted freedmen’s rights.The black codes established virtual slavery with provisions such as these:Curfews: Generally, black people could not gather after sunset.Vagrancy laws: Freedmen convicted of vagrancy– that is, not working– could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year’s labor.Labor contracts: Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all the wages they had earned.Land restrictions: Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations.
336. CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION Plans compared6. CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTIONRecon. Act of 1867 (Harsher than AJ )Amnesty : Presidential pardonoath of allegiance---50%high ranking Confederate officialsloose voting rights if you don’t sign oathWrite new state ConstitutionsRatify: 13, 14 & 15 Amendmentsreject secession and state’s rightssubmit to U.S. Government authorityHelp for FreedmenFreedmen’s Bureau for education40 acres and a muleDivide the South into 5 military districts to enforce
34Wanted to the see the South punished. 7. RADICAL REPUBLICANSThaddeus StevensCharles SummnerWanted to the see the South punished.Advocated help for Freedmen:Political Voting rightsSocial SchoolsEconomic Equality Land, jobs (40 acres and a mule)Radical Republicans
35RADICAL REPUBLICANSThaddeus StevensCharles SummnerWould go after President Johnson through the impeachment process after he vetoes the Civil Rights Act of 1866.
36RADICAL REPUBLICANSThaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1866“Strip a proud nobility of their bloated estates, send them forth to labor and you will thus humble the proud traitors.”Thaddeus Stevens, in Congress, 1867“I am for Negro suffrage in every rebel state. If it be just, it should not be denied: if it be necessary, it should be adopted: if it be a punishment of traitors, they deserve it.”Quotes of Radicals
37One former Confederate Was amazed to see a government which was intent on killing us………now generously feeding our poor and distressed…….
388. “Lost Cause”Romantic Idea in the south, that the Civil war was a cause worth fighting for.“Second war of independence”War of Southern Rights
39Mississippi Governor, 1866: “The Negro is free” “Whether we like it or not; we must realize that fact now and forever. To be free, however, does not make him a citizen or entitle him to social or political equality with the white man.”
40Bureau’s Accomplishments 9. FREEDMEN'S BUREAUFreedman’s Bureau 1865: help former slaves get a new start in life.This was the first major relief agency in United States history.Bureau’s AccomplishmentsBuilt thousands of schools to educate Blacks.Former slaves rushed to get an education for themselves and their children.Education was difficult and dangerous to gain.Southerners hated the idea that Freedmen would go to school.
5211- 14th Amendment (Citizenship) Ratified in July, 1868.Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people.Insure against neo-Confederate political power.Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens…
53The Balance of Power in Congress StateWhite CitizensFreedmenSC291,000411,000MS353,000436,000LA357,000350,000GA591,000465,000AL596,000437,000VA719,000533,000NC631,000331,000
5612. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Military Reconstruction ActTo enforce Reconstruction laws in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.
59Reconstruction Acts of 1867 To Carry out reconstruction plans in the south, republicans in government got the military involved to enforce laws.They also passed 2 laws which were designed to lessen president Andrew Johnson’s power, to make sure that he stayed with the Reconstruction plans, which were very unpopular in the south.
6013. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Command of the Army ActThe President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.
6114. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Tenure of Office ActThe President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.A question of the constitutionality of this law.
6215. President Johnson’s Impeachment Johnson removed Edwin Stanton in February, 1868.Was sec of war under Lincoln, felt Andrew Johnson was too lenient.
6315. President Johnson’s Impeachment Removing Stanton violated the Tenure of Office ActJohnson replaced generals in the field who were more sympathetic to the south.The House impeached him on February 24 before even drawing up the charges by a vote of 126 – 47!
64The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35 to 19 (one short of required 2/3s vote).
65IMPEACHMENT PROCESSImpeachment: Bringing charges against the President. Two steps involved……1st Step: U. S. House of Representatives hold hearings to decide if there are crimes committed. They then vote on the charges and if there is a majority, then, charges are brought against the President.2nd Step: U.S. Senate becomes a courtroom. The President is tried for the charges brought against him. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the judge. Once trial is completed, Senators must vote to remove President with a 2/3’s vote.Impeachment process
6616. Results of IMPEACHMENT Presidency would suffer as a result of this failed impeachment.President would be more of a figure-head.An inflexible President, 1866: Republican cartoon shows Johnson knocking Blacks of the Freedmen’s Bureau by his veto.Johnson’s Veto
6713th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865) CIVIL WAR AMENDMENTS13th Amendment Abolished slavery (1865)14th Amendment Provided citizenship & equal protection under the law. (1868)15th Amendment Provided the right to vote for all men which included white and black men. (1870)Voting rightsGiving the Black man the right to vote was truly revolutionary……..A victory for democracy!
6813th AMENDMENT“Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.13th: Slavery Abolished14th
6914th AMENDMENT“All persons born in the U.S. are citizens of this country and the state they reside in. No state shall make or enforce any law which deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction to the equal protection of the laws.”The Congress shall have power to enforce by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.14th: Rights of Citizens14th
7015th AMENDMENT“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”.The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.15th: Voting Rights14th
71First Black Senators and representatives in the 42st and 42nd Congress. Senator Hiram Revels, on the left was elected in 1870 to replace the seat vacated by Jefferson Davis.Black Congressmen
72The Balance of Power in Congress StateWhite CitizensFreedmenSC291,000411,000MS353,000436,000LA357,000350,000GA591,000465,000AL596,000437,000VA719,000533,000NC631,000331,000
74The Taste of FreedomFreedom of movement: Enslaved people often walked away from plantations upon hearing that the Union army was near.Exodusters: moved to Kansas and TexasFreedom to own land: Proposals to give white-owned land to freed people got little support from the government. Unofficial land redistribution did take place, however.Freedom to worship: African Americans formed their own churches and started mutual aid societies, debating clubs, drama societies, and trade associations.Freedom to learn: Between 1865 and 1870, black educators founded 30 African American colleges.
75Once Johnson is impeached, Congress passes Reconstruction Act of 1867. The South would be reconstructed under the Radical Republicans plan.Republicans would elect Grant as their President and he would carry out the Radical Reconstruction.“The Strong Government”, Grant enforcing the Reconstruction Act of 1867 and “forcing” the South to change.
76Military Reconstruction Each number indicates the Military Districts
77Becomes industrialized Schools, over a thousand New South20. New SouthBecomes industrializedCities rebuiltRailroadsSchools, over a thousandHospitals, 45 in 14 statesDiversify economy.
7821. Funding Reconstruction Rebuilding the South’s infrastructure, the public property and services that a society uses, was one giant business opportunity (VERY CORRUPT!!!)Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines had to be rebuilt.Funds were also needed to expand services to southern citizens. Following the North’s example, all southern states created public school systems by 1872.Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes paid for Reconstruction. Spending by Reconstruction legislatures added another $130 million to southern debt.
7922. K K K Ku Klux Klan refers to a secret society or an inner circle Organized in 1867, in Polaski, Tennessee by Nathan Bedford Forrest.Represented the ghosts of dead Confederate soldiersDisrupted Reconstruction as much as they could.Opposed Republicans, Carpetbaggers, Scalawags and Freedmen.KKK
81K K KSpreading TerrorThe Ku Klux KlanEliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters.Keep African Americans as submissive laborers.They planted burning crosses on the lawns of their victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them.Attacked African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims.
82Spreading Terror 23. K K K The Federal Response President Grant’s War On Terrorism.The Enforcement Act of 1870 banned the use of terror, force, or bribery to prevent people from voting.Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to protect voters and voting places.As federal troops withdrew from the South, black suffrage all but ended.
83Scalawags Southerners who helped Carpetbaggers K K K24. SOUTH'S COUNTER REVOLUTIONkkkALL HATED BY THE KKKCarpetbaggers Northerners/Republicans sent to help reconstruct the South….Scalawags Southerners who helped CarpetbaggersFreedmen Blacks who tried to vote or were involved in the reconstruction of their states governments.
85THE REPUBLICAN SOUTHDuring Radical Reconstruction, the Republican Party was a mixture of people who had little in common except a desire to prosper in the postwar South. This bloc of voters included freedmen and two other groups: carpetbaggers and scalawags.Northern Republicans who moved to the postwar South became known as carpetbaggers.Southerners gave them this insulting nickname, which referred to a type of cheap suitcase made from carpet scraps.Carpetbaggers were often depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make a fast buck.
86THE REPUBLICAN SOUTHWhite southern Republicans were seen as traitors and called scalawags.This was originally a Scottish word meaning “scrawny cattle.”Refers to one who is a “scoundrel”, reprobate or unprincipled person.Some scalawags were former Whigs who had opposed secession.Some were small farmers who resented the planter class. Many scalawags, but not all, were poor.
89Letter About Ku Klux Klan Terror* State of Mississippi. Monroe County. March 30, 1871My beloved Sister: I will endeavor to answer your joyfully received letter. I must tell you something about the Ku Klux, they are raging on the other side of the River. They have whipped several white men, whipped and killed several Negroes.They whipped Colonel Huggins, the Superintendent of the free schools nearly to death, and everybody rejoiced when they heard it, for everybody hated him. He squandered the public money, buyingKKK Quote 3
90pianofortes, organs, sofas, and furniture for the Negro School house in Aberdeen. The people are taxed beyond endurance. The Ku Klux gave him seventy lashes, and then gave him ten days to leave the country. He left and went to Jackson.There was a Regiment of Militia came into Aberdeen Friday. They are sent here to put down the Ku Klux. Huggins has come back with the Militia, but I wouldn't give a straw for his life, for he will be killed. It is the opinion of most everybody there will be war. The Yankees coming here will make the Negroes more insolent.KKK Quote 3
91 Give my love to all the Connections and write soon. Yours, Jennie With Country full of Yankees, things are going too far, for the free whites of the South are determined not to put up with it.A Negro can kill a white man, take it in Court, get a Negro jury, clear him and then turn him loose, things can't go on this way. We are in a most peculiar situation. Give my love to all the Connections and write soon. Yours, Jennie*Mrs. Webb was the wife of William J. Webb, who owned and operated the City Hotel on the site of the Plainview Hotel, on the Block North of the Monroe County Courthouse, Aberdeen, Mississippi. The Shaw Family patronized this Hotel. Colonel Huggins left Aberdeen in the night and went back North.KKK Quote 3
9225. SHARECROPPINGSharecroppers were Freedmen and poor Whites who stayed in the South and continued to farm.Freedmen signed a work contract with their former masters .Picked cotton or whatever crop the landowner had.Freedmen did not receive “40 acres and a mule”
93Freedmen provided the labor. SHARECROPPINGLandowner provided land, tools, animals, house and charge account at the local store to purchase necessitiesFreedmen provided the labor.Sharecropping is based on the “credit” system.
95Advantages Disadvantages SHARECROPPINGAdvantagesPart of a business ventureRaised their social statusReceived 1/3 to 1/2 of crop when harvestedRaised their self esteemDisadvantagesBlacks stay in SouthSome landowners refused to honor the contractBlacks poor and in debtEconomic slaverySharecroppers
96A VICIOUS CYCLE OF DEBT ECONOMIC SLAVERY 1. Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, no homes, and no money to buy land.6. Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord.2. Landowners need laborers and have no money to pay laborers.ECONOMICSLAVERY3. Hire poor whites and freedmen as laborersSign contracts to work landlord’s land in exchange for a part of the crop.5. At harvest time, the sharecropper is paid.Pays off debts.If sharecropper owes more to the landlord or store than his share of the crop is worth;4. Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing, food or local store.
97LANDOWNERS AND SHARECROPPERS. FREEDMEN'S BUREAUACTED AS THEMEDIATOR BETWEENLANDOWNERS AND SHARECROPPERS.
99Corrupt BargainvsRutherford B. Hayes Samuel TildenThe election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 are referred to as the Corrupt Bargain.Three southern states withhold their electoral votes until Hayes agrees to pull the Union troops out of the South.There is no protection for the Freedmen and the South will regain their states and go back to the way it was.
1001876 Election Tilden did not receive enough electoral votes. Special Commission gives votes to Hayes.Hayes wins the electionDemocrats refuse to recognize Hayes as President**Disputed Electoral votes164369 total electoral votes, need 185 to win.
101Agreement between Democrats and Republicans Hayes pulls the troops out of the South.Southerners take over their state governments called “REDEEMERS”Successes Freedmen would be lost because Southerners would take over their state governments.Jim Crow laws kept Blacks from voting and becoming equal citizens.Cartoon of Hayes: end of Reconst
102social reality27. SEGREGATIONAfter Reconstruction, 1865 to 1876, Southern states kept Blacks from voting and segregated, or separating people by the color of their skin in public facilities.Jim Crow laws, laws at the local and state level which segregated whites from blacks and kept African Americans as 2nd class citizens and from voting.poll taxesliteracy testsgrandfather clause
103social realityJIM CROWThe systematic practice of discriminating against and segregating Black people, especially as practiced in the American South from the end of Reconstruction to the mid- 20th centuryDerogatory name for a Black person, ultimately from the title of a 19th-century minstrel song.Goal: Take away political and constitutional rights guaranteed by Constitution: Voting and equality of all citizens under the law.
105social realityJim Crow LawsPoll Taxes: Before you could vote, you had to pay taxes to vote. Most poor Blacks could not pay the tax so they didn’t vote.Literacy Test: You had to prove you could read and write before you could vote…. Once again, most poor Blacks were not literate.Grandfather clause: If your grandfather voted in the 1864 election than you could vote…..Most Blacks did not vote in 1864, so you couldn’t vote….
106schools, parks, transportation, restaurants, etc…. Jim Crow Laws: segregated Whites and Blacks in public facilities became the law after Reconstruction:Used at the local, state levels and eventually the national to separate the races inschools, parks, transportation, restaurants, etc….kept Blacks, minorities and poor whites from voting and as 2nd class citizen statusJC laws1
107The Struggle for African American Suffrage 1865 Civil War ends Reconstruction begins1870s Reconstruction ends.1950s-1960s Civil Rights movement begins.1900s-1940s Jim Crow laws prevent African Americans from votingPlessy vs Ferguson effected social equality for Black Americans from 1896 to 1960’s
108Voting Restrictions for African Americans in the South, 1889-1950’s
109Segregated 1% of Blacks integrated Less than 5% integrated 25% or more integratedJC laws/map
110Lynchings of Whites/Blacks South’s Backlash1Lynchings of Whites/Blacks0 to 2020 to 6060 to 100100 to 200200 or more
12128. Reconstruction EndsThere were five main factors that contributed to the end of Reconstruction.Corruption: Reconstruction legislatures & Grant’s administration symbolized corruption & poor government.The economy: Reconstruction legislatures taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt.Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments.The Democrats’ (CORRUPT BARGAIN) return to power: The pardoned ex-Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South. They blocked Reconstruction policies.The Country: The Civil War was over and many Americans wanted to return to what the country was doing before the war.
122Successes and Failures of Reconstruction Union is restored.Many white southerners bitter towards US govt & Republicans.South’s economy grows and new wealth is created in the North.The South is slow to industrialize.14th and 15th amendments guarantee Blacks the rights of citizenship, equal protection under the law, and suffrage.After US troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorist organizations effectively deny Blacks the right to vote.Freedmen’s Bureau and other organizations help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling.Many black and white southerners remain caught in a cycle of poverty.Southern states adopt a system of mandatory education.Racist attitudes toward African Americans continue, in both the South and the North.
125Which way would the scale tip? SOCIAL REALITYWhich way would the scale tip?Social equality vs. legal equality
126social realityPLESSY VS. FERGUSON OF 1896Supreme Court decision which legalized segregation throughout the nation.“Separate but Equal” as long as public facilities were equalProblem: Black facilities would never be equal to White facilitiesOur nation would be segregated until the 1960’s.
127Solid South Political term that describes how the South would vote in future elections…… Always voted for the Democrats because they hated the Republicans.Reconstruction Map
128Abolitionists vs Women’s rights Women rights supporters refused to support the 14th Amendment giving African American Men citizenship unless women were added to it.Abolitionists would not support women’s rightsAbolitionists vs Women’s rights