Presentation on theme: "The Other Liberation Movements 1960s – 1970s. The Two Major Movements of the 50s – 60s Anti-War Protestors with the Vietnam Conflict Civil Rights and."— Presentation transcript:
The Other Liberation Movements 1960s – 1970s
The Two Major Movements of the 50s – 60s Anti-War Protestors with the Vietnam Conflict Civil Rights and its off-shoots
An Era of Activism The Women s Movement Ethnic Minorities Seek Equality The Counterculture Environmental and Consumer Movements
1960s: The Times They Are A-Changin – Bob Dylan song Women s Rights had been an issue since the 1880s Right to vote Right to property Right to self- determination
Feminism Theory of political, economic, and social equality between men and women. Feminists believe in that and take action to bring it about.
1960s: Fighting against the Stereotype The reality was many women could not be the stay-at- home moms. Necessity to work With skills and an education – DESIRE to work
Education and Employment 1950: Only 25% of liberal arts graduates were women. 1970: 43% were women
Most employers were reluctant to hire women. Felt the investment in them was wasted since they would leave to marry and have children. Felt a woman s place was in the home. Work to catch a husband. Felt customers/ fellow employees would be uncomfortable with women in authority.
Wages were unequal 1963: women earned 59-cents to every dollar a man made. 1973: Women earned 57-cents to every dollar a man made!
Frustration of women that wanted equal rights! Had a how-to model with the Civil Rights Movement But often treated as second-class citizens in the Civil Rights Movement. Used courts to get equality at work. EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
Women s Groups Organize Support Groups NOW (National Organization of Women) 1966 Pressure govt. and EEOC to take women s issues more seriously.
NOW Sought fair pay and equal job opportunities. Attacked sexist attitudes in media and advertising. Sought to educate people that parenting and house responsibilities are for men and women.
NOW Seen by some as too radical Particularly under Gloria Steinem Seen as not active for poor women or women of color. Mainly white, middle- class women issues
Impact of Feminism 1972: MS magazine 300,000 copies sold in 8 days.
A Shift In Attitudes Shirley Chisolm – ran for president in Went down in primaries Geraldine Ferraro was first woman nominated for vice president (Democrat)
A Shift in Attitudes Brought public awareness to the need for childcare facilities. Shelters for battered women Better law enforcement Women s health concerns Sexual harassment
Roe v. Wade NOW pointed out the different laws restricting abortion through the country. Rich women who had an unwanted pregnancy could just travel to another state. But what about poor women?
US Supreme Court Roe v. Wade 1973 Said abortion laws were restrictive against poor women. Invaded privacy of women. IMPORTANT: No restrictions in the first trimester of pregnancy. BUT later pregnancies could be regulated by the states.
Roe v. Wade today STILL quite controversial!
ERA: Equal Rights Amendment Attempt to change the Constitution to say that discrimination based on sex was illegal. Needed 38 states to ratify the amendment to become national law. They made it to 35. Nebraska ratified it and then changed their mind and de-ratified ERA. Only state to do that.
Opposition to the Women s Movement Phyllis Schlafly It won t do anything to help women and it will take away from women the rights they already have.
Opposition to ERA as the right of a wife to be supported by her husband, the right of a woman to be exempted from military combat and the right … to go to a single-sex college.
Schlafly s rhetoric Women would lose alimony. Women would have to have co-ed bathrooms. Women being in the military. It did the job of scaring women and ended ERA.
Opposition to the Women s Movement Some women felt ERA would force them from their traditional roles. Some men also protested feminism.
Latinos Fight for Change Latinos lived in many parts of the US before whites arrived. (California, Texas, N. Mexico, Arizona) But were frequently denied equal rights and lost their land.
Latino Population 1970: 14.9 million Americans originating from Central / South America. 1960s: Hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled Fidel Castro.
Chicanos Mexican Americans 1960s: El Movimiento Chicano - Movement to end discrimination in education, employment and the legal system.
Cultural Identity 1968: 10,000 Mexican – American students walked out of their schools. Demand for culturally sensitive courses, better facilities and Latino teachers and counselors.
Organizing to Fight Discrimination Union: United Farm Workers. 1965: 1,700 members Leader: Cesar Chavez 1927 – 1993 Normal life until 10. After military service became a union leader. Used MLK s nonviolent methods.
Cesar Chavez Organized national boycotts of Grapes Lettuce Wanted better wages, safer working conditions, union recognition by owners of fields.
Other Chicano Movements Political power with La Raza Unida in Elected Chicanos to government Advocated for better housing and jobs. Encouraging Latinos to become lawyers
Asian Americans Fight Discrimination Even though Asian Americans typically had better educations, they were paid less. White man paid $51 Chinese man paid $38 Japanese man paid $43
Asian Americans fight for Economic and Political Advancement Japanese American citizens League (JACL) Sought reparations and apology for Japanese American internment in WWII. Took until 1988 for the US to do that!
Asian Americans fight for Economic and Political Advancement When Hawaii became a state in 1959, Hiram Leong Fong first Chinese American sent to the Senate. Daniel K. Inouye – first Japanese American in Congress
Native Americans Face Unique Problems Despite different languages and cultures – American culture has always tended to lump Native Americans as one group.
Native Americans Face Unique Problems US government attempts to destroy the traditional lifestyle. Genocide in 1800s. Removal Programs Missionaries trying to make Indians white
Native Americans Face Unique Problems Denied citizenship until – allowed the right to vote. Routinely denied equal opportunities.
Native Americans Face Unique Problems Poor living conditions High rates of unemployment Alcoholism Suicide Shorter lifespan than other Americans
Native Americans Face Unique Problems Beginning in 1961 Native peoples began to be paid for the confiscation of their lands by the US govt. Cherokee, Crow, Nez Perce
Not all Native Americans accepted the money They wanted their lands back!
Attempts to regain lands Taos Pueblos got their sacred Blue Lake and 48,000 acres of New Mexico. Lakota Sioux pressed for the return of the Black Hills in South Dakota. (Mount Rushmore) Denied
AIM: American Indian Movement 1968 Russell Means Dennis Banks
Goals of AIM Fight for better treaty rights Better conditions and opportunities Issues for Native Americans living in cities Street patrols Encouraging racial and cultural pride in young people.
Goals of AIM Autonomy (self- government on the reservations) Control of natural resources on Native lands. Restoration of lands illegally taken.
AIM Adopted methods of militant groups like the Black Panthers. Power comes from the barrel of a gun.
AIM: Confronting the Government 1972: Broken Treaties Caravan and taking over the Bureau of Indian Affairs office for six days. 1969: Occupied Alcatraz Island in San Francisco harbor. Stand-off lasted for a year and half.
AIM: Wounded Knee 1973, Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Poorest reservation Over half of people on welfare.
Wounded Knee s History 1890 – US troops massacred 200 Sioux men, women and children.
AIM s Russell Means directed a takeover Means and his followers refused to leave the village until the US government would agree to investigate the treatment of Indians and the poor living conditions.
Federal Marshals and FBI respond Put the village under siege. Arrested 300 people and reporters. Two AIM members were killed. May – AIM agreed to leave and turn in their guns – if govt. would investigate conditions.
Fighting Continued off and on through two FBI agents died in a shoot out with the Sioux. One Native American died too.
Government Changes 1975 laws to: Give more autonomy. Tax incentives for businesses to relocate to the area. More land, mineral and water rights for reservations.
Murderer or Political Prisoner? Leonard Peltier – said to have executed the wounded FBI agents. Convicted and sentenced to life. Says he is innocent, but won t reveal who did kill them. Amnesty International and many groups consider him a political prisoner.
We can t talk about the 1960s – 1970s protest movements without talking about …
The Counterculture Flower Power v. Corporate Power
Hippies advocated: Peace, Love, Dope! Freedom Experimented with new styles of dress and music Freer attitudes about sex and drugs.
Hippies and Generation Gap Hippies, being the baby boomers, made up the majority of the population. Colleges had to adjust courses for them. Politicians couldn t ignore them.
Sixties Style Distinctive, frivolous and free. Women gave up structured hair for free and long hair. Tended not to shave and used natural products. Clothing less form fitting.
Sixties Style: Men Grew their hair long Beards Colorful clothes Wore jewelry and flowers.
Sixties Style Favored clothing of the poor working classes / other poor cultures. Blue jeans Work shirts Peasant blouses Ponchos Native American moccasins and jewelry.
Sixties Style: Pop Art Painted bodies Painted cars
Pop Art Andy Warhol
Pop Art Roy Lichtenstein
The Sexual Revolution Sex shouldn t be tied to traditional ties to family life. Lived in communes No marriage commitments Shared chores Shared property
The Drug Scene Psychedelic Drugs and Timothy Leary Harvard Professor that used undergrads to test LSD. Believed it helped free the mind. Tune in, turn on, drop out.
The Drug Scene Most people used natural drugs like pot.
The Drug Scene killed so many Janis Joplin Jim Morrison Jimi Hendrix
The Music World in the 60s 1960s – Rock and Roll 1960s – renewed interest in folk music. Songs of protest Songs of laborers, sailors, etc.
MAJOR EVENT of 1964 THE BEATLES! British Invasion
WOODSTOCK Counterculture gathering in August ,000 came!
WOODSTOCK For several days – great music. Police backed off and let the hippies police themselves. It worked!
Adult Reaction to the Counterculture? HORROR!
Adult Reaction to the Counterculture? Some tried to get hip and join in.
Hippies End Most hippies were from comfortable middle class homes. Eventually they rejoined society and have become the executives / politicians of today.
Some Hippie Movements took tragic turns Patty Hearst and the SLA Symbionese Liberation Army
SLA Radical Hippie group in the San Francisco Bay Area. Pro-Communist (?) Willing to do violence to bring on the revolution against the rich.
SLA 1973 – kidnapped 19-year old Patty Hearst. Was it for a prisoner exchange ? Was it for ransom? Publicity made the group feel power.
SLA Hearst was held in a closet – bound and gagged for 56 days. Physically and sexually attacked. Developed STOCKHOLM SYNDROME Prisoners identify more with their kidnappers than see them as enemies.
Patty Hearst Becomes Tania In audio tape said she was joining the SLA and that everything her family represented was evil.
SLA Bank Robberies, murder, shoot-outs
Capture For months Patty Hearst identified with her kidnappers. Later, realized her errors and testified against them. Sentenced to 12 years in prison. Pardoned in 3 years.
The Environmental and Consumer Movements Rachel Carson SILENT SPRING Raised awareness that chemicals we used were killing wildlife around us. DDT and the American Bald Eagle.
Pollution Grass-roots groups that made the public aware of air pollution, urban sprawl, and sought to legislate the safety of the environment. Earth Day – April 22, 1970
Consumer Activism Ralph Nader (today a Green Party candidate for president) Went after the automobile industry for lack of safety features on cars.
Nader s Raiders Went after food and drug companies for false advertisements. Made baby food safer. Insecticides. Made people aware you could stand up to corporations.