Presentation on theme: "Livelihood crisis of farmers: regional perspective from Europe Federica Rossi."— Presentation transcript:
Livelihood crisis of farmers: regional perspective from Europe Federica Rossi
Farming is a priority- Eu 27: rural areas account for 92% of the territory - 19% of the population. Density: 38 inhab/km2 (632 in urban areas) Per-capita income : ¼ lower than the average. Income went down (-12%) in 2009. UE 15: -11.5%, new Countries – 16.5% Vegetable production was -13%, animal -10%.
50 yrs ago, it was on providing enough food for a population emerging from a war. Now, it aims to increase productivity-and quality- of production, while making farmers more environmental friendly. New needs: promotion of international competivity, innovation in farming and food processing, rural development. Key challenges: global competition, meeting consumer demand, facing environment, energy and climate urgencies. EU agricultural policy is constantly evolving.
A common growth A common objective- a shared concern Different grounds in a shared background Facing environmental issues and climate hazards are common problems
Europe 2020 - A trio of interlinked priorities New sources for new growth: Knowledge, innovation, brains rather then brawn, investments on R&D. Reaching out for a sustainable society: workforce, flexibility that makes this possible. Lifelong learning –Reduce poverty. Going green for a competitive economy: progress does not come at the expense of the environment. Sustainability and quality of life also offer opportunities for new jobs, requiring new skills. Europe has the chance to be a leader here, becoming the reference point for expertise in green technologies. Environmentally sustainable economic growth can be measured by increased productivity, matched by a reduction in emissions so as to fight climate change, and an increase in the proportion of energy coming from renewable sources.
Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth Europe 2020: a new economic strategy: The concept of sustainability encompasses ecological, economic and social problems
Networks including “developers” and “users” are a way to support decision- making processes in agriculture, and to contribute to the organization of dynamic processes of innovation Probably yes … May I be useful?
Ricerca End-user Transfer of the scientific knowledge to operational applications Agrometeorological information, use of resources
captures, transfers, looses energy and matter producing dry biomass … and more The EU multi-functional agriculture input output Policy: ensure that farming and preservation of environment go together, agriculture is in a much wider context
SUSTAINABLE The agricultural system input output Reduce and optimize Increase the value Higher efficiency ratio Innovation embedded into production system, harmonic with current resources and society expectances
Climate resource Energy resource Water resource Genetic resource Human-cultural resources Economic resources Landscape resource Integrate the knowledge on each of them to address the needs of small- scale farmers ICT resources
output The sustainability chain must necessarly consider biological- agronomic-environmental aspects: inputs Management: optimization of energy and matter flows Environment: climate, soil, topography Genetic
The sustainability chain must also include the socio-economic aspects: outputinputs Economic value (profit for the farmer, involved stakeholders) Environmental value (short mileage, local food consumption) Nutritional value (high quality, safety) Consumer perception
instrinsic nutritional value, consumer acceptance, quality, link with territory The value of the output: input output
Agricolture and territory : to look for and guarantee the binomium environment-quality Proven characteristics resulting solely from the terrain and the local abilities : geograhic indications and traditional products
Sensorial analysis Consumer Test Biochemistry GC, GC-MS, HPLC VOCs, Aroma GCO – Gascromatography Olfactometry Agrometeorology Ecophysiology Resources utilization Growth dynamics Quality in the field The quality is an issue for farmers
Field management Rootstock, harvest time Time of consuming What is quality in a traditional product: Abate Fetel
output Agroclimatic characterization and zoning may improve the effectiveness of decisions and actions inputs Proper environment : climate,soil, topography Genotype selected to couple with the local environment
37 - 30 B.C. Publius Vergilius Maro - Georgicae.. the attitude of various species to grow or grow better in certain territories is not a new concept…..
…An unknown surface,heed we to forelearn the winds and varying temper of the sky, the lineal tillage and habits of the spot, what every region yields, and what denies. Here blithelier springs the corn, and here the grape, there earth is green with tender growth of trees and grass unbidden. See how from Tmolus comes the saffron's fragrance, ivory from Ind, from Saba's weakling sons their frankincense, iron from the naked Chalybs, castor rank From Pontus, from Epirus the prize-palms. And such the laws by Nature's hand imposed on clime and clime….
New technologies open perspectives in management of territorial resources. GIS RS RARA RARA T0mT0m T0mT0m RXRX RXRX TCTC TCTC TSTS TSTS (z,t) v(x,y,t) models + Earth observation +
Crop protection Crop production Crop quality TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT ON: Damages from frost 300 M Euros 38% Gross Production Value Awareness of the risk: passive-active protection
Conjugating sustainable land use, rural development and quality agriculture, based on valorization of typical, local product: the example of OLIVE in Emilia Romagna.
In Italy, the olive area is mostly in the Mediterranean zone and in some part of the Transitional zone. In Emilia Romagna, 5000 ha surface, 800 t oil (0.2% italian production) 2 Protected Designations of Origin : PDO “Brisighella” PDO “Colline di Romagna”
Mainly -65%- grown in hilly areas, marginal for other crops, and is an important element to avoid - the abandoning, with negative social, economic, work repercussions to local communities, -hydrogeological hazards and hill erosions to allow - an increased value of the landscape (monetary, productive, social aspects) - the production of high-quality PDO oil, adding value to both local territory and regional farming
For a successful production, past and present must combine. The Winter extreme frosts may cause severe damages to plants (critical t = -9°C).
The crop valorization through a conjugation of past and present support tools. Use of autochotonous germoplasm. New technologies: agroclimatic characterization to define the areas more liable to its cultivation
Centenary trees located, tested according to phytosanitary rules, propagated (mother plants) and maintained as reservoir in screen houses. Morphological characterization DNA analyses AFLP markers (Amplified Fragment Lenght Polymorphism) SSR (microsatellites )
+ The past: centenary trees as mother-plants (autochotonous frost resistant) The present: agroclimatic characterization to define the more suitable areas for its cultivation The centenary trees as bioindicators of local favourable climatic- micrometeorological conditions, and are georefenced inside GIS maps. I have been living here for so many decades…..and I am still surviving !!!! Biodiversity and agrometeorological tools are the basis for the cultivation of this crop
Localization of old trees Definition of their locations: climate, elevation, slope, soil… Selection of areas with similar characteristics Analysis of limiting/favourable factors Maps of new potential areas Zoning maps available on demand via web mapserver to allow policy makers, technicians, farmers to access the information. Analysis of the local conditions
DROUGHT: many European areas threatened by shortening of water resources
How to reduce the water input???? ICT-based technical support to irrigation management and water optimization Free-of-charge web and sms- based service for irrigation assistance. ! ! Meteo data Soil data base Crop parameters
Site-specific information provided by micrometeorological technology to assess water requirements: Measured crop evapotraspiration provides calculation of proper Kc, allowing to give new indication to irrigation schedule programs, able to save up to 20% water
NO FOOD BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION : Hemp-lime building materials, Straw building materials, Insulation, Paints, varnishes (wool, hemp, wheat, linseed, flax, bamboo, …) FIBER: Paper, cloth, fabric, padding, string, twine, and rope (cotton, flax, hemp, manila hemp, papyrus, sisal, …) PHARMACEUTICALS: Drugs, botanical and herbal medicines, nutritional supplements, plant-made pharmaceuticals (hemp, echinacea, artemisia, tobacco, …) RENEWABLE BIOPOLYMERS : Plastics and packaging (Wheat, maize, potatoes, …) SPECIALTY CHEMICALS : Essential oils, printing ink, paper coatings (Lavender, oilseed rape, linseed, hemp, …) ENERGY CROPS FOR BIOFUELS AND BIOENERGY: Bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, syngas, bioelectricity (Algae, Jatropha, Switchgrass, …) Importance has increased due to the need to develop bio-based materials for industry and renewable energy … meet environmental objectives such as fight vs. climate change.
RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN EU 3 Challenges for RENEWABLE energy Climate Change -- Security of Supply -- Competitive EU Economy EU Energy policy aims for sustainable, secure and affordable energy supply White paper on Renewable Energies The promotion of renewable energies goes back to 1997 White paper on Renewable Energies. Several other directives, strategic papers and action plans have been issued setting targets by 2010. white paper The white paper set the target of doubling the contribution of Renewable Energy Sources from 6 to 12% in 2010. green electricity directive The green electricity directive (2001) set a target of reaching 21% share of renewable electricity by 2010. biofuels directive The biofuels directive (2003) set indicative targets of 5.75% market shares for biofuels respectively for the year 2010. biomass action planbiofuels strategy The biomass action plan and biofuels strategy (2005 and 2006) were aimed at the promotion of bioenergy and biofuels.
Potentialities of ENERGY CROPS Natural Resource Protection: increase biodiversity in wide farmed landscape for food production. Use of set-aside and marginal lands. Sustainable Rural Communities: new business opportunities in rural areas for agriculture, providing additional diversity and innovation Climate Change: integrating/ substituting fossil fuels then assist in reducing carbon emissions. RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN EU 3 Challenges for RENEWABLE energy Climate Change -- Security of Supply -- Competitive EU Economy
Ligno-cellulosic material Main energetic destinations Fuel, transport H2H2 Electicity Sugar beet (Carboidrates) Rapeseed (Oil) Heat Ethanol Diesel Pyrolysis Gasification Combustion OIL GAS O2O2 from crops and wood
Principles from the EU policy about the “suitable studies of land” Environmental sustainability criteriafor BIOFUELS Environmental sustainability criteria for BIOFUELS: no lands with recognised high biodiversity value,-- lands with high carbon stock, National actions and targets study local resources, technologies suited to different regional conditions Are lands available? Avoid food-fuel land use competition Land suitability SUSTAINABLE land planning is a priority
Land suitability for biomass dedicated crop cultivation- is a support decision tool for local government, decision maker, etc Crop selection Land suitability Land availability Land assignment Transformation Plant location Define optimum pedo-climatic requirements for sustainable yield and crop management Define lands that match crop pedo-climatic requirements What is the actual land use ? Which lands are really available ? Matching of species optimum land with actual land use ? Where to locate energy production plant ? Pedo - Climatic characterization of the region
TECHNOLOGIES: Largely used in Europe for Yield prediction, Determination of risky areas, Zoning, Land use policies etc. Allow data integration, usability, spatial analysis, statistics.. G.I.S. Real world Altimetry Roads Building Rivers GIS are used for deriving and enhancing point weather data by the use of DEMs (Digital Elevation Models), or alternatively used as a spatial input dataset to provide boundary conditions
Database application to characterize the Spanish agrarian countries with respect to their productivity potential of crops J. Sánchez Dpt. Producción Vegetal: Botánica y Protección Vegetal. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Energy crops potential distribution and estimated yield at NUTs scale
Expert systems and GIS: an application of land suitability evaluation S. Kalogirou. Department of Geography, University of Newcastle, Daysh Building, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK A software containing physical evaluation of the land (data for 17 land types) and models for general cultivation for five (wheat, barley, maize, seed cotton, sugar beet) specific crops The software does not require special computer skills and may support rural planners with a first view of the land suitability for cultivation of certain crops.
Environmental impact in the suitability study How the cultivation of energy crop will affect the environment ? Agronomic management to obtain sustainable yield: Use of minerals Use of water resources Use of fossil fuel Use of chemicals Effects on Soil erosion... Damages: Emission of minerals Water quality (Eutrophication) Water depletion CO2 emission Chemicals emission Soil depletion... All quantified by LCA. Map soil texture Map of water table depth Map of land morphology Map of Climate (wind,..) Map of Environmental Impact Indicators LCA Technology Translates complexity into pragmatic answers…
EX: Crop impact on eutrophication of vulnerable lands low medium high extr. high White areas: no impact maizerapeseedwheat sunflowerF SorghumArundo cardoonmiscanthusswitchgrass Life Cycle Assessment >>>
Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Agroclimatic indices and simulation models review, evaluation of the current trends of agroclimatic indices and simulation model outputs; developing and assessing future regional and local scenarios of agroclimatic conditions; risk assessment and foreseen impacts on agriculture. Based on these results, possible actions (recommendations, suggestions, warning systems) will be elaborated and proposed to the end-users, depending on their needs.
Broad band Internet for multi-functional agriculture output To know what’s up. To network. To sell, to know prices. To check weather forecast. To receive agromet information ….
Steps possible by ICT Databases Monitoring networks Forecast models Current weather data Historical weather data Weather forecasts Climatology Basic instruments Basic informations Processed informations Plant-weather- soil models Land vocation Crop advices to farmers - Agro- phenological forecasts Crop advices to farmers - Land management End-user informations
Policy makers – Joint coordinated, action development Support to farmers skill, knowledge, networking -technology transfer- best practices Research, new technology A pproaches to address the livelihood crisis of farmers: valorization of the territory, efficient use of its resources, enhancement of the innovation capacity of communities (traditional knowledge for innovative practical solutions), adoption of best technologies. Awareness of climate impacts, mitigation and adaptation. Promotion of efficient land management, smart use of weather, climate and water information.