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POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Nguyen Huu Dung Environment Economics Unit University.

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Presentation on theme: "POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Nguyen Huu Dung Environment Economics Unit University."— Presentation transcript:

1 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Nguyen Huu Dung Environment Economics Unit University of Economics-HCMC

2 OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES Pesticide use on rice crop The awareness level of pesticide applicators, their knowledge and perceptions of risks, attitudes towards pesticide use Pesticide use on rice crop The awareness level of pesticide applicators, their knowledge and perceptions of risks, attitudes towards pesticide use

3 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM METHODOLOGY Sample selection criteria Sample selection criteria a. According to information from the poverty map of the World Bank, a. According to information from the poverty map of the World Bank, b. Province, district, and communes where rice production is dominant, b. Province, district, and communes where rice production is dominant, c. A geographical distribution of the study sites (i.e. not very close together), c. A geographical distribution of the study sites (i.e. not very close together), d. Selected sites are not located inside a city or center of the district (since the poor may not be the farmers, e.g. jobless people in the city or town). d. Selected sites are not located inside a city or center of the district (since the poor may not be the farmers, e.g. jobless people in the city or town).

4 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM METHODOLOGY (Continue) At the commune level At the commune level To identify poor and non-poor communes, the survey selects the commune which is +/- one standard deviation from the mean in terms of the number and percentage of poor To identify poor and non-poor communes, the survey selects the commune which is +/- one standard deviation from the mean in terms of the number and percentage of poor

5 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Communes surveyed DistrictCommunesProvinceCOM.CODE% Poor* An PhuVinh HauAn Giang155 Chau ThanhBinh HoaAn Giang235 Vi ThanhVi TanHau Giang345 Thot NotThanh ThangCan Tho426 Tan ThanhNhon Hoa lapLong An546 Thu ThuaNhi ThanhLong An619 Cai LayMy Thanh NamTien Giang736 Cho GaoThanh BinhTien Giang820 Tra CuAn Quang HuuTra Vinh949 Tieu CanNgai HungTra Vinh1033

6 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM STUDY SITEs 1. Vinh Hau 2. Binh Hoa 3. Vi Tan 4. Thanh Thang 5. Nhon Hoa Lap 6. Nhi Thanh 7. My Thanh Nam 8. Thanh Binh 9. An Quang Huu 10. Ngai Hung

7 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Survey findings

8 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM  Household characteristics Income of Farmer’s Groups Table 1: Income of Farmer’s groups Income groups (million VND) No of farms % No of farmsTotal farm income Per Capita income < = ,802,070847,850 >1.2 <= ,938,4881,842,349 >2.4 <= ,893,8813,015,357 > 3.6 <= ,618,5884,144,690 >4,8 <= ,214,3285,276,810 > ,898,2709,509,439

9 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Charcteristics of farm households Income groups (million VND) Farm size (Ha) Housing land (m 2 ) Family members Main labors Dependents < = >1.2 <= >2.4 <= > 3.6 <= >4,8 <= >

10 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Farmer’s Assessment on the Value of their Residential Houses Income groups No of farms Mean Maximum Minimum < = ,476, ,000,000600,000 >1.2 <= ,664, ,000,000 1,000,000 >2.4 <= ,422, ,000,000 1,000,000 > 3.6 <= ,487, ,000,000 1,000,000 >4,8 <= ,483, ,000, ,000 > ,184, ,000,000 2,000,000 Group Total N= 58738,329, ,000,000170,000

11 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Access to Formal Credit Market of Farm Households Income groupsNo. of Farms Amount (VND) Loan duration (months) Interest (%/month) < = ,991, >1.2 <= ,911, >2.4 <= ,901, > 3.6 <= ,851, >4,8 <= ,983, > ,244, Group total28510,712,

12 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM  Pesticide use practices Farmers' Behavior in Buying Pesticides (percentage of farmers) N=603 Income groupsThe same brands Change regularlyChange sometimes

13 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Spraying Pesticides of the Respondents (%) Income groups InsecticidesFungicidesHerbicidesOthers Group Total

14 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Variations of Pesticide Doses Applied in Different Rice Seasons Increase/decrease dosesFrequency PercentCumulative Percent 1. Increased Decreased The same Increased in one season, but decreased in the other Total

15 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Methods of Payment of Purchasing Pesticides Income groups Cash immediately Later at an agreed date After harvesting Others Group Total

16 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM  Knowledge/Training on pesticide use Accessing to Pesticide Use Training of the Respondents Farmers’ Response Formal training in IPM Basic training on safe handling & applying pesticide Access someone to receive trainings Count% % % Yes No

17 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Formal Training in IPM of the Respondents Income groupsReceiving formal training in IPM (% of farmers) Yes (use)No (use)

18 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Farmer’ Perception on the Risk of Exposure to Pesticides Pesticide risk scaleIncome groups No risk at all Some small risk A small amount of risk A large & significant amount of risk Dangerous & very toxic Do not know

19 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Using Protecting Equipment during Pesticide Application Income Groups Percentage of farmers using protecting equipment Shoes Hat/head cover GlassesMaskFull Sleeve shirt Full length trousers Gloves Total

20 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM  Social feedback Farmers’ Judgment on the Use of Pesticides not be Legally Used in Vietnam Income groupsPercentage of farmers YesNo Total

21 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM The Criterion When Buying Pesticides (% of farmers) Criterion Very important ImportantNot so important Prices of pesticides Efficiency of pesticides to controlling pest The easiness to manipulate The quality of the explanation of how to use The legality of use in Vietnam

22 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Assessment of Farmers on Types of Pollution due to Pesticide Use Types of pollutionFarmers' answering Heard, known, seen Do not know Water pollution No. farmers % farmers Air pollution No. farmers % farmers Death of bird, animals,… No. farmers % farmers

23 POVERTY AND PESTICIDE USE IN VIETNAM - THE CASE OF FARMERS IN RICE PRODUCTION IN THE MEKONG DELTA VIETNAM Conclusion & Recommendation  The poor are poor endowment in terms of land, value of house, accessing to formal credit market, but with many family members  The poor more exposure to pesticides than non-poor  Non-poor farmers are likely change the brand of pesticide more often  Pesticide doses applied in the rice fields are not the same between seasons  No difference in accessing to basic training on safe handling & spraying pesticide between the poor and non-poor, but in formal training in IPM  The poor are more awareness of risk of exposure to pesticide  Pesticides not be legally used in Vietnam are still prevalent  The poor concern about prices of pesticide while non-poor pay more attention on efficiency to controlling pest  Water pollution is the most reported problem resulting from using pesticide.


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