Presentation on theme: "The War in the Pacific The Social Impact of the War"— Presentation transcript:
1The War in the Pacific The Social Impact of the War Chapter 18, Section 4 and 5The War in the PacificThe Social Impact of the War
2The Japanese Advance 1941 - 42 December 7 – Pearl Harbor. December 8 – Wake IslandDecember 10 – GuamDecember 7 – March 1942 – Philippines.Hitting any US target
3Japanese Advance 1942Japan hoped the US would withdraw and leave the easy access to the natural resources of southeast Asia.
4Japanese AdvanceMarch, 1942 – English holdings of Singapore and Hong Kong seized.Dutch lost East Indies, Malaya, and Burma.
5Allied Generals of the Pacific General Douglas MacArthur“I shall return.”“Old soldiers never die, they just fade away.”1880 – 1964Soldier life
6The Philippines FallMarch 1942 General MacArthur withdrew his and Philippine troops to Bataan to try to defend themselves and hope for a Navy rescue.
7The Philippines Fall March 1942 – MacArthur gets out April 1942 facing starvation and more attacks – US / Philippine defenders surrenderEXCEPT
8The Philippines fall The Battle of Corregidor 2000 US soldiers and nurses withdrew to a fort and survived another month before surrendering.
9The Philippines Fall: The Bataan Death March 76,000 Filipinos and Americans taken prisoner.Forced march of weak, sick prisoners through jungle heat.60 miles in 10 – 12 days.
10The Bataan Death March Prisoners denied water, rest. Beaten, tortured and executed along the way.10,000 died.15,000 died in POW camps
11The Geneva Convention: Treatment of prisoners in war 1929: Prisoners of war shall at all times be humanely treated and protected, particularly against acts of violence.Japan forgot that!
12The War at Sea Remember what three ships weren’t at Pearl Harbor??? Aircraft CarriersSaratogaLexingtonEnterprise
13War at Sea: Aircraft Carriers April 1942 – Doolittle’s Raid on Tokyo.OBJECTIVE: Psychological victoryMay 1942 – Battle of Coral Sea.OBJECTIVE: Stop the Japanese from invading Australia
14Battle of Coral Sea 5-day battle Battle of Coral Sea5-day battleUS lost the Lexington and badly damaged the Yorktown.Lost half our planesAbout the same losses for the Japanese.Ended in a draw – but the Japanese didn’t invade Australia.
15Importance of the Battle of Coral Sea It was carried out entirely by aircraft.The enemy ships never even saw one another.
16Allied Victories Turn the Tide Battle of MidwayBattle of Guadacanal
17Battle of MidwayYamamoto wanted to try to lure the Americans to Midway Island to destroy what was left of the fleet.
18Battle of MidwayJune 1942Battle fought entirely in the air – like Coral Sea.Disabled the Yorktown – then sunk by a Japanese sub.Japan lost 4 carriers and 250 planes
19Battle of Guadacanal After Midway the Allies were on the offensive. Jungle warfareSnipersBooby-traps11,000 marines v. 2,200 Japanese.5 month battle
20Allied Policy: Island-Hopping General MacArthur, Admiral William Halsey, Admiral NimitzBy 1944, Allies able to use B-29 bombers to drop bombs over Japanese cities.
21The Philippines Campaign Battle of Leyte was the start in 1944.Hard fought battle160,000 Americans80,000 JapaneseOnly 1,000 Japanese taken prisoner.First time KAMIKAZES used
22The Philippines Campaign 100,000 Filipino civilians were killed.Not until June 1945 was the Philippines under US control.ONE exception1974
23Iwo Jima The closer to Japan the more bloody the battles. 74 days American bombers hit Japanese fortifications.110,000 American troops v. 25,000 Japanese
24Iwo JimaThree days of combat and US forces had only taken 700 yeards of ground.Battle went for a month.Only 216 Japanese prisoners taken.
25Iwo Jima 25,000 Americans died at Iwo Jima 27 Medals of Honor were awarded for “uncommon valor”
26Battle of Okinawa The last obstacle before invading Japan. April – June 1945.100,000 Japanese pledged to fight to the death.2,000 kamikaze attacks against American ships.Countless Banzai charges.
27Battle of Okinawa Only 7,200 Japanese surrendered. 50,000 Americans killed.Costliest battle of the war.
28The Manhattan ProjectWhat would happen when the US went to invade Japan itself????
29The Manhattan Project1939: Albert Einstein wrote FDR suggested creating an atomic bomb.Project named “Manhattan Project”
30The Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer Enrico Fermi Work at the University of Chicago and Los Alamos, New Mexico.“Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”
31The Decision to Drop the Bomb Invading Japan would likely cost millions of Allied casualties.Naval blockade might starve Japan, along with continued bombing.Do a demonstration of the bomb for the Japanese?Soften the demand for an unconditional surrender?
32The decision to drop the bomb FDR suddenly dies.President Harry Truman was maybe not aware of the power of the bomb.“You should do your weeping at Pearl Harbor”
33The Decision to Drop the Bomb August 6, 1945 –The Enola Gay dropped the first bomb over Hiroshima.80,000 killed in an instantIntense heatRadiationFire and wind90% of the city destroyed.
35Japan surrenders CONDITIONAL surrender August 14, 1945. The emperor remained.V-J Day.Surrender signed September 2, 1945 aboard the Missouri
36The Social Impact of War Section 5The Social Impact of War
37Social Impact of War: African Americans Jim Crow laws kept many African Americans from defense contract jobs.Unofficial segregation in the North affected employment, education, housing
38African Americans: Economic Discrimination Despite desperate need for defense workers – most factories only wanted white workers.A Phillip Randolph started to change that!
39A. Phillip Randolph 1889 – 1979 Union Organizer for African Americans Fought for Civil Rights for African AmericansOrganized a march on Washington that made FDR do something radical.
40FDR: Executive Order 8802For the first time, government acted against discrimination based on race, creed, color or national origin in employment.Wasn’t that powerful – but it was a start.
41Discrimination in WWII 2 million African Americans did get defense contract jobs.But still confined to live in ghettos.50% of housing for African Americans was substandard.14% of white American homes were substandard
42Race Riots in WWII Detroit: 1943 NYC: 1943 34 killed “I’d rather see Hitler and Hirohito win than work next to a negro.”Defense plant worker in 1943 DetroitNYC: 1943
43Soldiers and Segregation African Americans and whites risked their lives in war.But at home and war, racism and discrimination did not really change.
44Soldiers and Segregation Segregation of troopsAfrican American units that could only be commanded by black officers.Questions if black officers could give orders to white soldiers.
45Soldiers and Segregation “You know we don’t serve coloreds here,” the man repeated … We ignored him, and just stood there inside the door staring at what we had come to see – German prisoners of war who were having lunch at the counter … We continued to stare. This was really happening. It was no jive talk. The people of Salina, Kansas would serve these enemy soldiers and turn away black American Gis.”Lloyd Brown, African American GI 1942.
46Soldiers and Segregation Lena Horne – jazz singer / actress.Refused to perform when German POWs were seated ahead of African American soldiers.
47Double V and COREThe first V stood for victory against the Axis, the second for winning equality at home.CORE – Congress of Racial Equality (1942)Paved the way for the Civil Rights movement a decade later
48Mexican AmericansWWII did give opportunities for employment many Mexican Americans had not had in 1940.
49Mexican Americans: The Bracero Program Shortage of farm laborers in WWII.Agreement with Mexico to bring braceros to work in the US.200,000 cameREALLY overcrowded the barrios
50Mexican Americans: The Zoot Suit Riots A look favored by many Mexican American young men in Los Angeles.Thought “un-American” by many.Particularly by men in uniform!Looked for zoot suiters to attack
51The Zoot Suit Riots 1943, street fighting grew into riots. Mexican Americans were often blamed and arrested instead of the GI s.Military did do more to restrict GI’s to bases.
52Native Americans23,000 Native Americans left the reservations to work or be GI’s.Push was to leave behind their culture and adapt to white culture.Most did not go back to the reservations after the war.Cultural transition brought a sense of “losing their roots”
53Japanese Americans 1941: 127,000 Japanese Americans in the US. .1% of the populationmost lived on the west coast and Hawaii2/3 were born in the US
54Japanese Americans Intense prejudice against Japanese Americans Early war hysteria convinced Japanese Americans were all spies and saboteurs
55Japanese Internment FDR’s Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 Military zones were created in the USForeign born Germans and Italians were told to move out of the zones.Canceled after a few months
61Legal Challenges to the Internment Camps Korematsu v. US (1944)Ruled the internment was ‘constitutional’ and necessary
62Legal Challenges to Internment 1945: Japanese Americans were allowed to leave.Some were able to resume their lives.Many had lost everything.
63Legal Challenges to Internment 1988: Congress passed a law awarding every surviving Japanese American internee a tax free payment of $20,000.
64Japanese Americans in the Military US military wouldn’t allow Japanese Americans to serve until 1943.17,000 NISEI volunteered to serve in Europe.Japanese 442nd Regimental Combat team won more medals for bravery than any other unit in the US.
65Working WomenWWII women were able to fill the usually men-only and higher paying factory jobs.1944 women made up 35% of the workforce.Rosie the Riveter posters.
66Benefits and Problems of Employment Economic independence for womenPaid off Depression debts.Nest-eggs for futurePatriotismSelf-confidence booster
67Benefits and Problems of Employment African-American women fought to be in the factory jobs too.1940: 6.8% of African American women were in factory jobs.1944: 18%
68Problems of Employment Prejudice from men and society about working in “men only” jobs.Less pay than what men made.Employers ignored federal law “Equal work = equal pay.”
69Problems of Employment What to do with the children?Lack of day care facilities.Women relied on neighbors / family.Workdays were more than 8 hour days.Household responsibilities too.
70After the WarMost women were not happy to give up their jobs after the war.But social pressures to give the jobs back to returning GI’s was too much for most.
72After the War: JapanMost military and government officials committed hari kari at the defeat of Japan.
73Hirohito Ruled as a Constitutional Monarch. Said he had been a puppet for the militarists / fascists.Died 1989Some think he should’ve been tried as a war criminal.New evidence to show he was an active planner in the war.
75The Japanese War Crime Trials 1946 – 194820,000 civilians and military put on trial for specific crimes to Crimes Against Humanity.900 executions
76Tojo Executed in 1948often considered responsible for the murder of more than 10 million civilians in China, Korea, Philippines, Indochina, and in the other Pacific island nations, as well as the murder of tens of thousands of Allied POWs and for the approval of government-sanctioned biological experiments on POWs and Chinese civilians
77Yamamoto Killed in an American ambush in 1943. First time the US used assassination.Specific target assassination had not been used before.US did not admit to this until 1960s.“We killed Yamamoto.”
78Issues of WWII still confront Japan today Questions about how WWII is taught in Japanese schools.
79From an 11th Grade History Book “When the Japanese liberated Manchuria, there was unpleasantness.”
80The Prime Minister of Japan Regularly visits the shrines to the war dead – including the war criminals.
81Continuing issues with survivors Comfort Women reparation200,000 women taken to “comfort stations” to service Japanese soldiers.Often raped 20 – 40 times a day.Most murdered after the war to hide the crimes.
82Continuing Issues With Survivors After – effects of the atom bombs.HealthwiseSociallyDoes Pearl Harbor = Hiroshima / Nagasaki?