Presentation on theme: "DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF DISASTERS By NEVİN PEYNİRCİOĞLU Republic of Turkey State Planning Organization October 2004."— Presentation transcript:
DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF DISASTERS By NEVİN PEYNİRCİOĞLU Republic of Turkey State Planning Organization October 2004
AFFECTS OF DISASTERS TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT RISK became the main factor in economic and social planning. New methods in Risk Management are important. Countries re-organize their social, institutional structures regarding new “risk” types like terrorism, technological accidents, new viruses, natural disasters, contagious disaseas etc. In Turkey, earthquakes are the main disaster type for the main potential to cause economic and social losses.
Big cities areas are surrounded with unhealthy and illegal building stock. Most cities lack of capacity to face not only earthquakes but also other risks. The urban rehabilitation affords should take into account the disaster risks. Together with urban rehabilitation facilities, the necessity for the implementation of macro urbanization policies in terms of encouragament of the development of middle-sized cities and new planned establishments continues. In Turkey annual direct economic loss caused by disasters is 1% of GNP and the indirect loss is 5-7 % of GNP which can not be disregarded in the development process.
Earthquakes 64 % Landslide 16 % Flood 15 % Fire 4 % Other 1 % In the 20 th Century in 158 earthquakes: 97.200 people died 175.000 people injured 583.371 buildings demolished or highly damaged 96 % of land on earthquake zone 98 % of population live on earthquake zone 66 % of land on active fault zone 57 out of 81 provinces are located on active fault zone, 11 of which have more than population of 1.000.000. DISASTERS IN TURKEY AND LOSSES AFTER 1999 EARTHQUAKE
DISASTER MANAGEMENT in TURKEY Current situation: New institutional and legislative arrangements are being studied. The measures for pre-emergency phases have more importance than before. Afforts to reach the systematic integrity for better disaster management continue.
LEGAL STRUCTURE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster Law (7269) Civil Defense Law (7126) related with –emergency management, –rehabilitation issues and –regulate pre and mostly post-disaster activities. New regulations –dealing with risk management are in the agenda of the country. Development Law (3194) –is now under revision in order to include hazard mitigation and risk management aspects and to integrate these to the planning process. Building Control Law (4708) –will enable to take into consideration the risk and safety criteria in construction.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT in 5 YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLANS 4 th Five Year Development Plan (1979-1983) –Reducing disaster hazards with protective and proactive measures and control of development and construction activities were taken into consideration in a wider perspective. 5 th Five Year Development Plan (1985-1989) –The problem was limited only with rural houses and rural areas. –Provisions regarding rehabilitation of rural houses, –Incentives, –Development of standard projects for rural houses were mentioned in the plan.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT in 5 YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLANS (continued) 6 th Five Year Development Plan (1990-1994) –focused on the policies related with earthquake and other disaster hazards mitigation, –it was envisioned introduction and development of new building inspection system, –encouragement for the use of more appropriate technologies for disaster resistant buildings, –prohibition for use of materials (out of standard) in constructions. 7 th Five Year Development Plan (1996-2000) – reducing disaster hazards were considered in more comprehensive and realistic way. –preparation of local earthquake risk maps in order to be used in regional and physical planning, has been foreseen.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT in 5 YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLANS (continued) 8 th Five Year Development Plan (2001-2005) –more attention has given to disaster management as compared to previous plans. –to re-form social, legal, institutional and technical structures with respect to disaster mitigation is foreseen by new policies and methods, including –public awareness via –training programs, –coordination between local governments, private sector and NGO’s.
OPPORTUNITIES AND POSSIBILITIES Together with the various problems related with disaster management in Turkey, there are several reasons to see near future positive. 1.Lessons learned from catastrophic experience in the near past. 2.Existing one political power that handles all units related with disaster management; therefore it is possible to bring all parties together for an acceptable disaster management system. 3.Economic conditions are getting positive inflation is decreased and levels of economic growth increased to required levels.
OPPORTUNITIES AND POSSIBILITIES 4. Turkey is giving more importance to improve the urban environment quality and safety standarts. 5. Technological developments. 6. The importance of urban rehabilitation and encouragement of planned urban developments have been seen. 7. Earthquake insurance -transferring a certain proportion to the hazard mitigation investments and -making insurance the preliminary condition for purchasing and selling of any real estate.
CONCLUSION Uncontrolled developments, lack of control turned settlements into a big risk pool. In order to achieve healty settlements: - Change in attitudes and perception is necessary. - Public benefits should be the main concerns of local administrations. - Related legislation should be revised. - Institutional structure should be re-arranged. - Control mechanisms both for planning and construction should be improved. - Safe settlements should be the core of social and economic policies.