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Sources of Industrial Growth AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "Sources of Industrial Growth AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sources of Industrial Growth AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009

2 Industrial Technologies Steel Steel New techniques New techniques Bessemer process Bessemer process Open-hearth Open-hearth Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Petroleum Petroleum George Bissell George Bissell First oil well-1859 First oil well th among nations exports by 1870s 4 th among nations exports by 1870s

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4 Airplanes and Automobiles Internal combustion engine Internal combustion engine Nicolaus August Otto Nicolaus August Otto Gottfried Daimler Gottfried Daimler First American gasoline car in 1903 First American gasoline car in 1903 Henry Ford-1906 Henry Ford in 1895 to 5 million in in 1895 to 5 million in 1917 Wilbur and Orville Wright-1903 Wilbur and Orville Wright-1903 National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics-1915 National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics-1915 Limited use in WWI Limited use in WWI Charles Lindbergh-New York to Paris Charles Lindbergh-New York to Paris

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7 Research and Science General Electric-corporate laboratory General Electric-corporate laboratory Transformation of universities Transformation of universities Scientific management Scientific management Taylorism Taylorism Thomas Edisons Menlo Park laboratory Thomas Edisons Menlo Park laboratory Bell Telephone, Du Pont, Eastman Kodak, GE Bell Telephone, Du Pont, Eastman Kodak, GE Moving assembly line Moving assembly line

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10 Railroad Expansion 193,000 miles by ,000 miles by 1900 Government subsidies Government subsidies Tycoons Tycoons Cornelius Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington Cornelius Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington

11 The Corporation limited liability limited liability Stock sales and capital Stock sales and capital Andrew Carnegie and steel Andrew Carnegie and steel Henry Clay Frick Henry Clay Frick Mesabi iron range-MN Mesabi iron range-MN Sold to J. Pierpont Morgan in 1901 Sold to J. Pierpont Morgan in 1901 US Steel Corporation US Steel Corporation Gustavus Swift and Isaac Singer Gustavus Swift and Isaac Singer Efficient management Efficient management Middle manager Middle manager

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14 Consolidation horizontal integration horizontal integration Combining several firm in same enterprise Combining several firm in same enterprise Vertical Integration Vertical Integration Different businesses fro companys primary function Different businesses fro companys primary function Carnegies Steel Carnegies Steel Mills, mines, railroads, etc. Mills, mines, railroads, etc. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Rockefeller's Standard Oil Horizontal and vertical Horizontal and vertical Controlled access to 90% of refined oil; Controlled access to 90% of refined oil; cutthroat competition cutthroat competition Pool arrangements-cartels Pool arrangements-cartels

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16 Trusts and Holding Companies Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan Rockefeller and J.P. Morgan Economic combination Economic combination Exchange individual corporate stock for shares in trust Exchange individual corporate stock for shares in trust Corporate mergers Corporate mergers holding companies holding companies Rapid corporate combination Rapid corporate combination Substantial economic growth Substantial economic growth

17 Sources of Industrial Growth AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009


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