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1 European Water Policy Getting Europe‘s waters cleaner, Getting the citizens more involved.

2 Water quality is a general problem in many European countries, in addition to water resources stress, in particular in the southern part of Europe.

3 Diversity of river basins


5 Shared River Basins – example Danube Danube river basin: 18 countries, 817.000 km 2 catchment area © World Bank

6 Quality Objectives in the EU Water Policy ‘70s first Directives Setting objectives (mostly chemical parameters) to protect certain uses: –Bathing water 76/160/EEC –Abstraction of drinking water 75/440/EEC –Drinking water 80/778/EEC –Fish life 78/659/EEC –Shellfish 79/923/EEC Other related Directives reduce and prevent pollution: nitrates from agriculture, urban waste water treatment, dangerous substances) The Water Framework Directive

7 European Water Policy Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) Completing the framework: –Groundwater (2006/118/EC) –Priority Substances (COM(2006)397 publication on going ) –Intercalibration (2005/646/EC publication on going,) Extending the scope: –Floods Directive (2007/60/EC) –Marine Strategy Directive (2008/56/EC) –Communication on Water Scarcity and Droughts (COM/2007/0414 final )

8 The Water Framework Directive Adopted in 2000 Applies to all Member States Legally binding obligations Repeals many existing pieces of EU water policy,but Providing consolidation and streamlining.

9 One coherent management frame for all water-related legislation Bathing Water Directive Groundwater Habitats Directive Marine strategy Pesticides Directive IPPC Directive Nitrates Directive Urban Waste Water Directive Env. Impact Assessment Directive Sewage Sludge Directive Drinking Water Directive WFD objectives and programme of measures Climate change Floods

10 WFD scope and main objective Scope : –Inland, transitional, coastal waters and for chemical status territorial waters –Surface waters (rivers, lakes, artificial water bodies) & Ground waters Good status in 2015 –Ecological status (Determined through intercalibration exercise … ) –Chemical status (Priority substances, ongoing negotiations on environmental quality standards) –Quantiative status (ground water) –No deterioration –Exemptions, 1st time extension, then lowering environmental objectives

11 The River Basin Concept All water bodies, including transitional waters (estuaries) and coastal waters. Coastal waters are defined as 1 nautical mile offshore. For chemical status the WFD also applies in territorial waters. WFD Covers all Water Bodies in a River Basin

12 Protecting all waters, surface and ground waters Covering all impacts on waters. Water quality defined in terms of biology, chemistry and morphology Water management at river basin level Definition of river basin management plans, including programmes of measures Cost Recovery and Equitable Charging Public Participation Attention paid to socio-economic impacts through a process of duly justified exemptions WFD - Key elements

13 Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991, as amended by Commission Directive 98/15/EC of 27 February 1998 The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive

14 Objectives: to protect the environment from the adverse effects of urban waste water discharges & discharges from waste water from certain industrial (agro-food) sectors Concerns the collection, treatment and discharge of waste waters Emission-oriented directive Precondition for attaining the water quality objectives of the Water Framework Directive UWWTD - Generalities

15 UWWTD - Generalities Pre-TR Agro-food WWTP Agro-food >4,000p.e. Food- processing WWT Plant UWWT Plant

16 UWWTD – Agglomeration Sufficiently concentrated area Independant of the existence of a collecting system or a UWWTP Does not coincide necessarily with administrative borders Guidance document on key terms and concepts : « Terms and definitions of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC) » Clear map (1/25,000 ) should be provided

17 Designation of sensitive areas (eutrophication) Collection and treatment of waste water in all settlements areas and areas of economic activity (‘ agglomerations ’) of more than 2,000 population-equivalent (p.e.), and treatment of waste water from agro-food industry >4000 p.e.; Secondary treatment as the rule; additional nutrient removal in the (catchments of) sensitive areas; Deadlines for EU-15 : staged 1998-2000-2005 for EU-12 : staged along similar principles as for EU15 (maximum 2015 for small agglomerations; Romania until 2018) Permit procedure for treatment plants and discharges Monitoring of performance on treatment plants and affected waters; UWWTD - Main principles

18 UWWTD Implementation Status EU-15 (4th implementation report, 2002) –Estimate : 22,000 agglomerations > 2,000 p.e. (550 M p.e.) –8,200 agglomerations (470 M p.e) > 10,000/15,000 p.e. subject to 1998 and 2000 deadlines –Unsufficient designation of sensitive areas (situation improved in 2007) –Compliance rate with required treatment level : 79% in normal areas 84% in sensitive areas EU-12 (according to Implementation Programmes) –6,600 agglomerations > 2,000 p.e. ( 120 M p.e.) –Compliance rate for all agglomerations: +/- 40% by dates of Accession

19 directive/treatment_directive/definitions- 160107pdf/_EN_1.0_&a=d -Terms and definitions of the UWWTD : directive/treatment_directive/definitions- 160107pdf/_EN_1.0_&a=d UWWTD Implementation Reports : urbanwaste/implementation/implementationreports_en.htm -DG ENV Water website : UWWTD – Useful links

20 Slide 20

21 Climate Change and Water Successful adaptation to climate change will depend on the extent to which the issue is integrated: þinto the implementation of national and European water regulation and þinto other sectoral policies (agriculture, energy, etc.).

22 Climate Change and Water Impact on: þ River flows þ Groundwater (recharge rates) þ Sea-level rise þ Floods þ Droughts þ Water quality

23 Droughts Temporary decrease in water availability due – for instance – to rainfall deficiency  Natural phenomenon Impacts of droughts  in case of water scarcity Water scarcity Water demand for human activities exceeds water resources available and the natural recharge  Human-driven phenomenon Impacts of water scarcity  in case of drought Water Scarcity & Drought

24 1. Increasing impacts of water scarcity and droughts in past 30 years DroughtsWater scarcity 33 EU river basins affected so far Min 100 Mio inhab., 17% of EU territory Significant extension in past 30 years Cost to the EU economy: Min € 100 billion in past 30 years In 2003: Min 100 Mio inhab., 1/3 of EU territory Cost of € 8.7 billion to the EU economy Water Scarcity & Drought

25 2. Expected impacts of climate change and economic development Proportion of severe water stress EU river basins likely to increase from 19% today to 35% by 2070. Areas affected by droughts will increase. If t° rises by 2 to 3°C, water scarcity would affect 1.1 to 3.2 billion people Southern Europe Eastern Central Europe

26 Climate Change and Water Climate change is not explicitly included in the text of the Water Framework Directive. However, the step-wise and cyclical approach of the WFD makes it well suited to handle climate change.

27 1. adoption of river basin management plans and programmes of measures by the end of 2009.  In-depth analysis of the measures planned at MS level to address water quantity issues 2. Obligation to deliver by 2010 water pricing policies that provide adequate incentives for efficient water use  Assessment of adequacy of economic instruments and water pricing with water scarcity and drought concerns WFD and Water Scarcity & Drought

28  Water savings and water demand management must be the priority  Additional water supply infrastructures to be considered only once water demand options are exhausted, and considering their impacts on the environment (GHG emissions in particular). Water savings Potential for water savings in the EU is estimated as follows (NB in the Mediterranean countries, the potential in agriculture tends to be higher): Agriculture: 43% Public Water Supply: 47% Household Use (from public supplies): 25% Industry: 43% Energy (switch to dry cooling where possible): 99% Tourism: 38% EU Water Hierarchy

29  Putting the right price tag on water  Allocating water and water-related funding more efficiently  Improving drought risk management  Fostering water efficient technologies and practices  Building additional water supply infrastructures  Changes in land use planning Water Scarcity & Drought Policy Options

30 EU- Central Asia regional cooperation on Water WFD is an example of best practice in water management- Its approach and methodology could usefully transferred to the EECCA countries. Most CA countries in favour of EU harmonisation, which is perceived as a vehicle for further economic growth. EU could serve as a facilitator to help our CA partners to gradually find better common water management arrangements by sharing lessons learned and best practices from our Member States.

31 EU Water Initiative for EECCA Key water problems are addressed through two thematic pillars: Water supply and sanitation, including financing of water infrastructures Integrated water resources management, including trans-boundary river basin management and regional seas. EU- CA cooperation in the field of Water

32 EU provide: Support in the identification of projects to be included in the future cooperative programs with EECCA countries. Support in developing of the EU Water Initiative through National Policy Dialogs



35 UWWTD - Load of an agglomeration –Expressed in population-equivalent (p.e.) –Includes: Resident population (inhabitants) Non resident population (i.e. tourism) Economic activities Industrial activities covered by Art 11 (pretreatment) Seasonal variations –Calculated on the basis of the delineation of the agglomeration. Does not depend on existence of collecting system or UWWTP. –Growth/decrease in population, industrial discharges, … to be anticipated

36 UWW collection –Collection rate : between 95-100% (of the load of the agglomeration) –Design, construction and maintenance in accordance with best technical knowledge and cost-benefit considerations, notably regarding volume and characteristics of wastewater prevention of leaks in collecting systems pollution from stormwater overflows

37 UWW collection –Individual appropriate systems (IAS) can be used as an exception. However they have to provide the same level of environmental protection. –In case of industries discharging into the collecting systems : Pre-treatment needed to protect installations and staff Prior regulation and/or specific authorisation Pollution management programme to be provided (inventory, actions, deadlines)

38 UWW treatment –Secondary treatment (reduction of organic pollution) as a general rule (agglo > 15,000 p.e. first) Requirements in table 1 of Annex 1 –More stringent treatment (so-called tertiary treatment) In sensitive areas (and their catchment) Mostly for agglomerations above 10,000 p.e. For eutrophication → Advanced N and P removal (requirements in table 2 of Annex 1) For drinking water abstraction → NO3 < 50 mg/l For fulfillment of other EU Directive → e.g. disinfection for bathing waters or shellfish waters –Monitoring and control to be put in place (i.e. laboratory capacity)

39 Applies only to agro-food industries above a threshold of 4,000 p.e.) Subject to prior regulation and/or specific authorisation Setting of appropriate requirements by Member States in permits 1.Milk-processing 2.Fruit and vegetable products 3.Soft drinks 4.Potato-processing 5.Meat industry 6.Breweries 7.Alcohol and alcoholic beverages 8.Animal feed from plant products 9.Gelatine, glue from hides, skin and bones 10.Malt-houses 11.Fish-processing UWWTD – Industries effluents

40 Sludge management –Sewage sludge is the most important by-product of waste water treatment –Options for sludge use: agriculture, landfill, incineration … –Sludge management is linked to UWW treatment (volume and quality of sludge) –Sludge management programme to be anticipated/developped when designing the UWW infrastructure –Clear option for sludge management - to be included in the project application

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