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IBM Software Group ® Serge Bourbonnais Database Replication Silicon Valley laboratory WMO TECO-WIS Convention Seoul, November 8 th, 2006 Database Replication.

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Presentation on theme: "IBM Software Group ® Serge Bourbonnais Database Replication Silicon Valley laboratory WMO TECO-WIS Convention Seoul, November 8 th, 2006 Database Replication."— Presentation transcript:

1 IBM Software Group ® Serge Bourbonnais Database Replication Silicon Valley laboratory WMO TECO-WIS Convention Seoul, November 8 th, 2006 Database Replication and Change Propagation Technologies for Continuous Availability

2 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Abstract - IBM Database Replication Technologies Database replication technologies allow an IT infrastructure to achieve continuous availability of the enterprise operations, by providing solutions for Disaster Recovery, Workload Isolation, and Information Integration. When used for Disaster Recovery, each replicated database can be fully active, and copies do not need to be identical. Some trade-offs include administrative costs, and the overhead of capturing and applying changes. For Workload Isolation, the replication process can manage conflicts that may arise from the application workload, database constraints, loading a target while changes are still occurring at the source, or changes arriving out of order in a multi-node configuration. Conflict resolution either relies on timestamp and the origin of each change, or on a designated master. Configurations for data distribution and consolidation to/from hundreds of databases can also be deployed. For Information Integration, the replication process deals with heterogeneous data schemas, data stores, or even data models. IBM Database replication technologies can capture and propagate changes with low-latency at high-throughput over long distances, while preserving database transactional integrity, and tolerating system outages or intermittent connectivity.

3 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Agenda  Database Replication Technologies for continuous availability  In support of the Global Enterprise: From Continuous Availability to Business Integration  Where Database Replication fits  Where replication does not fit  IBM Product Architecture and Capabilities  Capture, Apply, Federation, and Transforms  Topologies, Conflict Detection and Resolution  Sample Implementations

4 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Why Replication in an Information System? 1.Disaster Recovery  Goal: High-Availability  Applications: Standby copy for failover, Scheduled and Unscheduled outages  Requirements: Minimize recovery time and eliminate or reduce data loss. Preserve transactional consistency. 2.Workload Isolation  Goal: High-Availability, Improve Performance  Applications: Data Distribution/Consolidation, Regional Data Centers, Caches  Requirements: Maintain live copies or subsets for working in disconnected mode, often geographically distributed. Need to detect and resolve conflicts, if any. Data mappings and transformations. 3.Information Integration  Goal: High-Availability, Improve Performance, Global Enterprise View  Applications: Analytics, Enterprise Business Integration  Requirements: Moving data to/from heterogeneous data stores. Cleansing and transformations. Assembling objects with data from several sources. Requirements More Requirements Less

5 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Relational tables Business Objects 197 AS207 Wheel 1 Database Log Shipping HADR (LUW) Disk Mirroring GDPS PPRC Logical Replication Data Propagator Q Replication Event Publishing Q Event Publish II Federation Integration Software DataStage Maintain a full database copy for Disaster Recovery Maintain a logical database subset for Disaster Recovery, Workload Isolation Publish changes (with transformations) for Disaster Recovery, Workload Isolation, Data Integration Technologies and Products Propagated Objects Requirements and Scenarios From Disaster Recovery to Information Integration: Replication needs are cumulating - Semantics are increasing.  Database Replication Application Space 

6 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Application Space for Database Replication Technologies  Database Replication is a good fit when:  Asynchronous Capture and Delivery  Outages. Network, servers, a site, the RDBMS.  Occasionally connected  Non-identical sources and targets  Different platforms. OS, RDBMS, even data models  Different shapes. Sub-setting required  Row-level transformations., Codepages, Schemas  Update-Anywhere with possible conflicts  Only possible with replication  When some data loss is tolerable in case of a major disaster.  Often, solution can be designed to limit loss to a few seconds.  Fast delivery over large distances (1000s km)  Several 10 000s rows/second achievable (up to 100 000row/sec)  Avoid or minimize full-refresh of data at the target  Other factors:  Minimize down-time, administrative cost, application performance impact Replication Technologies guarantee Transactional Consistency with Resilience

7 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Limits of Database Replication technologies  Non-zero Data Loss required in case of Disaster (fire, flood)  Use Synchronous technologies instead, i.e., HADR, PPRC  Set-level.transformations are required on the data  Use ETL software instead  However, replication can be used to feed a staging area for ETL tools. Replication can hide the differences between the target and the source (database schema, data model, codepage, hardware architecture) and provide a continuous, asynchronous feed.  Business Objects need to be assembled  Develop applications in the application layer Other factors  Cost-Benefit analysis of the solutions, given the requirements

8 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software DB2 IBM SQL Replication Source server Non-DB2 Triggers Staging Tables Apply DB2 Information Integrator Informix Oracle Sybase SQL Server Teradata database recovery log Capture SQL Apply DB2 Apply DB2 Apply z/OS iSeries UDB LUW  Staging is in relational tables  Control, and Monitoring information also in relational tables  Transport is over a database connection Target servers Control tables Informix Oracle Sybase SQL Server

9 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software A parenthesis: Database Federation Nicknames appear as local tables. For example: > db2 list tables Table/View Schema Type ------------------------------- --------------- ----- T1 BOURBON T ORAT3 BOURBON N CUSTOMERS BOURBON T T1 is a Table; ORAT3 a Nickname  Remote objects (structured files, tables, spreadsheets) appear to the application as if local tables in a DB2 database  Local and non-local data can be manipulated in the same SQL statement CREATE NICKNAME ORAT3 FOR ORACLE9.SCOTT.T3 INSERT INTO ORAT3 VALUES(5) SELECT * FROM ORAT3

10 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Apply DB2 IBM Q Replication Source server database recovery log Capture  Staging and Transport over MQSeries persistent message queues  High-throughput, Low-latency. Apply with parallel agents Target servers DB2 Apply z/OS UDB LUW Apply Control tables z/OS UDB LUW VM/VSE WebSphere Queue Manager (or client) Admin queue Restart queue Send queues Control Tables Non-DB2 Apply DB2 Information Integrator Informix Oracle Sybase SQL Server Teradata Apply Control Tables

11 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Performance  Q Replication is between 3 to 10 times faster than SQL replication  Higher throughput and shorter latency  Capture measured throughput: 49000rows/second (V9.1)  Latency less than 2 seconds achievable over 1000s of kilometers  Measured Time to clear up receive queues after an outage  1,000,000 rows accumulated in target receive queue  Continuous arrival rate: 5,000 rows per second  Time to re-sync target database = 91 seconds (1) Turbo Freeway (2064-216) 2 LPARs 4CP for the source system and 4cp for the target system.

12 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Q Replication subscriptions - defining target copies  Projection over columns and rows of a table:  Only changes for subscribed tables are sent  Some transactions can be ignored (e.g., by owner ID, trans ID, with signal or command)  Some operations can be ignored (e.g., delete)  Filter rows with a predicate (e.g., WHERE :LOCATION ='EAST' AND :SALES > (SELECT SUM(expense) FROM STORES WHERE stores.deptno = :DEPTNO )  Database Schema mappings examples:  1 column to N columns, e.g., [ :C1 || :C2]  N columns  1 columns, e.g., [substr(:C2,2,3)]  Generated columns, e.g., [CURRENT TIMESTAMP] Capture side: Apply side ORDERS oidprice IBMORDERS ibmIDpricets Replication handles codepage conversion, architecture difference

13 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Q Replication Subscription Types PrimarySecondary/backup  Unidirectional  Changes are replicated in one direction  1:N – N:1 topologies – Distribution and Consolidation  Changes can be filtered and transformed  Bidirectional – master/slave  Changes replicated in both directions  Conflicts detected on data values: Conflict rules: Check key, changed only, or all columns  One server designated as winner Conflict action: Force, ignore, merge change  Tree topologies only  Minimum overhead  Peer to peer – no master, use timestamps  Conflicts resolved by using most recent version, no master copy - Handles out of order arrivals (e.g., delete before insert)  Requires extra columns and triggers Source Target(s)

14 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Data Distribution from a (CCD) staging area Read/write Source Table Read-only CCD Table Target Table Q Replication SQL Apply … … Target Table MQSeries SQL Connections Q Apply Q Capture SQL Apply

15 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Consistent Changed Data (CCD) Apply targets  Usages:  AUDIT trail of database changes. Answer: Who changed what, when, and how?  Staging table for data distribution (with SQL Apply) For updates, before values can be optionally present in the CCD (e.g., XPARTNO) Condensed CCD: Contains only the latest changed value of each row Complete CCD: Initially created with values for all rows from the source table. 5.03 AUTHIDOPERATIONCOMMITSEQLOGMARKERXPARTNOPARTNOXPRICEPRICE 1USER_AU current timestamp A7571 4.31 2USER_BI current timestamp nullA7981null121.03 PARTS_CCD 3USER_AD current timestamp nullA7981null

16 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Usage  Building the Data Warehouse  Business Integration  Auditing requirements Function  Capture changed data in real time  Correlate by transactions within a single database  Output: XML or CSV Log-based capture User Application DB2 z/OS and LUW VSAM Capture WebSphere MQ Integrator Broker Target DBs DataStage WebSphere Business Integration JMS-aware Application Event Publishing Software AG Adabas IMS CA IDMS

17 IBM Software Group 17 Mazda  Support 700 dealers in USA  Trouble matching customer demand with available inventory  More current data needed to track sales achievements with period-end goals  Sales and inventory information is replicated every minute to portal server  Improved access to current data without changes to existing IT infrastructure Challenge Solution Business benefits  Increased auto sales  Improved dealer satisfaction  Currency of information improved by 93% Technology benefits  Re-used existing application and data base infrastructure  Decreased network load compared to full data refreshes 4 times an hour  Ease and speed of deployment “Within 5 weeks of receiving the [WebSphere] Information Integrator product we were able to implement it in our … environments. It now provides us up to the minute sales activity.” Joe Neria, Software Consultant. Mazda

18 IBM Software Group 18 International provider of financial & investment services  Corporate initiative to provide customers better performing real-time queries by utilizing multiple sites.  Replication of critical order processing details for core business functionality  Q Replication for high speed movement of up to 10 Million transactions to secondary site several thousand miles away. Current implementation is Uni- Directional with peer-to-peer plans. Challenge Solution Business benefits  Replicating 5-10 Million transactions with less than 2 seconds latency.  More efficient and cost-effective resource utilization  Secondary platform services reporting and business intelligence queries and acts as backup to primary Technology benefits  Real-time back up of secondary system provides results in increased capacity for peak workloads.

19 IBM Software Group 19 CitiStreet  Support single sign-on access through both Web and IVR applications ensuring 24x7 portal access for plan participants and sponsors  Support redundant, active single sign-on applications for failover processing replicating profile changes between them in real time. Challenge Solution Overview CitiStreet is one of the largest and most experienced global benefits providers servicing over 9 million plan participants across all markets. CitiStreet was formed in partnership between subsidiaries of State Street Corporation and Citigroup Business benefits  Ensure application availability for plan participants and sponsors  The new solutions from IBM will improve data integrity with a reduced level of maintenance Technology benefits  Maintain bi-directional synchronization of profile updates (approx 175,000 updates daily) in real time “ Since nearly 10 million of CitiStreet customers are offered 24-hour access to their retirement accounts, the company can't afford downtime and must be able to replicate data changes when they happen. We fully replicate our database over redundancy data lines, so to us the stability and speed of that asynchronous replication is strategic for us." Barry Strasnick, CIO CitiStreet

20 IBM Software Group | DB2 Information Management Software Summary  IBM develops Data Propagation technologies to provide Continuous Availability and achieve a Global Integrated view of the enterprise in an heterogeneous environment  Q Replication (IBM WebSphere Replication Server) delivers low latency, high throughput, and resilience. It is best-of-breed for heavy OLTP workloads, providing resilience and preserving transactional integrity throughout outages while minimizing the need for full data refreshes.

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