Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The New Conservatism Section 2:Section 2:The Reagan Years Section 3:Section 3:Life."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Section 1:Section 1:The New Conservatism Section 2:Section 2:The Reagan Years Section 3:Section 3:Life in the 1980s Section 4:Section 4:The End of the Cold War Visual Summary
Chapter Intro Are There Cycles in American Politics? After several decades during which progressive and liberal ideas dominated American politics, conservatism began making a comeback in the 1970s, and in 1980 voters elected the conservative Ronald Reagan president. Reagans commitment to less government regulation, a stronger military, and uncompromising anticommunism seemed to address voters concerns. Why do you think conservative ideas appealed to more Americans in the 1980s? How do you think conservative ideas have changed society?
Chapter Intro 1 The New Conservatism What political changes following World War II supported the growth of political conservatism?
Chapter Intro 2 The Reagan Years Are American politics characterized by conflict or cooperation?
Chapter Intro 3 Life in the 1980s What are the greatest social problems in the United States today?
Chapter Intro 4 The End of the Cold War What problems areas do presidents face?
Section 1-Main Idea Big Ideas Economics and Society High taxes as well as economic and moral concerns led the country toward a new conservatism.
Section 1-Key Terms People and Events to Identify William F. Buckley Sunbelt Billy Graham Jerry Falwell Moral Majority
A.A B.B Section 1-Polling Question Do you view yourself as a liberal or a conservative? A.Liberal B.Conservative
Section 1 Liberalism and Conservatism Conservatives and liberals disagreed about the role of the government.
Section 1 The American political system is divided into liberals and conservatives. liberalsconservatives Liberals believe the following: Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.) –Government should regulate the economy to protect people from the power of large corporations. –The federal government should play an active role in helping disadvantaged Americans.
Section 1 –Free speech and privacy are important. –A diverse society made up of different races, cultures, and ethnic groups will be more creative and energetic. –The wealthy should be taxed more. Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
Section 1 Conservatives believe the following: –The government is not trustworthy. –Free enterprise is the best economic system. –Taxes and government programs discourage investment, take away peoples incentive to work hard, and reduce the amount of freedom in society. Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
Section 1 –Religious faith is vitally important in sustaining society. Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
A.A B.B Section 1 Which side of the political spectrum would be suspicious of any attempt by the government to regulate social behavior? A.Liberals B.Conservatives
Section 1 Conservatism Revives Geographical regions tend to support either liberal or conservative ideas.
Section 1 Support for conservative ideas began to revive for two major reasons: –The struggle against communism revived the debate about the role of the government in the economy. –To Americans with a deep religious faith, the struggle against communism was a struggle between good and evil. Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Section 1 In 1955 a young conservative named William F. Buckley founded a new magazine called National Review. In 1960 some 90 young conservative leaders met at Buckleys estate and founded Young Americans for Freedom (YAF). Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Section 1 As the Sunbelts economy expanded, Americans living in those regions began to view the federal government differently than people living in the Northeast. With Southerners shifting to the Republican Party, conservatives began to build a coalition that could elect a president. Conservatism Revives (cont.) The Rise of the Sunbelt, 1950–1980
Section 1 The rapid inflation of the 1970s caused the buying power of middle-class families to shrink while taxes remained high. As conservatives began to call for tax cuts, the middle class flocked to their cause. Some Americans were drawn to conservatism because they feared that American society had lost touch with its traditional values. Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Section 1 Conservatives were critical of the following occurrences: –the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade –Supreme Court decisions that limited prayer in public schools and expanded protections for people accused of crimes –the feminist movement –the push for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Section 1 The largest group of religious conservatives was evangelical Protestants. Protestant ministers such as Billy Graham and Oral Roberts built national followings. Televangelists such as Marion Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell were also popular.Televangelists Falwell used his television show to found a movement he called the Moral Majority. Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Section 1 Although the members of this new coalition were concerned with many issues, they were held together by a common belief that American society had somehow lost its way. Conservatism Revives (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1 Conservatives in the 1950s and early 1960s faced which of the following problems? A.The nation wanted the government to help with the economy. B.Their votes were split between the Republicans and Democrats. C.They needed a strong leader to represent them. D.People had moved away from religion.
Section 2-Main Idea Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration During the Cold War, President Reagan reinforced the idea that the United States had to take strong action to resist the spread of Communist influence abroad.
Section 2-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Reaganomics Iran-Contra scandal Mikhail Gorbachev
A.A B.B Section 2-Polling Question Do you agree that cutting social programs is a good way to keep the deficit under control? A.Agree B.Disagree
Section 2 The Road to the White House President Reagans experiences in Hollywood and as governor of California led to his success in campaigning for presidency.
Section 2 As a broadcaster and actor, Ronald Reagan learned how to speak publicly and how to project a strong, attractive imageskills that proved invaluable when he entered politics. Reagan testified about communism in Hollywood before the House Un-American Activities Committee. He had been a Democrat, but dealing with Communists when he was president of the actors union, the Screen Actors guild, led him toward conservative ideas. The Road to the White House (cont.)
Section 2 Reagan was governor of California for two terms. Ten years later he won the Republican presidential nomination. Reagans campaign appealed to Americans who were frustrated with the economy and worried that the United States had become weak internationally. He easily defeated President Carter in the election of The Road to the White House (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Which job that Reagan had as a teenager shaped part of his political philosophy? A.Paperboy B.Waiter C.Lifeguard D.Sales clerk
Section 2 Domestic Policies Believing that government was part of the problem, President Reagan cut social service programs, sponsored tax cuts, and deregulated industry.
Section 2 Reagans first priority was the economy, which was suffering from stagflation, a combination of high unemployment and high inflation. The monetarists argued that inflation was caused by too much money in circulation. They believed the best solution was to raise interest rates. Another group supported supply-side economics.supply-side economics Domestic Policies (cont.)
Section 2 They argued that the economy was weak because taxes were too high. Reagan combined monetarism and supply- side economicscritics called his approach Reaganomics, or trickle-down economics. He encouraged the Federal Reserve to keep interest rates high and asked Congress to pass a massive tax cut. Domestic Policies (cont.)
Section 2 Cutting tax rates meant that the government would receive less money, which would increase the budget deficit.budget deficit To keep the deficit under control, Reagan proposed cuts to social programs such as food stamps, student loans, and Medicare. Reagan believed that excessive government regulation was another cause of the economys problems. Domestic Policies (cont.)
Section 2 His first act as president was to sign an executive order to end price controls on oil and gasoline, which caused prices to fall. Other deregulation soon followed. In 1983 the economy began to recover. By 1984, the United States had begun the biggest economic expansion in its history up to that time. Domestic Policies (cont.)
Section 2 Reagan brought his strict constructionist outlook to the federal judiciary. He also nominated the first woman to the Supreme Court, Sandra Day OConnor. Domestic Policies (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 2 Whom did Reagan beat by a landslide in the 1984 election? A.Geraldine Ferraro B.Walter Mondale C.Jimmy Carter D.Anthony Kennedy
Section 2 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup President Reagan began a massive military buildup to weaken the Soviet economy and deter Soviet aggression.
Section 2 Reagan rejected both containment and détente when dealing with the Soviet Union. The military buildup Reagan launched was the largest peacetime buildup in American history. Reagan believed that if the Soviets tried to match the buildup, it might put so much pressure on their economy that they would be forced to reform their system to avoid collapse. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Section 2 Reagan believed that the United States should support guerrilla groups who were fighting to overthrow Communist or pro-Soviet governments. This became known as the Reagan Doctrine. Reagan supported the following guerrilla groups: Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.) –The mujahideen in Afghanistan –The contras in Nicaragua
Section 2 Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagans administration continued to illegally support the rebels. One of the chief figures in the Iran-Contra scandal was Marine Colonel Oliver North, an aide to the National Security Council (NSC). As part of the military buildup, Reagan decided to place nuclear missiles in Western Europe to counter Soviet missiles in Eastern Europe. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Section 2 Despite his decision to deploy missiles in Europe, Reagan generally disagreed with the military strategy known as nuclear deterrence, sometimes called mutual assured destruction.mutual assured destruction. In March 1983 he proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), nicknamed Star Wars. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Section 2 In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union and agreed to resume arms talks. In December 1987 the two leaders signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Section 2 No one realized it at the time, but the treaty marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. Gorbachev pushed ahead with economic and political reforms that eventually led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union. Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
A.A B.B Section 2 During the Reagan administration, did the annual budget deficit increase or decrease? A.Increase B.Decrease
Section 3-Main Idea Big Ideas Science and Technology Achievements in technology during the 1980s symbolized the optimism many associated with the Reagan era.
Section 3-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) AIDS Stonewall Riot American Association of Retired Persons (AARP)
A.A B.B Section 3-Polling Question Do you think discount retail stores are a positive or a negative addition to our society? A.Positive B.Negative
Section 3 A Booming Economy Innovation in the retailing and broadcast industries changed American society and generated new businesses and jobs.
Section 3 By late 1983, the American economy had revived after the stagflation of the 1970s. Many of the new moneymakers were yuppies, or young urban professionals. yuppies The strong economic growth of the 1980s mostly benefited middle- and upper-class Americans. A Booming Economy (cont.) Security Prices
Section 3 In addition to the booming real-estate and stock markets, the economy of the 1980s witnessed a revolution in retail sales known as discount retailing.discount retailing A Booming Economy (cont.)
Section 3 Discount stores opened in the 1980s: –Wal-Mart –K Mart –Woolco –Target –Home Depot –Best Buy A Booming Economy (cont.)
Section 3 In 1975 Ted Turner pioneered a new type of broadcasting, the first superstation. His innovation changed broadcasting and helped spread cable television across the country. Rap music was the new sound of the 1980s. A Booming Economy (cont.)
Section 3 In the 1980s technology also transformed how people accessed their entertainment. The Sony Walkman made music portable. By the end of the 1980s, many people had videocassette recorders (VCRs). The video game also emerged. A Booming Economy (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which of the following stores was owned by the richest man in the United States in the 1980s? A.K Mart B.Target C.Woolco D.Home Depot
Section 3 New Social Activism Social problems affected many people during the 1980s, and new groups formed to try to solve them.
Section 3 Ongoing problems with drug abuse in the 1980s made many neighborhoods dangerous. In 1985, in the case of New Jersey v. T.L.O., the Supreme Court upheld the schools right to search students belongings without a warrant if it had reasonable cause to believe a crime was being committed. New Social Activism (cont.)
Section 3 In 1980 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) was founded to try to stop underage drinking and drunk driving in general. In 1981 researchers identified a disease that caused healthy young people to become sick and dieacquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. AIDS increased the visibility of the countrys gay and lesbian community. New Social Activism (cont.)
Section 3 The Stonewall Riot marked the beginning of the gay activist movement. Many musicians and entertainers in the 1980s began using their celebrity status to raise awareness about social issues. New Social Activism (cont.) Farm Income and Debt
Section 3 Another group that became politically active in the 1980s was senior citizens. Their major lobbying organization was the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), founded in New Social Activism (cont.)
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 3 Which political figure developed the Just Say No campaign? A.Ronald Reagan B.Nancy Reagan C.Walter Mondale D.Barry Goldwater
Section 4-Main Idea Big Ideas Economics and Society The deficit and an economic slowdown hurt George H.W. Bushs attempt to win reelection in 1992.
Section 4-Key Terms Content Vocabulary perestroika glasnost downsizing capital gains tax grassroots movement Academic Vocabulary initiative retain
Section 4-Key Terms People and Events to Identify Boris Yeltsin Tiananmen Square Saddam Hussein H. Ross Perot
A.A B.B Section 4-Polling Question Should President Bush have sent troops to fight in the Persian Gulf in the 1990s? A.Yes B.No
Section 4 The Soviet Union Collapses The Soviet Unions attempts at reforming its social and economic systems failed, leading to the collapse of the Communist eastern bloc.
Section 4 In the 1988 campaign, Republican George H. W. Bush easily defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis. As president, Bush continued Reagans policy of cooperation with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. To save the Soviet economy, Gorbachev instituted perestroika, or restructuring, and allowed some private enterprise and profit- making.perestroika The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
Section 4 The other principle of Gorbachevs plan was glasnost, or openness. glasnost In 1989 revolutions replaced Communist rulers with democratic governments in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. At midnight on November 9, 1989, guards at the Berlin Wall opened its gates. The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.) Revolutions in Eastern Europe
Section 4 Within a year, East and West Germany had reunited to form one nationthe Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 a group of Communist officials and army officers tried to stage a coup. They arrested Gorbachev and sent troops into Moscow. The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
Section 4 In Moscow, Russian president Boris Yeltsin defied the coup leaders from his offices in the Russian Parliament. The coup collapsed, and Gorbachev returned to Moscow. All 15 Soviet republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
Section 4 In late December 1991 Gorbachev announced the end of the Soviet Union. Most of the former republics then joined in a federation called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
A.A B.B Section 4 Which political party in the 1988 presidential campaign promised to help working-class Americans, minorities, and the poor? A.Democrats B.Republicans
Section 4 A New World Order Bush used his foreign policy experience to deal with crises in China, Panama, and the Persian Gulf.
Section 4 Despite the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Chinas Communist leaders were determined to stay in power. In May 1989, Chinese students and workers held demonstrations for democracy at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Government tanks and soldiers crushed the protests, resulting in many deaths and arrests. A New World Order (cont.)
Section 4 The U.S. and several European countries halted arms sales and reduced their diplomatic contacts with China. By 1989, Panamas dictator, General Manuel Noriega, had stopped cooperating with the U.S. In December 1989, Bush ordered American troops to invade Panama. A New World Order (cont.)
Section 4 Noriega was arrested and sent to the U.S. to stand trial on drug charges. In August 1990, Iraqs dictator, Saddam Hussein, sent his army to invade oil-rich Kuwait. Fearing that Hussein would capture Saudi Arabia and its vast oil reserves, American troops rushed to the Middle East. A New World Order (cont.)
Section 4 On January 16, 1991, the coalition forces launched Operation Desert Storm. Just 100 hours after the ground war began, Bush declared Kuwait to be liberated. Iraq accepted the coalitions cease-fire terms, and American troops returned home to cheering crowds. A New World Order (cont.) The Persian Gulf War, 1991
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4 Who was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Persian Gulf War? A.Dick Cheney B.Colin Powell C.Sandra Day OConnor D.Ross Perot
Section 4 Domestic Challenges To reduce the deficit, President Bush raised taxes, but lost the election to Bill Clinton.
Section 4 The recession that began in 1990 was partly caused by the end of the Cold War. Thousands of soldiers and defense industry workers were laid off. Other companies also began downsizing.downsizing The nations high level of debt made the recession worse. Domestic Challenges (cont.)
Section 4 In addition, the huge deficit forced the government to borrow money to pay for its programs. As the economy slowed, hundreds of savings-and-loans institutions collapsed. Bush called for a cut in the capital gains tax in order to improve the economy.capital gains tax Democrats in Congress defeated it. Domestic Challenges (cont.)
Section 4 Bush broke his no new taxes campaign pledge and agreed to a tax increase in exchange for cuts in spending. Democrat William Jefferson Clinton beat Bush in the 1992 election. A grassroots movement put independent H. Ross Perot on the ballot in all 50 states.grassroots movement Domestic Challenges (cont.) The Election of 1992
A.A B.B C.C D.D E.E Section 4 Which of the following negative aspects did Clinton have to overcome while running for president? A.He did not serve in Vietnam. B.Questions about his character in general C.His families history D.A and C E.A and B
VS 1 Causes of the New Conservatism The Cold War promotes strong foreign policy and an emphasis on minimal government interference in economics. Cold War fears of communism encourage many religious Americans to turn to conservative ideas. Many Americans are disturbed by the protests, demonstrations, and violence of the 1960s. The population growth in the Sunbelt increases support for conservative politicians.
VS 2 Causes of the New Conservatism The rise of an evangelical movement willing to use politics to change society and defend its values helps mobilize conservative voters. Frustration with rising taxes and government regulation, especially in the South and West, turns many voters to conservative ideas. Both Western conservatives and Southern conservatives come to see the Republican Party as the more conservative party.
VS 3 The Reagan Administration Ronald Reagan is elected president in 1980 and 1984 Reagan promotes supply-side economics and pushes large tax cuts through Congress. Many industries are deregulated, helping spur a boom in the oil, transportation, and communications industries. A political debate over cutting government programs rather than expanding them shapes the domestic politics of the era.
VS 4 The Reagan Administration Reagans administration takes a strong anti-Communist stance in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East, providing aid to groups that resist communism. The nation begins a sustained military buildup to put pressure on the Soviet economy; in addition the United States begins work on antimissile Star Wars technology.
VS 5 The failure to cut domestic programs, combined with increased military spending, drives the growing budget deficit to record levels. Energy prices fall, the economy grows rapidly, and stock market values soar. The farm debt crisis and deregulation of the banks leads to the collapse of many family farms and many savings and loan institutions. The Reagan Administration
VS 6 Under great economic stress, the Soviet Union introduces perestroika and glasnost; communism falls across Eastern Europe in 1989, and then the Soviet Union collapses in The Reagan Administration
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Vocab1 liberal a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but should not dictate social behavior
Vocab2 conservative a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom
Vocab3 televangelist an evangelist who conducts regularly televised religious programs
Vocab4 indicate to point out, point to, or demonstrate the necessity of
Vocab5 stability a state of peace; free from social unrest
Vocab6 supply-side economics economic theory asserting that lower taxes will boost the economy as businesses and individuals invest their money, thereby creating higher tax revenue
Vocab7 budget deficit the amount by which expenses exceed income
Vocab8 mutual assured destruction the strategy assuming that, as long as two countries can destroy each other with nuclear weapons, they will be afraid to use them
Vocab9 confirmation the process of supporting a statement by evidence
Vocab10 visible that which can be seen
Vocab11 yuppie a young, college-educated adult who is employed in a well-paying profession and who lives and works in or near a large city
Vocab12 discount retailing selling large quantities of goods at very low prices and trying to sell the goods quickly to turn over their entire inventory in a short period of time
Vocab13 via to have come by way of or through
Vocab14 orientation position relative to a standard
Vocab15 perestroika a policy of economic and government restructuring instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the 1980s
Vocab16 glasnost a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information
Vocab17 downsizing reducing a company in size by laying off workers and managers to become more efficient
Vocab18 capital gains tax a federal tax paid by businesses and investors when they sell stocks or real estate
Vocab19 grassroots movement a group of people organizing at the local or community level, away from political or cultural centers
Vocab20 initiative the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval
Vocab21 retain to keep in possession
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