3Architectural Design Design Concepts Abstraction Modularity Control Hierarchy
4AbstractionAbstraction permits one to concentrate on a problem at some level of generalization without regard to irrelevant low level details.Use of abstraction also permits one to work with concepts and terms that are familiar, in the problem environment without having to transform them to an unfamiliar structure.
5ModularityA module is defined as a sub-program that is invoked by another module.The statement are collectively referred to by a descriptive name called the module name.A module must return to its caller i.e. have a single entry and exit.The module should be relatively small in size.It should be easy to read, modify and use.A module should preferably have a single function.
6Advantages of Modularity Allow large program to be written by several or different people.Encourage creation of commonly used routines to be placed in library and/or be used by other programs.Simplify overlay procedure of loading large program into main storage.Provide more check point to measure progress.Simplify design, making program easy to modify and reduce maintenance costs.Provide a framework for more complete testing, easier to test.Produces well-designed and more readable program.
7Disadvantages of Modularity Execution time, compilation/loading time and storage size requirements may be (though not always) increase.Intermodule communication problems may be increased, due to the larger number of interfaces between parts of the software.Demands more initial design time, since greater time would need to be spent in the architectural phase of design.
8Modularity and Software Cost module development costcost ofsoftwaremoduleintegrationcostoptimal numbernumber of modulesof modules
9Control HierarchyControl Hierarchy, represents the hierarchical organization of program components (modules) and implies a hierarchy of control.Fan-Out, which is a measure of the number of modules that are directly controlled by another module.Fan-in, which indicates how many modules directly control a given module.Depth: Number of levels of control.Width: Overall span of control.Superordinate: i.e. a module that controls another module.Subordinate: i.e. a module that is controlled by another module.
10Control Hierarchy M A B C D E F G H Depth = 2 Fan-In (A) = 1 Width = 5 Fan-Out (A) = 3
11Effective Modular Design Functional IndependenceIs achieved by developing modules with “single minded” function and an “aversion” to excessive interaction with other modules.Independence is measured by two qualitative criteria:Cohesion: a measure of relative functional strength of a moduleCoupling: a measure of relative interdependence among modules
12Cohesion Low Cohesion (undesirable) Moderate High (desirable) Coincidental CohesionLogical CohesionTemporal CohesionModerateProcedural CohesionCommunicational CohesionHigh (desirable)One distinct task in a module (High Cohesion)
13Coupling Low (desirable) Moderate High (undesirable) Data Coupling Stamp CouplingModerateControl CouplingHigh (undesirable)External CouplingCommon CouplingContent Coupling
14User Interface DesignA good UI is not easy to create, since the UI development effort is inversely proportional to the ease of use finally obtained in the software
15Three Golden Rules (Theo Mandel) Place the user in controlReduce the user’s memory loadMake the interface consistent
16Place the user in control Minimize unnecessary / undesired actionsProvide flexible interactionProvide undoAllow customized interactionHide technical internals from the casual userDesign direct interaction with screen objects
17Reduce the user’s memory load Reduce demand on Short-term MemoryEstablish meaningful defaultsDefine intuitive short-cutsUse real-world metaphorDisclose information in a progressive fashion
18Make the interface consistent Allow the user to put the current task into a meaningful contextMaintain consistency across a family of applicationsIf past interactive models have created user expectations, do not making unnecessary changes
19Interface Design Consideration (1) Interface ConsistencyAn inconsistent interface is often the source of frustration to the user.PredictabilityPredictability is related to the user model and the consistency of the interface, but emphasizes the principle of least surprise.
20Interface Design Consideration (2) Error HandlingA good UI minimizes the chances of an error occurring, and provides a way to recover from any error that does occur.Ease of UseA UI should have on-line help and user guidance, which are accessible when user has trouble.
21Interface Design Consideration (3) ClarityErrors can be minimized if the UI communication between the UI and the user is as clear as possible.FeedbackFeedback to the user is important in reducing frustration and provides reassurance that the user task is actually being carried out.
22User classificationNovices No syntactic knowledge, little semantic knowledge of the computer usage in generalKnowledgeable, intermittent users Reasonable semantic knowledge of the application, but low recall of syntactic knowledgeKnowledgeable, frequent users Good semantic and syntactic knowledge
23PrototypingPrototyping is one of the best known method used to design the software interface.The prototype is evaluated by the user, who provides the designer with direct comments about the efficacy of the interface.If formal evaluation techniques are used (e.g. questionnaires, rating sheets), the designer may extract information from these data.Design modification are made based on user input and the next level of prototype is created.The evaluation cycle continues until no further modification to the interface design are necessary.
24Procedural Design Graphical Design Notation: Flow-chart Tabular Design Notation: Decision TableProgram Design Language (PDL)At the component level, the software engineer must represent data structures, interfaces, and algorithms in sufficient detail to guide the generation of programming language source-code.
25Flow-Chart Boxes to indicate processing steps. Diamond to indicate logical conditions.Arrows to indicate flow of control.Two boxes connected by a line of control will indicate a Sequence.
27Decision TableProvides a notation that translates actions and conditions (described in a processing narrative) into a tabular form.The upper left-hand section contains a list of all conditions.The lower left-hand section lists all actions that are possible based on the conditions.The right-hand sections form a matrix that indicates condition combinations and the corresponding actions that will occur for a specific combination
29Program Design Language Program Design Language (PDL) is also called structured English, or Pseudocode.PDL have the following characteristics:A fixed syntax of keywords that provide for all structured constructs, data declaration, and modularity characteristicsA free syntax of natural language that describes processing featuresData declaration facilities that should include both simple (scalar, array) and complex (linked list or tree) data structures.Subprogram definition and calling techniques that support various methods of interface description