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Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Introduction to upper air measurements with radiosondes and other in situ observing systems  John Nash, C. Gaffard,R. Smout and M. Smees Observation Development, Met Office, Exeter Integrated Ground-based Observing Systems Applications for Climate, Meteorology and Civil Protection September 2007, L’Aquila, Italy
Page 2© Crown copyright 2004 The calibration errors at low temperatures are documented in the scientific literature
Page 3© Crown copyright 2004 Negative bias at upper levels caused by air passing over the humidity sensors being warmer than that measured by the temperature sensor. Next slide shows how Vaisala have modified the sensor mounts to reduce the effect.
Page 4© Crown copyright 2004 Changes to Vaisala RS92 sensor to reduce daytime heating errors in relative humidity Upwards, copper gets warmer than the air in the upper troposphere Downwards New upwards, New, Downwards
Page 5© Crown copyright 2004 Radiosonde passing through cloud that sits over the island. The values in this histogram ought to be centred close to 100 per cent, not 93 per cent Operational monitoring of relative humidity in low cloud
Page 6© Crown copyright 2004 Many Vaisala RS80 measurements suffer dry bias because of chemical contamination. Radiosonde passing through cloud that sits over the island.
Page 7© Crown copyright 2004 Height [km] RS80 H-Humicap
Page 8© Crown copyright 2004 Summary of Relative humidity sensors. Modern [capacitative] sensors can measure reliably to much lower temperatures than older sensors.. to as low as -70 deg C, with humidity errors probably lower than 5 per cent at high humidity at night and probably in the range 10 to 15 per cent relative humidity at the lowest temperature. Daytime measurements may have significant negative bias especially in the upper troposphere, and designs are in the process of being optimised for daytime work. Water or ice contamination can be a significant problem at night if ventilation of the sensors is poor, giving positive biases of up to 10 per cent on average after emerging from cloud. Chemical contamination can be eliminated by careful preparation of the radiosonde before flight.
Page 9© Crown copyright 2004 Pressure sensor errors In the UK, pressure sensor errors before 1978 were often quite large [ 5 to 10 hPa] in the stratosphere, with radar tracking commonly used to provide height at pressures lower than 100 hPa. 1 hPa error gives 220 m height error at 30 hPa, 667 m height error at 10 hPa This magnitude of error was probably common on many older types of radiosondes, and errors larger than 4 hPa were found on two radiosondes in the early Phases of the WMO Radiosonde Comparisons. For India and China, the performance of the sensor did not appear reproducible to a better accuracy than 2 hPa even though the results actually submitted may have been within 1 hPa on average from the best estimate of truth. Best modern radiosondes have pressure errors much lower than 1 hPa in the stratosphere.
Page 10© Crown copyright 2004 Geopotential heights
Page 11© Crown copyright 2004 Geopotential heights
Page 12© Crown copyright 2004 Basic source on aircraft measurements Guide to Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation Seventh Edition [revised 2006] WMO- No8 Should be available in electronic form from WMO by end of 2007??? Part II chapter 3 Aircraft observations Temperature random errors depend on aircraft speed and are in the range 0.3 to 0.4 deg C. Wind random errors 2-3 ms -1 Presssure errors 2 hPa at cruise level Heights defined by the International standard atmosphere.
Page 13© Crown copyright 2004 Questions & Answers
1 Review of WMO test results on the accuracy of radiosonde relative humidity sensors John Nash Observing Methods Technology Centre, Development, Met Office.
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Results of the RS92 Acceptance Test performed by the Met Office (UK) Richard Smout, John Nash, Mark Smees, Darren Lyth, May.
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Introduction to upper air measurements with radiosondes and other in situ observing systems John Nash, C. Gaffard,R. Smout.
1 00/XXXX © Crown copyright Introduction to performance of modern radiosondes based on WMO Radiosonde Comparison results, Temperature John Nash Upper Air.
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Introduction to upper air measurements with radiosondes and other in situ observing systems  Factors affecting comparisons.
Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg – Richard Assmann Observatory The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network.
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Recent progress in the development of Upper air Systems Catherine Gaffard Met Office Upper Air Team, University of Reading.
Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHA Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss TECO-2006, WMO, Geneva, Global Criteria for.
Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg Results of the Measurement Strategy of the GCOS Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) Holger Vömel, GRUAN.
1 00/XXXX © Crown copyright UK Radiosonde testing 2002/2003 and improvements to the Camborne test facility Richard Smout, John Nash CIMO ET on Upper Air.
Homogenization (instrumental correction) of water vapour data from Vaisala radiosondes and older (MARZ, RKZ) used in Polish aerological service Barbara.
© Crown copyright Met Office John Nash 1, Tim Oakley 1, Mark Smees 1, S.Kurnosenko 2 and Li Wei 3 1 Met Office, Fitzroy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK 2
AIRS science team meeting Camp Springs, February 2003 Holger Vömel University of Colorado and NOAA/CMDL Upper tropospheric humidity validation measurements.
Ping Zhu, AHC5 234, Office Hours: M/W/F 10AM - 12 PM, or by appointment M/W/F,
© Crown copyright Met Office 1 John Nash, 2 Catherine Gaffard, 2 Owen Cox, 1 Myles Turp, 1 Mark Smees, 1 Richard Smout and 1 Tim Oakley Upper Air (Active)Team,
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Review of Progress in the Development of Operational Upper Air Technology May 2005.
Page 1© Crown copyright 2004 Initial results from Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) evaluation Dr J. Nash and M. Smees.
1 / 17 Deutscher Wetterdienst Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg Richard Assmann Observatory The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network Holger Vömel GRUAN.
Guided Notes on Gathering Weather Data Chapter 12, Section 3.
Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg – Richard Assmann Observatory (2010) GCOS Reference Upper Air Network Holger Vömel Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg.
© Crown copyright Met Office E-AMDAR evaluation. Mark Smees & Tim Oakley, Met Office, May 2008.
Earth and Atmospheric Sciences EAS535 Atmospheric Measurements and Observations II EAS 535
NCAR - Atmospheric Technology Division Reporting work by: Erik Miller (ATD) Junhong Wong (ATD) Ari Paukkunen et al. (Vaisala, OY) Funded by: ATD, Vaisala;
Page 1 © Crown copyright 2004 Modern biases in in situ SST measurements John Kennedy, Nick Rayner, Philip Brohan, David Parker, Chris Folland, et al.
U.S. Radiosondes Jan. 2000, NWS awarded contracts to two radiosonde manufacturers, Sippican and InterMet Systems, for the development and submission of.
World Meteorological OrganizationIntergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO Ship Observations Team ~ integrating and coordinating international.
AMSR-E Vapor and Cloud Validation Atmospheric Water Vapor –In Situ Data Radiosondes –Calibration differences between different radiosonde manufactures.
Gathering Weather Data SWBAT recognize the importance of accurate weather data; describe the technology used to collect weather data; analyze the strengths.
Intercomparisons of Water Vapor Measurements during IHOP_2002 – Radiosonde and Dropsonde Junhong (June) Wang NCAR Atmospheric Technology Division Acknowledgement:
© Crown copyright Met Office Future Upper-Air Network Development (FUND) WMO ET-UASI, Payerne June 2008, Agenda Item 3.4.
A thermodynamic model for estimating sea and lake ice thickness with optical satellite data Student presentation for GGS656 Sanmei Li April 17, 2012.
Introduction to data assimilation in meteorology Pierre Brousseau, Ludovic Auger ATMO 08,Alghero, september 2008.
Figure1 Upper-air Observation Network of JMA Nemuro Ishigakijima Minamidaitojima Naha Naze Kagoshima Fukuoka Yonago Sapporo Wakkanai Wajima Akita Minamitorishima.
How do meteorologists make weather observations? Measuring the Weather.
Page 1© Crown copyright Distribution of water vapour in the turbulent atmosphere Atmospheric phase correction for ALMA Alison Stirling John Richer & Richard.
Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg – Richard Assmann Observatory The GCOS Reference Upper Air Network: Assuring the 21 st Century Climate record? Peter.
Urban Heat Island Effect ( ) The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Department of Applied Physics.
© Crown copyright Met Office Future Upper-Air Network Development (FUND)-Integration TECO 2008 St Petersburg Russia Catherine Gaffard, John Nash, Alec.
Add To Table of Contents: Weather TrackingPg. 100 Weather InstrumentsPg. 101.
Weather Part IV Storms Reference: CK-12.org Earth Sciences Chapter 16 By: Robert Smith.
© Crown copyright Met Office European Ground-based observations of essential variables for CLImate and operational METeorology - providing a testbed capability.
Ch Study Guide Answers. Section 1 The ozone layer is located in the _______. Stratosphere.
1 Radiosondes 1.History of upper air measurements 2.Radiosondes (sensors, calibration, telemetry,multiplexing) 3.The Vaisala radiosondes 4.Special radiosondes.
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Earth’s Weather Patterns Chapter 10. Prior Knowledge What is weather? What makes up the Atmosphere? How can you track severe storms?
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