Presentation on theme: "WWII- Post-War From War to Cold War. Post-WWII A. Europe Destroyed 1.The winners of WWII (US, England, Russia) meet to discuss what to do next. a. End."— Presentation transcript:
WWII- Post-War From War to Cold War
Post-WWII A. Europe Destroyed 1.The winners of WWII (US, England, Russia) meet to discuss what to do next. a. End of War Conferences 1. Yalta- Allied leaders meet to discuss what to do with Europe after the war. a. Arguments break out over which nations should be allowed to hold elections (Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc)
Post-WWII 2. Potsdam- Decide to divide Germany, half democratic, half communist. a. Unconditional Surrender- Germany must accept all decisions. b. Big Three Leaders- H. Truman (US), W. Churchill (UK), J. Stalin (USSR) c. Roosevelt had died in April, 1945 d. Truman decides not to tell Stalin about the Atomic Bomb at Potsdam!!
End of the War 2. Tensions rise between Stalin and Truman a. Stalin secretly knew about the bomb! b. Some historians believe this lie by Truman, started the Cold War! c. Stalin and Truman distrusted each other completely. d. Stalin made power grabs in Poland, Ukraine, and Czech Republic. 1. Threatening to Europe and the US
End of the War B. Rebuild 1. Europe a. Marshall Plan- $14 Billion pumped into Europe to rebuild France, Germany, and others. b. 17 countries received aid 1. Rebuilt farms, factories, homes, roads and bridges c. Offered to Russia, but Stalin refused
End of the War d. Built strong support for the US in Europe (key later in the Cold War) 2. Japan a. Occupation- led by Gen. MacArthur!! 1. Truman dropped the bomb to avoid an ground invasion. a. After surrender however, the US sends in ground troops to control the population a. US troops were stationed in Japan for rebuilding
End of the War b. Rebuilt from the ground up 1. New Constitution written by US lawyers a. Similar to our Bill of Rights 2. US rebuilt manufacturing centers: a. Toyota b. Honda 3. Land reforms for peasants, free speech, religious reforms, rights for women, etc.
End of the War 4. Article 9- Banned Japan from having military forces (still in effect today!) c. Japan became one of our biggest allies, and our best trade partner. 1. Key ally in the Cold War 2. We still have over 22 military bases in Japan today!
End of the War C. Everlasting Peace? Due to the failure of the League of Nations to prevent WWII, a new organization was called for. 2. United Nations a. Formed in 1945 b. A few very important changes made to make the UN more effective.
After the War c. Changes: 1. Security Council- made up of 15 states, this was the brain of the UN. a. Major decisions made here b. 5 permanent members, 10 rotating members
After the War 2. US joins! a. Headquarters of the UN is in New York City. b. We take an immediate role as the flagship member 3. Humanitarian Efforts a. Food aid, peace- keeping, financial help
After the War D. European Cold War Protection 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) a. A military alliance among democratic states b. Foudned in 1949 to protect Europe and fight communism c. Key members in 1949: US, UK, France, W. Germany
After the War 2. What NATO did: a. Create combined troop forces b. Pool financial, military, and intelligence resources c. Set-up an anti-Communist block of countries to rival the Soviets 3. Soviets form their own group: The Warsaw Pact (1955) a. Countries were forced to join! Poland, Hungary, East Germany b. United all European communist nations