Presentation on theme: "UNIT 8 US FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA, 1898 TO 1945 8:1 US overseas expansion: US policy toward Latin America was based on the USs self-interest. The."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT 8 US FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA, 1898 TO 1945 8:1 US overseas expansion: US policy toward Latin America was based on the USs self-interest. The US focused on the Caribbean and Central America. After the Venezuela Crisis of 1896 the US replaced Britain as the major power in Latin America and in the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty Britain relinquished its right to build a canal through Central America.
8:1 The Spanish-American War: Cuba was a Spanish colony fighting for independence. The de Lome Letter hurt US relations with Spain. The US warship Maine blew-up in Havana Harbor and many Americans blamed Spain. The U.S.S. Maine
8:1 The Spanish-American War continued: The US went to war with Spain in 1898 for the following reasons: To gain ports and markets. To protect US investments in Cuba. To spread American values. To ensure a weak and independent Cuba. Perhaps to help the economy recover from the Panic of 1893. Perhaps citizens were looking for new frontiers.
In the Teller Amendment to the declaration of war the US promised not to annex Cuba. After the US victory the Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam, Wake, and the Philippines became US colonies. It took two years to put down the Philippine insurrection against US occupation. The Platt Amendment to the Cuban Constitution allowed US troops to intervene in Cuba. 8:1 The Spanish-American War continued:
8:1 The acquisition of Hawaii: Americans knew of Hawaii through whaling, missionary activities, and sugar cane production. In 1893 when the Hawaiian queen attempted to establish an absolute monarchy Americans living on Hawaii took control of the islands. Hawaii was annexed by the US during the Spanish-American War as a war measure to ensure that the US could control Pearl Harbor and that a foreign power would not gain the islands.
8:1 The acquisition of the Panama Canal: The French were building a canal across Panama under a contract with Columbia (Panama was a province). When the Columbian Senate refused to allow the US to purchase the French right to build a canal the Canal Company and the US encouraged the Panamanians to revolt. The Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama gave the US the right to control the 10 mile wide Canal Zone in perpetuity in return for rent payments. The Canal Zone was returned to Panama in 2000.
8:2 US policy toward Latin America from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D. Roosevelt: 8:2 The Big Stick and Dollar Diplomacy: President Theodore Roosevelts policy of Speak softly and carry a big stick led to the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. TRs policy grew out of the 1904 Dominican Republic debt crisis. In the Corollary the US asserted that it would intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American states (collecting debts, maintaining order, etc.), but European nations (and later the Japanese) were not welcome. Under Dollar Diplomacy President Taft hoped that US financial supervision would promote order in Latin America.
8:2 President Woodrow Wilson and Latin America: Wilsons continued his predecessors policies. These policies led to US Marines occupying Nicaragua during 1912-33; Haiti during 1915-34, and the Dominican Republic during 1916-24. In 1916 the US bought the Virgin Islands from Denmark for $25 million. Thirteen Latin American countries supported the US during World War I.
8:2 FDRs Good Neighbor Policy: President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed that the US would not intervene in Latin America and would be a good neighbor. With some exceptions the US kept to this policy. During World War II every Latin American country but Argentina contributed to the war effort. Brazil sent troops to fight in Italy. The war increased US economic involvement in Latin America. Franklin D. Roosevelt