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The Progressive Era Solving the problems of a changing and growing nation through education and reform.

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Presentation on theme: "The Progressive Era Solving the problems of a changing and growing nation through education and reform."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Progressive Era Solving the problems of a changing and growing nation through education and reform

2 The changes of the late 19 th and early 20 th century brought challenges to the nation INDUSTRIALISM IMMIGRATION URBANIZATION INTRODUCT ION

3 Mark Twain coined the term The Gilded Age to refer to this time period. It was not a Golden Age of progress, but more a time of corruption and greed lying beneath a golden surface. Mark Twain coined the term The Gilded Age to refer to this time period. It was not a Golden Age of progress, but more a time of corruption and greed lying beneath a golden surface.The Populist Movement of the mid-1800s attempted to organize the common man, but failed to create lasting change. The Progressive Movement of the early 1900s shared the same goal as the Populist Movement- -reform American institutions while preserving the ideals of the past

4 PROGRESSIVE ISSUES A. Eliminate corruption in the political system-- restoreconfidence in our government B. Improve working conditions in the economic system--reform conduct in our businesses C. Create greater equality in the social system-- relievepeople of injustices

5 PROGRESSIVE INSPIRATION A. The People 1. The urban middle class (doctors, engineers,teachers, social workers, etc.) led the effortsat change 2. Women, many of whom had just finished college,used their new knowledge for reform 3. Religious leaders called for people to extend theirlove for God to their fellow man - Social Gospel

6 B. The Press 1. Magazines published stories exploring corruptionand social problems 2. Muckrakers - journalists who exposed the worstelements of society N N oooo vvvv eeee llll iiii ssss tttt ssss w w w w hhhh oooo e e e e xxxx pppp llll oooo rrrr eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee d d d d aaaa rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr s s s s iiii dddd eeee oooo ffff t t t t hhhh eeee n n n n eeee wwww iiii nnnn dddd uuuu ssss tttt rrrr iiii aaaa llll s s s s oooo cccc iiii eeee tttt yyyy ssss e e e e ffff ffff eeee cccc tttt ssss oooo nnnn p p p p eeee oooo pppp llll eeee ssss b b b b eeee hhhh aaaa vvvv iiii oooo rrrr aaaa nnnn dddd v v v v aaaa llll uuuu eeee ssss

7 ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF PROGRESSIVISM A. Economic Reforms C C hhhh iiii llll dddd l l l l aaaa bbbb oooo rrrr l l l l aaaa wwww ssss s s s s eeee tttt a a a a m m m m iiii nnnn iiii mmmm uuuu mmmm a a a a gggg eeee f f f f oooo rrrr eeee mmmm pppp llll oooo yyyy mmmm eeee nnnn tttt aaaa nnnn dddd p p p p rrrr oooo hhhh iiii bbbb iiii tttt eeee dddd c c c c hhhh iiii llll dddd rrrr eeee nnnn f f f f rrrr oooo mmmm wwww oooo rrrr kkkk iiii nnnn gggg i i i i nnnn dddd aaaa nnnn gggg eeee rrrr oooo uuuu ssss o o o o cccc cccc uuuu pppp aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn ssss ( ( eeee.... gggg h h h h oooo uuuu rrrr d d d d aaaa yyyy ssss,,,, llll iiii tttt eeee rrrr aaaa cccc yyyy r r r r eeee qqqq uuuu iiii rrrr eeee mmmm eeee nnnn tttt ssss ))))2. Women labor laws set minimum wage and maximumhours for women workers (states set originallimits, federal minimum wage in 1938)

8 3. Consumer protection laws assured honest transactions and safe food (the Pure Food and Drug Act required labeling on food products) 3. Consumer protection laws assured honest transactions and safe food (the Pure Food and Drug Act required labeling on food products)4. State regulation of intrastate railroads and publicutilities improved service and reduced rates F F aaaa iiii rrrr t t t t aaaa xxxx l l l l aaaa wwww ssss,,,, b b b b yyyy t t t t aaaa xxxx iiii nnnn gggg i i i i nnnn cccc oooo mmmm eeee ssss,,,, r r r r eeee llll iiii eeee vvvv eeee dddd tttt hhhh eeee b b b b uuuu rrrr dddd eeee nnnn oooo nnnn o o o o wwww nnnn eeee rrrr ssss o o o o ffff r r r r eeee aaaa llll e e e e ssss tttt aaaa tttt eeee ( ( ( ( tttt hhhh eeee tttt hhhh a a a a mmmm eeee nnnn dddd mmmm eeee nnnn tttt aaaa uuuu tttt hhhh oooo rrrr iiii zzzz eeee dddd a a a a n n n n aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn aaaa llll iiii nnnn cccc oooo mmmm eeee t t t t aaaa xxxx ))))

9 6. Factory inspection laws improved sanitation, lighting,and safety 7. Protections given to the labor unions a. Closed shop: workplace where all workers mustbelong to the union b. Open shop: nonunion workplace; membership optional c. Socialism: system under which the governmentor worker cooperatives own the factories,utilities, and transportation and communications systems

10 dddd.... A A rrrr bbbb iiii tttt rrrr aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn :::: p p p p rrrr oooo cccc eeee ssss ssss b b b b yyyy w w w w hhhh iiii cccc hhhh t t t t wwww oooo o o o o pppp pppp oooo ssss iiii nnnn gggg pppp aaaa rrrr tttt iiii eeee ssss aaaa llll llll oooo wwww a a a a t t t t hhhh iiii rrrr dddd p p p p aaaa rrrr tttt yyyy t t t t oooo s s s s eeee tttt tttt llll eeee t t t t hhhh eeee dddd iiii ssss pppp uuuu tttt eeee eeee.... E E xxxx aaaa mmmm pppp llll eeee ssss o o o o ffff l l l l aaaa bbbb oooo rrrr u u u u nnnn iiii oooo nnnn ssss :::: AAAA mmmm eeee rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn F F F F eeee dddd eeee rrrr aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn o o o o ffff L L L L aaaa bbbb oooo rrrr ( ( ( ( ssss kkkk iiii llll llll eeee dddd wwww oooo rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr ssss )))) IIII nnnn tttt eeee rrrr nnnn aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn aaaa llll L L L L aaaa dddd iiii eeee ssss G G G G aaaa rrrr mmmm eeee nnnn tttt W W W W oooo rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr ssss UUUU nnnn iiii oooo nnnn (((( uuuu nnnn ssss kkkk iiii llll llll eeee dddd w w w w oooo rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr ssss )))) IIII nnnn dddd uuuu ssss tttt rrrr iiii aaaa llll W W W W oooo rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr ssss o o o o ffff t t t t hhhh eeee W W W W oooo rrrr llll dddd ( ( ( ( WWWW iiii llll llll iiii aaaa mmmm HHHH aaaa yyyy wwww oooo oooo dddd – – – – vvvv oooo wwww eeee dddd t t t t oooo o o o o vvvv eeee rrrr tttt hhhh rrrr oooo wwww cccc aaaa pppp iiii tttt aaaa llll iiii ssss mmmm a a a a nnnn dddd l l l l eeee aaaa dddd t t t t hhhh eeee wwww oooo rrrr kkkk eeee rrrr ssss t t t t oooo t t t t aaaa kkkk eeee cccc oooo nnnn tttt rrrr oooo llll o o o o ffff i i i i nnnn dddd uuuu ssss tttt rrrr yyyy )))) F F eeee dddd eeee rrrr aaaa llll l l l l oooo aaaa nnnn ssss t t t t oooo f f f f aaaa rrrr mmmm eeee rrrr ssss

11 B. Social Reforms 1. Welfare benefits were enacted for dependentchildren, widows, and the aged 2. Conservation laws preserved Americas naturalresources a. conservation: the need to preserve thecountrys natural environment b. reclamation: the process of makingdamaged land productive again

12 C C aaaa mmmm pppp aaaa iiii gggg nnnn ssss t t t t oooo m m m m aaaa kkkk eeee t t t t hhhh eeee c c c c iiii tttt iiii eeee ssss m m m m oooo rrrr eeee hhhh eeee aaaa llll tttt hhhh ffff uuuu llll a a a a nnnn dddd llll iiii vvvv aaaa bbbb llll eeee aaaa.... N N eeee wwww b b b b uuuu iiii llll dddd iiii nnnn gggg c c c c oooo dddd eeee ssss t t t t oooo a a a a llll llll oooo wwww f f f f oooo rrrr l l l l iiii gggg hhhh tttt aaaa nnnn dddd a a a a iiii rrrr cccc iiii rrrr cccc uuuu llll aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn bbbb.... M M eeee dddd iiii cccc aaaa llll a a a a ssss ssss oooo cccc iiii aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn ssss a a a a dddd vvvv oooo cccc aaaa tttt eeee dddd f f f f oooo rrrr eeee dddd uuuu cccc aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn aaaa nnnn dddd s s s s pppp eeee cccc iiii aaaa llll h h h h oooo ssss pppp iiii tttt aaaa llll ssss cccc.... P P llll aaaa yyyy gggg rrrr oooo uuuu nnnn dddd ssss a a a a nnnn dddd r r r r eeee cccc rrrr eeee aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn aaaa llll f f f f aaaa cccc iiii llll iiii tttt iiii eeee ssss C C iiii tttt yyyy ---- pppp llll aaaa nnnn nnnn iiii nnnn gggg c c c c oooo mmmm mmmm iiii ssss ssss iiii oooo nnnn ssss b b b b eeee cccc aaaa mmmm eeee a a a a ffff uuuu nnnn cccc tttt iiii oooo nnnn o o o o ffff mmmm uuuu nnnn iiii cccc iiii pppp aaaa llll g g g g oooo vvvv eeee rrrr nnnn mmmm eeee nnnn tttt ssss (((( dddd eeee vvvv eeee llll oooo pppp iiii nnnn gggg p p p p aaaa rrrr kkkk ssss,,,, b b b b uuuu iiii llll dddd iiii nnnn gggg cccc oooo dddd eeee ssss,,,, ssss aaaa nnnn iiii tttt aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn s s s s tttt aaaa nnnn dddd aaaa rrrr dddd ssss,,,, a a a a nnnn dddd z z z z oooo nnnn iiii nnnn gggg ))))

13 T T eeee mmmm pppp eeee rrrr aaaa nnnn cccc eeee m m m m oooo vvvv eeee mmmm eeee nnnn tttt – – – – a a a a nnnn tttt iiii ---- aaaa llll cccc oooo hhhh oooo llll aaaa.... g g rrrr oooo uuuu pppp ssss ( ( ( ( AAAA nnnn tttt iiii ---- SSSS aaaa llll oooo oooo nnnn L L L L eeee aaaa gggg uuuu eeee a a a a nnnn dddd WWWW oooo mmmm aaaa nnnn ssss CCCC hhhh rrrr iiii ssss tttt iiii aaaa nnnn T T T T eeee mmmm pppp eeee rrrr aaaa nnnn cccc eeee UUUU nnnn iiii oooo nnnn )))) o o o o ffff ffff eeee rrrr eeee dddd eeee dddd uuuu cccc aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn pppp rrrr oooo gggg rrrr aaaa mmmm ssss i i i i nnnn s s s s cccc hhhh oooo oooo llll ssss,,,, w w w w oooo rrrr kkkk eeee dddd t t t t oooo cccc llll oooo ssss eeee s s s s aaaa llll oooo oooo nnnn ssss,,,, a a a a nnnn dddd p p p p rrrr eeee aaaa cccc hhhh eeee dddd a a a a gggg aaaa iiii nnnn ssss tttt t t t t hhhh eeee pppp rrrr oooo bbbb llll eeee mmmm ssss o o o o ffff a a a a llll cccc oooo hhhh oooo llll u u u u ssss eeee bbbb.... T T hhhh eeee tttt hhhh A A A A mmmm eeee nnnn dddd mmmm eeee nnnn tttt b b b b aaaa nnnn nnnn eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee mmmm aaaa nnnn uuuu ffff aaaa cccc tttt uuuu rrrr eeee,,,, ssss aaaa llll eeee a a a a nnnn dddd tttt rrrr aaaa nnnn ssss pppp oooo rrrr tttt aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn o o o o ffff a a a a llll cccc oooo hhhh oooo llll iiii cccc bbbb eeee vvvv eeee rrrr aaaa gggg eeee ssss ( ( ( ( PPPP rrrr oooo hhhh iiii bbbb iiii tttt iiii oooo nnnn )))) cccc.... T T hhhh eeee ssss tttt A A A A mmmm eeee nnnn dddd mmmm eeee nnnn tttt r r r r eeee pppp eeee aaaa llll eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee tttt hhhh

14 S S tttt aaaa tttt eeee ssss e e e e ssss tttt aaaa bbbb llll iiii ssss hhhh eeee dddd c c c c eeee nnnn ssss oooo rrrr ssss hhhh iiii pppp b b b b oooo aaaa rrrr dddd ssss t t t t oooo bbbb aaaa nnnn m m m m oooo vvvv iiii eeee ssss tttt hhhh eeee yyyy c c c c oooo nnnn ssss iiii dddd eeee rrrr eeee dddd i i i i mmmm mmmm oooo rrrr aaaa llll T T hhhh eeee P P P P rrrr oooo gggg rrrr eeee ssss ssss iiii vvvv eeee M M M M oooo vvvv eeee mmmm eeee nnnn tttt i i i i gggg nnnn oooo rrrr eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee pppp llll iiii gggg hhhh tttt o o o o ffff AAAA ffff rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn ---- AAAA mmmm eeee rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn ssss aaaa.... S S oooo mmmm eeee b b b b eeee llll iiii eeee vvvv eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee yyyy s s s s hhhh oooo uuuu llll dddd w w w w oooo rrrr kkkk i i i i nnnn hhhh aaaa rrrr mmmm oooo nnnn yyyy w w w w iiii tttt hhhh tttt hhhh eeee e e e e ssss tttt aaaa bbbb llll iiii ssss hhhh mmmm eeee nnnn tttt t t t t oooo e e e e nnnn dddd dddd iiii ssss cccc rrrr iiii mmmm iiii nnnn aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn :::: BBBB oooo oooo kkkk eeee rrrr T T T T.... WWWW aaaa ssss hhhh iiii nnnn gggg tttt oooo nnnn,,,, U U U U pppp F F F F rrrr oooo mmmm S S S S llll aaaa vvvv eeee rrrr yyyy bbbb.... S S oooo mmmm eeee b b b b eeee llll iiii eeee vvvv eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee yyyy s s s s hhhh oooo uuuu llll dddd f f f f iiii gggg hhhh tttt aaaa gggg aaaa iiii nnnn ssss tttt dddd iiii ssss cccc rrrr iiii mmmm iiii nnnn aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn :::: WWWW.... EEEE.... BBBB.... DDDD uuuu bbbb oooo iiii ssss a a a a nnnn dddd t t t t hhhh eeee N N N N aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn aaaa llll AAAA ssss ssss oooo cccc iiii aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn f f f f oooo rrrr t t t t hhhh eeee A A A A dddd vvvv aaaa nnnn cccc eeee mmmm eeee nnnn tttt o o o o ffff CCCC oooo llll oooo rrrr eeee dddd PPPP eeee rrrr ssss oooo nnnn ssss ( ( ( ( NNNN AAAA AAAA CCCC PPPP ))))

15 c. Some thought they should solve their own problems: The National Urban League worked to improve job opportunities and housing for blacks c. Some thought they should solve their own problems: The National Urban League worked to improve job opportunities and housing for blacks S S oooo cccc iiii eeee tttt yyyy o o o o ffff A A A A mmmm eeee rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn I I I I nnnn dddd iiii aaaa nnnn ssss p p p p rrrr oooo vvvv iiii dddd eeee dddd a a a a ffff oooo rrrr uuuu mmmm f f f f oooo rrrr AAAA mmmm eeee rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn I I I I nnnn dddd iiii aaaa nnnn ssss a a a a nnnn dddd l l l l aaaa iiii dddd gggg rrrr oooo uuuu nnnn dddd wwww oooo rrrr kkkk f f f f oooo rrrr f f f f uuuu tttt uuuu rrrr eeee aaaa tttt tttt eeee mmmm pppp tttt ssss t t t t oooo i i i i mmmm pppp rrrr oooo vvvv eeee tttt hhhh eeee iiii rrrr c c c c oooo nnnn dddd iiii tttt iiii oooo nnnn ;;;; t t t t hhhh eeee yyyy w w w w eeee rrrr eeee cccc hhhh aaaa llll llll eeee nnnn gggg eeee dddd b b b b yyyy dddd iiii ffff ffff eeee rrrr eeee nnnn tttt a a a a tttt tttt iiii tttt uuuu dddd eeee ssss o o o o ffff w w w w hhhh aaaa tttt s s s s hhhh oooo uuuu llll dddd bbbb eeee d d d d oooo nnnn eeee P P rrrr oooo gggg rrrr eeee ssss ssss iiii vvvv eeee ssss w w w w oooo rrrr kkkk eeee dddd t t t t oooo a a a a ssss ssss iiii ssss tttt i i i i mmmm mmmm iiii gggg rrrr aaaa nnnn tttt ssss,,,, bbbb uuuu tttt a a a a llll ssss oooo eeee nnnn cccc oooo uuuu rrrr aaaa gggg eeee dddd t t t t hhhh eeee iiii rrrr AAAA mmmm eeee rrrr iiii cccc aaaa nnnn iiii zzzz aaaa tttt iiii oooo nnnn

16 C. Political Reforms 1. Direct primaries enabled voters rather than partybosses to nominate candidates 2. Corrupt practices laws regulated politicalcontributions and campaign spending 3. The Australian ballot allowed citizens to vote insecrecy 4. Initiative: citizens could propose laws byobtaining a certain percentage of votersignatures on a petition

17 5. Referendum: citizens could demand a law passed bythe legislature be referred to voters for theirapproval or rejection 6. Recall: gave voters the ability to remove publicofficials from office 7. Commission and city manager reforms of municipalgovernment reduced the power of political machines 8. Civil service exams reduced the number of positionsavailable to political machines for patronage

18 9. Direct election of senators achieved by the 17thAmendment (1913) 10. The womans suffrage movement a. Strategy: press for a constitutional amendment,get individual states to allow women to vote b. Leaders: Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth CadyStanton, Lace Stone, National American WomenSuffrage Association, Congressional Union c. Result: 19th Amendment (1920) 11. Home rule laws allowed cities to exercise self-rulewithout influence from state governments

19 THE PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENTS A. Theodore Teddy Roosevelt 1. Roosevelt succeeded President McKinley after hewas assassinated 2. He provided strong presidential leadership:former military officer, outdoorsman, governor 3. The Square Deal offered all Americans achance to succeed a. Assure honesty and fairness in bothgovernment and business b. Give greater opportunity to the individual c. Encourage gradual, moderate reform

20 4. His accomplishments a. Limiting bad trusts earning the nickname oftrust-buster b. Settling the Anthracite Coal Strike (1902)forcing arbitration between workers andowners c. Conserving natural resources 1) increased the national reserves of forests,coal lands, and water power sites 2) secured passage of irrigation projects 3) encouraged the conservation efforts of theForest Service (Gifford Pinchot) d. Protecting the consumer through legislation

21 B. William Howard Taft 1. A lifetime of experience in government, but inappointed positions, not elected ones. 2. He lacked the personal magnetism of Rooseveltand reduced the power of the president 3. He expanded some progressivism reforms, butlimited others a. Mann-Elkins Act extended the regulatorypowers of the Interstate Commerce Commission to telephone and telegraph industry

22 b. Created the Department of Labor toenforce labor laws c. Payne-Aldrich Bill raised tariffs, makingconsumer goods more expensive d. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair-disagreed withPinchots handling of the Forest Service;fired him 4. During the mid-term election of 1910, Rooseveltfavored a New Nationalism- a series of toughlaws to protect workers, ensure public health,and regulate business

23 Divisions in the Republican Party Members differed over Tafts performance; some saw him as eroding Roosevelts accomplishments Split in the Republican Party Members upset with Tafts nomination left the convention to start a new party: The Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party), with Roosevelt as their candidate Effect on the Election Split votes of the Republican Part allowing the Democrat (Wilson) to win the election

24 Presidential Election of 1912 Candidate(Party) Popular Vote Percent Electoral Vote Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)6,296, Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive)4,118, William H. Taft (Republican)3,486, Eugene V. Debs Socialist900, Eugene Chafin (Prohibition)206, Arthur E. Reimer (Socialist Labor) 28,

25 C. Woodrow Wilson 1. Wilsons background was in education (collegeprofessor) and government (governor of NewJersey) 2. He believed the president should show strongleadership, pressuring Congress and appealingdirectly to the people 3. His New Freedom policies followed a Progressive Program

26 a. Preserve and strengthen democraticcapitalism b. Lower tariffs c. Improve the banking system (FederalReserve Act 1913) d. Regulate business (Clayton Anti- trust Act1914) e. Protect unions and workers

27 THE END

28 Bibliography Boyer, Paul and Sterling Stuckey. The American Nation: Civil War to the Present. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Clayton, Andrew, et al. America: Pathways to the Present. Needham, MA: Prentice Hall, Davidson, James West and Michael B Stoff. The American Nation. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, Davidson, James West, Predro Castillo, and Michael B. Stoff. The American Nation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Gordon, Irving. Review Text in American History. New York: Amsco School Publications, Inc.,

29 Picture Credits Hine, Lewis. Child labor in America, The Jungle. The Octopus. Mark Twain.

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