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Yokogawa Corporation of America Network Solutions Business Unit An Introduction to Industrial Wireless Networking Presented by Yokogawa North America Network.

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Presentation on theme: "Yokogawa Corporation of America Network Solutions Business Unit An Introduction to Industrial Wireless Networking Presented by Yokogawa North America Network."— Presentation transcript:

1 Yokogawa Corporation of America Network Solutions Business Unit An Introduction to Industrial Wireless Networking Presented by Yokogawa North America Network Solutions Business Unit February 2007

2 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan RF Wireless Industrial Applications

3 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Industrial RF Wireless Technology Applications Information Layer –HMI, Computer, Database Server Control Layer –Recorder, Data Acquisition I/O, Controller, PLC Device Layer –Transmitters, Sensors, Actuators Device Layer Control Layer Information Layer

4 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Technology must support the Application Considerations –Packet Size –Throughput –Response Time –Network Size Our Focus –Info & Control Layers –2.4 GHz –Spread Spectrum Technology Industrial RF Wireless Technology Applications Proprietary SS Bluetooth Zigbee

5 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Control Layer Communications Protocols Requirements –More throughput –Faster Response Time –Large Networks –More data Typical Protocols –Modbus RTU RS232, RS422, RS485 –Modbus TCP Ethernet –Proprietary TCP Ethernet –Standard Ethernet FTP SMTP SNTP HTTP

6 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless cost savings increase with distance & number of nodes Wireless – A Money Saving Solution $0 $5,000 $10,000 $15,000 $20,000 $25,000 $30,000 25'50'100'250'500'1000' Wireless - 1st Node Wireless -2nd Node Wireless - 3rd Node Wire $20/ft Wire $30/ft Wire $50/ft

7 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless for Hazardous Locations Wiring costs increase for tougher environments Reduced operator costs –Clean rooms too! UL Class I Div 2 approved radios

8 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan History of Wireless LANs Wireless Networks were first developed by the Military Eventually Moved to Private Sector –High Cost, Low Data Rate and Complexity prevented the widespread use –Used when other options werent possible ALOHAnet developed at the University of Hawaii, was one of the first private wireless data networks Turning Point - Late 1990s IEEE ratified B –Data Rates Increased –Hardware Cost & Availability –Performance similar to Wired Ethernet

9 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan

10 Radio Frequencies Radio frequency spectrum is assigned by governments –CB radio: MHz –FM radio: MHz –WiFi for PCs: 2.4 GHZ Licensed vs. Unlicensed bands –Licensed provides more power! Two licensed frequency bands –400 MHz –900 MHz 3 unlicensed frequency bands in U.S. –ISM bands (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) – MHz –2.4 to GHz –5.725 to GHz (U-NII*) *Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure

11 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan RF Propagation Higher frequencies have higher data rates (bandwidth) –There is 1000 times more spectrum between 1-2 GHz as there is between 1-2 MHz. RF waves lose power as they travel in the air –Higher frequencies lose power (attenuate) faster RF waves attenuate as they pass through objects –Higher frequencies attenuate faster Lower Frequencies (i.e. 900 MHz have greater distance)

12 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Understanding Power in Radios RF transmitter and receiver power is expressed in watts. RF power can also be expressed in dBm (decibels relative to milliwatts) dBm for RF power is useful when calculating radio system gains (since other gains and losses from cables & Antennas are in dBs) The relation between dBm and watts can be expressed as follows: Power(dBm) = 10 x Log 10 Power(mW) 1 Watt = 1000 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (1000) = 30 dBm 100 mW; PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (100) = 20 dBm 1mW:PdBm = 10 x Log 10 (1) = 0 dBm Power(mW) = 10 (Power(dBm)/10) 15 dBm = 10 (15/10) = 10 (1.5) = 32 mW

13 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan A Table of mW to dBm

14 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Understanding Gain Measurements Antenna performance is primarily established by its gain. There are three common references used when defining gain in radios: Gain referenced to a dipole antennae:dBd Gain referenced to an isotropic source:dBi Gain referenced to power in milliwatts:dBm

15 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) Take the following example: transmitter power out = Pout = 50mW cable loss (attenuation) = Ct = 4dB transmitting antenna gain = Gt = 6 dBi convert transmitter power from mW to dBm 10 x log (50/10) = 17 dBm EIRP = 17dBm - 4 dBm + 6 dBm = 19 dBm EIRP is the effective power transmitted from the antenna. EIRP = (power at transmitter) - (cable attenuation) + antenna gain EIRP = Pout - Ct - Gt Pout = output power of transmitter in dBm Ct = transmitter cable attenuation in dB Gt = transmitting antenna gain in dBi

16 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan A Quick Comparison: Office vs. Industrial Power Distance Operating Temp Construction Mounting 500 mW 20 miles outdoor -30 C to 60 C Aluminum 32 mW 200 feet indoors 0 C to 40 C Plastic

17 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Performance of 2.4 GHZ vs. 900 MHz Typical Outdoors with Line of Sight 2.4GHz, 1W plus 6dB gain antennas 5 – 15 miles 900MHz, 1W plus 6dB gain antennas 15 – 25 miles 2.4GHz, 100mW plus 16dB antennas 10 – 40 miles 900MHz, 100mW plus 16dB antennas 20 – 60 miles Typical Indoors in Congested Environment 2.4GHz, 1W 100 – 600 feet 900MHz, 1W 500 – 5000 feet

18 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Spread Spectrum & IEEE

19 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Introduction to Spread Spectrum Spread spectrum – a class of modulation techniques that spreads a signals power over a wider band of frequencies than is necessary for the information being transmitted Benefits of spreading the signal: –signal is immune to unwanted noise / interference –coding and decoding allow simultaneous transmission of multiple signals within the same frequency band –provides inherent data encryption / security

20 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Spread Spectrum Introduction - 2 Two main classes: –Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) Random Hops to difference frequency. 1 MHZ band. More Secure proprietary interface. –Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Hot Spot WIFI 22 MHZ band b, 11 Megabit New modulation technique for higher data rates: –Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) achieves 54MBPS g and a – Split byte and transmit pieces simultaneous.

21 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

22 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Spread Spectrum vs. Narrow Band Wide bandwidth of spread spectrum make more immune to interference vs. narrow band signal shown in the center of the graph (Older Radios use narrow band)

23 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan IEEE Standards Soup IEEE specifies wired connection between radios and devices IEEE specifies an over- the-air interface between a wireless LAN client and a base station or between two wireless LAN clients a b g Wi-Fi HomeRF HomeRF 2.0 Wi-Fi5 Bluetooth

24 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan x WLAN S-p-e-l-l-e-d Out –1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band – frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) Wi-Fi –Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) certification for b devices b (Current Offering) –11 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band –Only DSSS –Vendor access points not compatible

25 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan x WLAN S-p-e-l-l-e-d Out a –Up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz U-NII band –300 MHz bandwidth indoor, OFDM –Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) –50m range at 11 Mbps g –54 Mbps speed extension of b in the 2.4 GHz band with OFDM –Backward compatible with b for <11 Mbps Wi-Fi5 (Newer Technology) –Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA) certification for a devices

26 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan x WLAN S-p-e-l-l-e-d Out i (Incorporated into WIFI Standard) –Security Enhancements to –Encryption & Authentication TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol – interim solution AES – Advanced Encryption Algorithm – new hardware –802.1x Authentication Framework included in i Authentication protocol (EAP-TTLS, LEAP) Dynamic encryption key distribution method Supported in Windows XP

27 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan b Wireless LAN 2.4 GHz Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) Channels –11 US, Canada –13 Europe –14 Japan Data rates: 1, 2, 5.5, 11 Mbps (auto) –Signal level can cause lower data rate. Access points, clients, bridges (Example Hardware) Other notes: –Vendor Access Points do not generally communicate –802.11b and g clients will communicate –802.11a will not communicate with b/g

28 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan b Channels

29 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Access Points, Bridges and Clients Wired Network Access Point Client (Station) Coverage Area Access Point – Root Mode Access Point – Repeater Mode Bridge or Access Point in Bridge Mode Bridge – Repeater Mode Ad hoc – no AP

30 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Security

31 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Security Keep intruders out of your network –Authenticate users Stop others from sniffing your data –Data encryption – proprietary or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) Minimize detection of your network –Turn off identifiers in beacon –Appropriate coverage area Detect rogue access points –Wireless network maintenance software

32 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Security Data Encryption 1 WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) –RC4 based 40/128/256 bit keys –Key scheduling algorithm weaknesses Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) –Solves weakness in WEP –Temporal Key Integrity Protocol - TKIP –Message Integrity Checking (MIC) –Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) / RADIUS Authentication, authorization & accounting system

33 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Security Data Encryption 2 AES (Advanced Encryption System) –802.11i & new hardware –Symmetric 128 bit block data encryption –Will be supported in a few months. Other Steps – – remove SSID from beacon –MAC ID white list (Limit MAC Addresses) Must Enable to Be Effective

34 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Network Planning

35 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Network Planning Overview Can this distance be covered? X kilometers Radio Which antenna cables? Which antennas? Whats a dBi? What questions should I ask to qualify the application? How high do the antennas need to be installed to clear this hill? Where can / should the antenna go? What is meant by line of sight and why is the Fresnel Zone important How do I get terrain data? How can I predict link performance? How do I test it? What about interference?

36 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Throughput and latency considerations Throughput –# bits of data x frequency sent Add I/Os, PLC messaging, etc. –Repeater / master must be able to handle sum of remotes –Radio technology must fit or slow update rate / report by exception –Similar analysis to specifying PLCs Throughput will determine update rate Seconds to poll vs. hours

37 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Radio coverage area

38 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Radio Network Architectures: Point-to-Point Point-to-point, stationary network easiest to design Use directional antennas on both sides –Maximize signal strength –Minimize noise pickup Must have line-of-sight between points ….but plan ahead if network will be expanded in the future –If Site A will be hub for additional sites, may need an omni or sector antenna –With less directional antennas, low noise at Site A – test –Can Site A see the future sites – or need additional height –Plan for bandwidth too – can radio at Site A handle 100s of remotes? Point A Point B

39 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Radio Network Architectures: Point-to-Multipoint Hub site can be omni-directional or sectorized with multiple directional antennas – e.g. like slice of pie –Use sectors when more bandwidth is needed –Each sector antenna attached to radio on different hopping pattern or different b channel –Line-of-site more important – site survey Hub site Coverage Area Coverage Ares Sector 1 (Ch. 1) Sector 2 (Ch. 6) Sector 1 (Ch. 11)

40 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Use of Wireless Repeaters Use repeaters to: –Extend range of the wireless network –Avoid obstacles For YLinx RLX-FH series –Use of repeater reduces bandwidth by factor of two - but does not decrease more for additional repeaters –For some radios bandwidth reduced by 1/# repeaters RLX Link too long for Repeater on top of hill or on one side to go Around the hill

41 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Information required to design wireless network and select accessories Minimum information required to design all but the simplest systems –Number of sites today and planned –Location of sites & if indoor / outdoor Drawing of building with scale and site locations and structure information GPS coordinates or location on a drawing / topographic map with distances between sites to link If device will move – show track / area where link is required –Structures where antennas can be placed and any rules on antenna structures (e.g. luxury living areas) –Protocol of devices to connect –Which devices need to communicate –Data throughput requirements for each node –Country radios will be installed –Any other radio systems in-use if known

42 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Methods to collect application information Verbal or electronic description of application from customer Electronic drawings of buildings Topographic maps showing site location and any obstructions or Topo USA type program Electronic path study using digital elevation data and GPS coordinates of sites Site review – visit site and physically inspect links –If very clear line of sight should not be an issue –High power strobe light for longer links - but visual LOS only –Test with RLX IF using same antennas and antenna locations Complete site survey including RF noise analysis at key points

43 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Handheld Spectrum Analyzer & Analyzers

44 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan In-Building Site Survey Building drawings Construction materials –Metal interior walls? –Ceiling height Equipment / product information Coverage required –Fixed vs. mobile –If mobile – where? Existing wireless infrastructure –Type / channels Conduct site survey – walking plant and taking measurements Signal-to-noise measurements with Ekahau Site Survey Tool

45 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Topographical Maps

46 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Outdoor – Computerized Path Studies GPS coordinates Digital terrain data Paths feasible? Antenna height Repeaters? Location Performance prediction

47 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Example Wireless Outdoor Path

48 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Site Survey – The Real World Shoot and scoot –For less involved / shorter range installations –Bring radios, equipment and test links – if look good, finalize install Formal site survey –Identification of all potential interference Environment & radio – spectrum analysis –Collection of site data for each potential site Geographical coordinates including elevation Access roads, building code restrictions / solutions Installation considerations – site preparation / building access, etc. Nearby towers / structures for repeaters– access / rent Power availability –Corroborate path study data with actual field measurements Signal strength, throughput statistics, etc. –Identify man-made / tree height obstacles not evident from USGS data –We can provide site surveys ($1000 per day + plus per diam)

49 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Selecting Antennas & Cables

50 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Antennas – The Basics Antennas transform electromagnetic signals from transmission lines into electromagnetic waves (& vice-versa) Antennas (most) are passive – focus radio energy not amplify it Antennas work equally well transmitting or receiving RF energy Electromagnetic waves from antennas have an E field and H field components –Polarization describes the orientation of the antennas electric field

51 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan High Quality, Low RF Loss Cables Remote antenna placement requires lower loss RF cable to maintain system gain Cable should be 50 ohm for RadioLinx impedance matching Quality connectors, weather proofing, lightning protection PoE and placing radio by antenna

52 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Connector types Common types –N-type –SMA –TNC –BNC –MMCX (PC card) Matching connector types –Jack = threads on outside –Plug = threads on inside –So a jack will connect to a plug (if polarity matches) Polarity –Standard polarity – plug has inner conductor pin –Reverse polarity – jack has the inner conductor pin RP-TNC-Male RP-TNC-Female RP-SMA-Female RP-SMA-Male SMA-Female MMCX-Male N-Male N-Female-Bulkhead

53 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Configuring & Implementing Wireless Networks

54 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Network Design Best Practices Install antennas as high as possible Avoid high gain omni-directional antennas (Harder to hit the target) Design the system with a margin –10 dB minimum –20 dB if anticipate foliage growth Use industrial routers in-front of wireless industrial Ethernet –Prevents LAN broadcast traffic from using RF bandwidth

55 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Network Design Best Practices - 2 Put switch with IGMP snooping in-front of RadioLinx RLX-FH if multicast traffic – e.g. industrial Ethernet I/O messaging After installation, test radio network before automation –Verify RF performance –Test throughput before & after automation added –Ethernet use ping or pathping (latter shows latency for each segment to identify bottlenecks)

56 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan RadioLinx Antenna Installation Notes Avoid attaching antenna too close to buildings, towers, tanks, etc. to avoid reflections –Use side mount kits for at least 50 cm distance Outdoor installations should be weatherproofed –At each cable splice –At antenna connection Cable hangers / ties

57 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Maintaining Wireless System Reliability Changing environment –Inside the company – coordinate wireless networks / frequency uses –New equipment / infrastructure (metal walls) –Joess Neighborhood WISP now on your channel Monitor performance for –Performance degradation / bottlenecks –Increasing throughput requirements –Increase ping latency –Re-transmit % Monitor security

58 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Network Monitoring Tools

59 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Protocol Analyzer / Security Audit Tools One differentiator is level of expert analysis to help sort through large number of packets WildPacket AiroPeek, CommView WiFi, Packetyzer, Ethereal (Linux)

60 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Application Examples

61 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan YLinx Frequency Hopping Ethernet (2.4GHz) Mobile configuration and data logging without wires! Frequency hopping 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Not compatible with wireless (Wi-Fi) Designed for industrial environment (-40 to 158 degF) Up to 16 mile range with line of sight with hi gain antennas Proprietary radio frequency protocol (158 hopping patterns) 40 or 128 bit hardware data encryption $1,581 per radio

62 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan YLinx Frequency Hopping Ethernet (2.4 GHz) DX104 YLinx -FHE RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #1 RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #2 RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #3 10BaseT Ethernet Data from Remote DX100s is Consolidated in PC PC running: DAQStandard (configuration) DAQLogger SCADA/HMI with OPC

63 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Product Samples: Ethernet Radio Modems MDS iNET900 ELPRO 905U-D YLinx RadioLinx 2.4 GHz FHSS 900 MHz FHSS SCADALINK LANBRIGDE 900 MHz FHSS

64 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Product Samples: Serial Radio Modems SCADALINK SM MHz FHSS Prosoft RadioLinx 2.4 GHz FHSS Put serial devices on radio

65 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan YLinx Frequency Hopping Serial (2.4GHz) Mobile data logging without wires! Frequency hopping 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Modbus RTU, Modbus ASCII, DF1, generic ASCII RS232, RS422, or RS485 Flexible set-up modes Point to point Point to multi-point Peer to peer Designed for industrial environment (-40 to 158 degF) Up to 16 mile range with line of sight with hi gain antennas Proprietary radio frequency protocol (158 hopping patterns) 40 or 128 bit hardware data encryption $1,416 per radio

66 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan YLinx Frequency Hopping Serial (2.4 GHz) DX104 DA100 UT450 YLinx-FHS DX220 RS232 MODBUS RTU RS232 MODBUS RTU Slave #1 RS485 MODBUS RTU Slave #2 RS485 MODBUS RTU Slave #3 10BaseT Ethernet Data from Remote DX100s is Consolidated in DX200

67 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan YLinx b Industrial Wireless Radio Mobile configuration and data logging without wires! b direct sequence spread spectrum radios Can be implemented with a single radio! 2.4 GHz unlicensed (ISM band) Compatible with standard PC wireless cards Designed for industrial environment Up to 20 mile range in outdoor settings $1,755 per radio

68 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan UT351 with YLinx b Hotspot Laptop with b Wi-Fi wireless ability Laptop with b Wi-Fi wireless ability

69 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Typical Wireless Network MX FA-M3 PLC Linksys G Wireless Router g wireless b wireless UT CX Radiolinx

70 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Wireless Ethernet Organizations IEEE WLAN Working Groups –http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/ WECA Wi-Fi Alliance WLANA Bluetooth HiperLAN m?/technicalactiv/Hiperlan/hiperlan1. htm m?/technicalactiv/Hiperlan/hiperlan1. htm

71 YCA Network Solutions 2007 Business Plan Thanks!


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