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Lecture 6. Stress and CV disease. Evidence from animal models.

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1 Lecture 6. Stress and CV disease. Evidence from animal models

2 Why study animal models? When is a risk factor casual TemporalityStrength of relationship ConsistencyBiological gradient Biological PlausibilityCoherence Outcome SpecificityIntervention evidence

3 Illustrative animal studies on hypertension

4 Cage designed to force social interaction in mice. Used to compare Blood Pressure in mice raised in groups or in isolation by Henry (Henry & Stephens 1977 Stress, Health and the Social Environment

5 Blood pressure rises the longer the mice reared in isolation have to interact with others.

6 If mice returned to isolation early enough then blood pressure reverts to normal. If kept in social group for several month then effects cannot be reversed

7 Forsyth RP (1971). Regional blood flow changes during 72 hour avoidance schedules Science, 173, In Steptoe AS (1981). Psychological factors in cardiovascular disorders. (Old but still a great book)

8 Coronary artery disease. The studies of social stress in cynomolgus monkeys by Manuck & Kaplan

9 Words you main not have come across Arteriosclerosis Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Atherosclerotic plaque Thrombus

10 What causes a Myocardial infarction: Plaque rupture and blocked coronary artery

11 Manuck & Kaplans studies of stress in monkeys hard to get in Aberdeen libraries. Original study in: Kaplan JR, Manuck SB et al, 1983 Social stress and atherosclerosis in normocholesterolemic monkeys. Science, 220, Much of the work on female monkey’s in Kaplan, JR et al (1995) Psychosocial factors, sex differences and atherosclerosis: lessons from animal models. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58,

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15 Manuck, monkeys treated with beta blockade

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17 Manuck, Effects of dominance in female monkeys (cf males)

18 Reversal of dominace effect after ovaries removed, cf CHD increase in postmenopausal women

19 HR reactivity relates to Plaque in ovariectomised female monkey’s, Manuck et al., 1997 Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 17,


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