Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Splash Screen.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Section 1: The New Conservatism Section 2: The Reagan Years
Chapter Introduction Section 1: The New Conservatism Section 2: The Reagan Years Section 3: Life in the 1980s Section 4: The End of the Cold War Visual Summary Chapter Menu

3 Are There Cycles in American Politics?
After several decades during which progressive and liberal ideas dominated American politics, conservatism began making a comeback in the 1970s, and in 1980 voters elected the conservative Ronald Reagan president. Reagan’s commitment to less government regulation, a stronger military, and uncompromising anticommunism seemed to address voters’ concerns. • Why do you think conservative ideas appealed to more Americans in the 1980s? • How do you think conservative ideas have changed society? Chapter Intro

4 Chapter Timeline

5 Chapter Timeline

6 The New Conservatism What political changes following World War II supported the growth of political conservatism? Chapter Intro 1

7 The Reagan Years Are American politics characterized by conflict or cooperation? Chapter Intro 2

8 Life in the 1980s What are the greatest social problems in the United States today? Chapter Intro 3

9 The End of the Cold War What problems areas do presidents face?
Chapter Intro 4

10 Chapter Preview-End

11 Big Ideas Economics and Society High taxes as well as economic and moral concerns led the country toward a new conservatism. Section 1-Main Idea

12 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary liberal conservative
“televangelist” Academic Vocabulary indicate stability Section 1-Key Terms

13 People and Events to Identify
William F. Buckley Sunbelt Billy Graham Jerry Falwell “Moral Majority” Section 1-Key Terms

14 Section 1-Polling Question
Do you view yourself as a liberal or a conservative? A. Liberal B. Conservative A B Section 1-Polling Question

15 Liberalism and Conservatism
Conservatives and liberals disagreed about the role of the government. Section 1

16 Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
The American political system is divided into liberals and conservatives. Liberals believe the following: Government should regulate the economy to protect people from the power of large corporations. The federal government should play an active role in helping disadvantaged Americans. Section 1

17 Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
Free speech and privacy are important. A diverse society made up of different races, cultures, and ethnic groups will be more creative and energetic. The wealthy should be taxed more. Section 1

18 Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
Conservatives believe the following: The government is not trustworthy. Free enterprise is the best economic system. Taxes and government programs discourage investment, take away people’s incentive to work hard, and reduce the amount of freedom in society. Section 1

19 Liberalism and Conservatism (cont.)
Religious faith is vitally important in sustaining society. Section 1

20 Which side of the political spectrum would be suspicious of any attempt by the government to regulate social behavior? A. Liberals B. Conservatives A B Section 1

21 Conservatism Revives Geographical regions tend to support either liberal or conservative ideas. Section 1

22 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Support for conservative ideas began to revive for two major reasons: The struggle against communism revived the debate about the role of the government in the economy. To Americans with a deep religious faith, the struggle against communism was a struggle between good and evil. Section 1

23 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
In 1955 a young conservative named William F. Buckley founded a new magazine called National Review. In 1960 some 90 young conservative leaders met at Buckley’s estate and founded Young Americans for Freedom (YAF). Section 1

24 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
As the Sunbelt’s economy expanded, Americans living in those regions began to view the federal government differently than people living in the Northeast. With Southerners shifting to the Republican Party, conservatives began to build a coalition that could elect a president. The Rise of the Sunbelt, 1950–1980 Section 1

25 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
The rapid inflation of the 1970s caused the buying power of middle-class families to shrink while taxes remained high. As conservatives began to call for tax cuts, the middle class flocked to their cause. Some Americans were drawn to conservatism because they feared that American society had lost touch with its traditional values. Section 1

26 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Conservatives were critical of the following occurrences: the Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decisions that limited prayer in public schools and expanded protections for people accused of crimes the feminist movement the push for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Section 1

27 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
The largest group of religious conservatives was evangelical Protestants. Protestant ministers such as Billy Graham and Oral Roberts built national followings. “Televangelists” such as Marion “Pat” Robertson and Jerry Falwell were also popular. Falwell used his television show to found a movement he called the “Moral Majority.” Section 1

28 Conservatism Revives (cont.)
Although the members of this new coalition were concerned with many issues, they were held together by a common belief that American society had somehow lost its way. Section 1

29 Conservatives in the 1950s and early 1960s faced which of the following problems?
A. The nation wanted the government to help with the economy. B. Their votes were split between the Republicans and Democrats. C. They needed a strong leader to represent them. D. People had moved away from religion. A B C D Section 1

30 Section 1-End

31 Big Ideas Trade, War, and Migration During the Cold War, President Reagan reinforced the idea that the United States had to take strong action to resist the spread of Communist influence abroad. Section 2-Main Idea

32 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary supply-side economics
budget deficit “mutual assured destruction” Academic Vocabulary confirmation visible Section 2-Key Terms

33 People and Events to Identify
Reaganomics Iran-Contra scandal Mikhail Gorbachev Section 2-Key Terms

34 Section 2-Polling Question
Do you agree that cutting social programs is a good way to keep the deficit under control? A. Agree B. Disagree A B Section 2-Polling Question

35 The Road to the White House
President Reagan’s experiences in Hollywood and as governor of California led to his success in campaigning for presidency. Section 2

36 The Road to the White House (cont.)
As a broadcaster and actor, Ronald Reagan learned how to speak publicly and how to project a strong, attractive image—skills that proved invaluable when he entered politics. Reagan testified about communism in Hollywood before the House Un-American Activities Committee. He had been a Democrat, but dealing with Communists when he was president of the actors’ union, the Screen Actors guild, led him toward conservative ideas. Section 2

37 The Road to the White House (cont.)
Reagan was governor of California for two terms. Ten years later he won the Republican presidential nomination. Reagan’s campaign appealed to Americans who were frustrated with the economy and worried that the United States had become weak internationally. He easily defeated President Carter in the election of 1980. Section 2

38 Which job that Reagan had as a teenager shaped part of his political philosophy?
A. Paperboy B. Waiter C. Lifeguard D. Sales clerk A B C D Section 2

39 Domestic Policies Believing that government was part of the problem, President Reagan cut social service programs, sponsored tax cuts, and deregulated industry. Section 2

40 Domestic Policies (cont.)
Reagan’s first priority was the economy, which was suffering from stagflation, a combination of high unemployment and high inflation. The monetarists argued that inflation was caused by too much money in circulation. They believed the best solution was to raise interest rates. Another group supported supply-side economics. Section 2

41 Domestic Policies (cont.)
They argued that the economy was weak because taxes were too high. Reagan combined monetarism and supply-side economics—critics called his approach Reaganomics, or “trickle-down economics.” He encouraged the Federal Reserve to keep interest rates high and asked Congress to pass a massive tax cut. Section 2

42 Domestic Policies (cont.)
Cutting tax rates meant that the government would receive less money, which would increase the budget deficit. To keep the deficit under control, Reagan proposed cuts to social programs such as food stamps, student loans, and Medicare. Reagan believed that excessive government regulation was another cause of the economy’s problems. Section 2

43 Domestic Policies (cont.)
His first act as president was to sign an executive order to end price controls on oil and gasoline, which caused prices to fall. Other deregulation soon followed. In 1983 the economy began to recover. By 1984, the United States had begun the biggest economic expansion in its history up to that time. Section 2

44 Domestic Policies (cont.)
Reagan brought his strict constructionist outlook to the federal judiciary. He also nominated the first woman to the Supreme Court, Sandra Day O’Connor. Section 2

45 Whom did Reagan beat by a landslide in the 1984 election?
A. Geraldine Ferraro B. Walter Mondale C. Jimmy Carter D. Anthony Kennedy A B C D Section 2

46 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup
President Reagan began a massive military buildup to weaken the Soviet economy and deter Soviet aggression. Section 2

47 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Reagan rejected both containment and détente when dealing with the Soviet Union. The military buildup Reagan launched was the largest peacetime buildup in American history. Reagan believed that if the Soviets tried to match the buildup, it might put so much pressure on their economy that they would be forced to reform their system to avoid collapse. Section 2

48 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Reagan believed that the United States should support guerrilla groups who were fighting to overthrow Communist or pro-Soviet governments. This became known as the Reagan Doctrine. Reagan supported the following guerrilla groups: The mujahideen in Afghanistan The contras in Nicaragua Section 2

49 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan’s administration continued to illegally support the rebels. One of the chief figures in the Iran-Contra scandal was Marine Colonel Oliver North, an aide to the National Security Council (NSC). As part of the military buildup, Reagan decided to place nuclear missiles in Western Europe to counter Soviet missiles in Eastern Europe. Section 2

50 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
Despite his decision to deploy missiles in Europe, Reagan generally disagreed with the military strategy known as nuclear deterrence, sometimes called “mutual assured destruction.” In March 1983 he proposed the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), nicknamed “Star Wars.” Section 2

51 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became leader of the Soviet Union and agreed to resume arms talks. In December 1987 the two leaders signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. Section 2

52 Reagan Oversees a Military Buildup (cont.)
No one realized it at the time, but the treaty marked the beginning of the end of the Cold War. Gorbachev pushed ahead with economic and political reforms that eventually led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union. Section 2

53 During the Reagan administration, did the annual budget deficit increase or decrease?
A. Increase B. Decrease A B Section 2

54 Section 2-End

55 Big Ideas Science and Technology Achievements in technology during the 1980s symbolized the optimism many associated with the Reagan era. Section 3-Main Idea

56 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary yuppie discount retailing via
orientation Section 3-Key Terms

57 People and Events to Identify
Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) AIDS Stonewall Riot American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Section 3-Key Terms

58 Section 3-Polling Question
Do you think discount retail stores are a positive or a negative addition to our society? A. Positive B. Negative A B Section 3-Polling Question

59 A Booming Economy Innovation in the retailing and broadcast industries changed American society and generated new businesses and jobs. Section 3

60 A Booming Economy (cont.)
By late 1983, the American economy had revived after the stagflation of the 1970s. Many of the new moneymakers were yuppies, or “young urban professionals.” The strong economic growth of the 1980s mostly benefited middle- and upper-class Americans. Security Prices Section 3

61 A Booming Economy (cont.)
In addition to the booming real-estate and stock markets, the economy of the 1980s witnessed a revolution in retail sales known as discount retailing. Section 3

62 A Booming Economy (cont.)
Discount stores opened in the 1980s: Wal-Mart K Mart Woolco Target Home Depot Best Buy Section 3

63 A Booming Economy (cont.)
In 1975 Ted Turner pioneered a new type of broadcasting, the first “superstation.” His innovation changed broadcasting and helped spread cable television across the country. Rap music was the new sound of the 1980s. Section 3

64 A Booming Economy (cont.)
In the 1980s technology also transformed how people accessed their entertainment. The Sony Walkman made music portable. By the end of the 1980s, many people had videocassette recorders (VCRs). The video game also emerged. Section 3

65 Which of the following stores was owned by the richest man in the United States in the 1980s?
A. K Mart B. Target C. Woolco D. Home Depot A B C D Section 3

66 New Social Activism Social problems affected many people during the 1980s, and new groups formed to try to solve them. Section 3

67 New Social Activism (cont.)
Ongoing problems with drug abuse in the 1980s made many neighborhoods dangerous. In 1985, in the case of New Jersey v. T.L.O., the Supreme Court upheld the school’s right to search students’ belongings without a warrant if it had reasonable cause to believe a crime was being committed. Section 3

68 New Social Activism (cont.)
In 1980 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) was founded to try to stop underage drinking and drunk driving in general. In 1981 researchers identified a disease that caused healthy young people to become sick and die—“acquired immune deficiency syndrome,” or AIDS. AIDS increased the visibility of the country’s gay and lesbian community. Section 3

69 New Social Activism (cont.)
The Stonewall Riot marked the beginning of the gay activist movement. Many musicians and entertainers in the 1980s began using their celebrity status to raise awareness about social issues. Farm Income and Debt Section 3

70 New Social Activism (cont.)
Another group that became politically active in the 1980s was senior citizens. Their major lobbying organization was the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), founded in 1958. Section 3

71 Which political figure developed the “Just Say No” campaign?
A. Ronald Reagan B. Nancy Reagan C. Walter Mondale D. Barry Goldwater A B C D Section 3

72 Section 3-End

73 Big Ideas Economics and Society The deficit and an economic slowdown hurt George H.W. Bush’s attempt to win reelection in 1992. Section 4-Main Idea

74 Content Vocabulary Academic Vocabulary perestroika glasnost downsizing
capital gains tax grassroots movement Academic Vocabulary initiative retain Section 4-Key Terms

75 People and Events to Identify
Boris Yeltsin Tiananmen Square Saddam Hussein H. Ross Perot Section 4-Key Terms

76 Section 4-Polling Question
Should President Bush have sent troops to fight in the Persian Gulf in the 1990s? A. Yes B. No A B Section 4-Polling Question

77 The Soviet Union Collapses
The Soviet Union’s attempts at reforming its social and economic systems failed, leading to the collapse of the Communist eastern bloc. Section 4

78 The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
In the 1988 campaign, Republican George H. W. Bush easily defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis. As president, Bush continued Reagan’s policy of cooperation with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. To save the Soviet economy, Gorbachev instituted perestroika, or “restructuring,” and allowed some private enterprise and profit-making. Section 4

79 The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
The other principle of Gorbachev’s plan was glasnost, or “openness.” In 1989 revolutions replaced Communist rulers with democratic governments in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. At midnight on November 9, 1989, guards at the Berlin Wall opened its gates. Revolutions in Eastern Europe Section 4

80 The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
Within a year, East and West Germany had reunited to form one nation—the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1991 a group of Communist officials and army officers tried to stage a coup. They arrested Gorbachev and sent troops into Moscow. Section 4

81 The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
In Moscow, Russian president Boris Yeltsin defied the coup leaders from his offices in the Russian Parliament. The coup collapsed, and Gorbachev returned to Moscow. All 15 Soviet republics declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Section 4

82 The Soviet Union Collapses (cont.)
In late December 1991 Gorbachev announced the end of the Soviet Union. Most of the former republics then joined in a federation called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Section 4

83 Which political party in the 1988 presidential campaign promised to help working-class Americans, minorities, and the poor? A. Democrats B. Republicans A B Section 4

84 A “New World Order” Bush used his foreign policy experience to deal with crises in China, Panama, and the Persian Gulf. Section 4

85 A “New World Order” (cont.)
Despite the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, China’s Communist leaders were determined to stay in power. In May 1989, Chinese students and workers held demonstrations for democracy at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. Government tanks and soldiers crushed the protests, resulting in many deaths and arrests. Section 4

86 A “New World Order” (cont.)
The U.S. and several European countries halted arms sales and reduced their diplomatic contacts with China. By 1989, Panama’s dictator, General Manuel Noriega, had stopped cooperating with the U.S. In December 1989, Bush ordered American troops to invade Panama. Section 4

87 A “New World Order” (cont.)
Noriega was arrested and sent to the U.S. to stand trial on drug charges. In August 1990, Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, sent his army to invade oil-rich Kuwait. Fearing that Hussein would capture Saudi Arabia and its vast oil reserves, American troops rushed to the Middle East. Section 4

88 A “New World Order” (cont.)
On January 16, 1991, the coalition forces launched Operation Desert Storm. Just 100 hours after the ground war began, Bush declared Kuwait to be liberated. Iraq accepted the coalition’s cease-fire terms, and American troops returned home to cheering crowds. The Persian Gulf War, 1991 Section 4

89 Who was chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Persian Gulf War?
A. Dick Cheney B. Colin Powell C. Sandra Day O’Connor D. Ross Perot A B C D Section 4

90 Domestic Challenges To reduce the deficit, President Bush raised taxes, but lost the election to Bill Clinton. Section 4

91 Domestic Challenges (cont.)
The recession that began in 1990 was partly caused by the end of the Cold War. Thousands of soldiers and defense industry workers were laid off. Other companies also began downsizing. The nation’s high level of debt made the recession worse. Section 4

92 Domestic Challenges (cont.)
In addition, the huge deficit forced the government to borrow money to pay for its programs. As the economy slowed, hundreds of savings-and-loans institutions collapsed. Bush called for a cut in the capital gains tax in order to improve the economy. Democrats in Congress defeated it. Section 4

93 Domestic Challenges (cont.)
Bush broke his “no new taxes” campaign pledge and agreed to a tax increase in exchange for cuts in spending. Democrat William Jefferson Clinton beat Bush in the 1992 election. A grassroots movement put independent H. Ross Perot on the ballot in all 50 states. The Election of 1992 Section 4

94 Which of the following negative aspects did Clinton have to overcome while running for president?
A. He did not serve in Vietnam. B. Questions about his character in general C. His families’ history D. A and C E. A and B A B C D E Section 4

95 Section 4-End

96 Causes of the New Conservatism
The Cold War promotes strong foreign policy and an emphasis on minimal government interference in economics. Cold War fears of communism encourage many religious Americans to turn to conservative ideas. Many Americans are disturbed by the protests, demonstrations, and violence of the 1960s. The population growth in the Sunbelt increases support for conservative politicians. VS 1

97 Causes of the New Conservatism
The rise of an evangelical movement willing to use politics to change society and defend its values helps mobilize conservative voters. Frustration with rising taxes and government regulation, especially in the South and West, turns many voters to conservative ideas. Both Western conservatives and Southern conservatives come to see the Republican Party as the more conservative party. VS 2

98 The Reagan Administration
• Ronald Reagan is elected president in and 1984 • Reagan promotes supply-side economics and pushes large tax cuts through Congress. • Many industries are deregulated, helping spur a boom in the oil, transportation, and communications industries. • A political debate over cutting government programs rather than expanding them shapes the domestic politics of the era. VS 3

99 The Reagan Administration
• Reagan’s administration takes a strong anti-Communist stance in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Middle East, providing aid to groups that resist communism. • The nation begins a sustained military buildup to put pressure on the Soviet economy; in addition the United States begins work on antimissile “Star Wars” technology. VS 4

100 The Reagan Administration
• The failure to cut domestic programs, combined with increased military spending, drives the growing budget deficit to record levels. • Energy prices fall, the economy grows rapidly, and stock market values soar. • The farm debt crisis and deregulation of the banks leads to the collapse of many family farms and many savings and loan institutions. VS 5

101 The Reagan Administration
• Under great economic stress, the Soviet Union introduces perestroika and glasnost; communism falls across Eastern Europe in 1989, and then the Soviet Union collapses in 1991. VS 6

102 VS-End

103 Figure 1

104 Figure 2

105 Figure 3

106 Figure 4

107 Figure 5

108 Figure 6

109 Select a transparency to view.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view. Chapter Trans Menu

110 Why It Matters Trans

111 C & E Trans

112 Unit Timelines Trans

113 DFS Trans 1

114 DFS Trans 2

115 DFS Trans 3

116 DFS Trans 4

117 liberal  a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but should not dictate social behavior Vocab1

118 conservative  a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom Vocab2

119 televangelist  an evangelist who conducts regularly televised religious programs Vocab3

120 indicate to point out, point to, or demonstrate the necessity of

121 stability  a state of peace; free from social unrest Vocab5

122 supply-side economics
economic theory asserting that lower taxes will boost the economy as businesses and individuals invest their money, thereby creating higher tax revenue Vocab6

123 budget deficit  the amount by which expenses exceed income Vocab7

124 mutual assured destruction
the strategy assuming that, as long as two countries can destroy each other with nuclear weapons, they will be afraid to use them   Vocab8

125 confirmation  the process of supporting a statement by evidence Vocab9

126 visible  that which can be seen Vocab10

127 yuppie  a young, college-educated adult who is employed in a well-paying profession and who lives and works in or near a large city Vocab11

128 discount retailing  selling large quantities of goods at very low prices and trying to sell the goods quickly to turn over their entire inventory in a short period of time Vocab12

129 via  to have come by way of or through Vocab13

130 orientation  position relative to a standard Vocab14

131 perestroika  a policy of economic and government restructuring instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the 1980s Vocab15

132 glasnost  a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information Vocab16

133 downsizing  reducing a company in size by laying off workers and managers to become more efficient Vocab17

134 capital gains tax  a federal tax paid by businesses and investors when they sell stocks or real estate Vocab18

135 grassroots movement  a group of people organizing at the local or community level, away from political or cultural centers Vocab19

136 initiative  the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval Vocab20

137 retain  to keep in possession Vocab21

138 To use this Presentation Plus! product:
Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency. Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation. Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Click the Help button to access this screen. Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. Help

139 This slide is intentionally blank.
End of Custom Shows

Download ppt "Splash Screen."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google