In the Ear—Alliteration The repetition of initial consonant sounds in words Example “We wear the mask that grins and lies,/” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “We Wear the Mask”
In the Ear—Consonance The repetition of consonant sounds in words Similar to alliteration, but not limited to first letter of words Example “We wear the mask that grins and lies,/ It hides our cheeks and shades our eyes,--/” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “We Wear the Mask”
In the ear—Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds without repeating consonants Example: “Like stalks of tall, dry straw At poor peace I sing” Dylan Thomas, “Prologue”
In the Ear—Onomatopoeia The use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning Examples: Clang Buzz Twang swoosh
In the Ear—Repetition The repeating of a word, a phrase, or an idea for emphasis or effect We Real Cool By Gwendolyn Brooks The Pool Players. Seven at the Golden Shovel. We real cool. We Left school. We Lurk late. We Strike straight. We Sing sin. We Thin gin. We Jazz June. We Die soon.
In the Ear—End Rhyme /Rhyme Scheme The Storm James K. McAlister Wind rustled crunching leaves a That on the sidewalk lay. b There was a big storm coming c On a windy Autumn day. b Thunder rumbled overhead d And shook me through and through. e A jagged bolt of lightning struck! f The sky then cracked in two! e Rain washed down the dirty road. g It hissed, and gushed, and muttered. h The downpour swept dead leaves away i Into the bubbling gutter. h The rhyming of words that appear at the ends of two lines of poetry
In the Ear—Internal Rhyme Occurs when the rhyming words appear in the same line of poetry We Real Cool By Gwendolyn Brooks The Pool Players. Seven at the Golden Shovel. We real cool. We Left school. We Lurk late. We Strike straight. We Sing sin. We Thin gin. We Jazz June. We Die soon.
In the Ear—Rhythm Regular or random occurrence of sound in poetry Regular is called meter Random is called Free Verse Contemporary poetry often uses free verse
Tools—Metaphor comparison between essentially unlike things without using words OR application of a name or description to something to which it is not literally applicable A Three Point Shot From Andromeda By Paul Beatty rain rusted orange ring of saturn in urban orbit over an outdoor gym What two things are being compared?
Tools—Simile comparison between two essentially unlike things using words such as "like," as," or "as though” Example: “Of asphodel, that greeny flower, like a buttercup upon its branching stem-” William Carlos Williams, “Asphodel, that Greeny Flower”
Tools—Hyperbole An exaggeration for emphasis The Storm James K. McAlister Wind rustled crunching leaves That on the sidewalk lay. There was a big storm coming On a windy Autumn day. Thunder rumbled overhead And shook me through and through. A jagged bolt of lightning struck! The sky then cracked in two! Rain washed down the dirty road. It hissed, and gushed, and muttered. The downpour swept dead leaves away Into the bubbling gutter.
Tools—Imagery A word or sequence of words representing a sensory experience (visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory) Example: Billy Collins, “Litany” “ You are the bread and the knife, the crystal goblet and the wine. You are the dew on the morning grass and the burning wheel of the sun. You are the white apron of the baker, and the marsh birds suddenly in flight.”
Tools—Allusion A a reference to the person, event, or work outside the poem or literary piece Example: Dylan Thomas’s “Fern Hill” And then to awake, and the farm, like a wanderer white With the dew, come back, the cock on his shoulder: it was all Shining, it was Adam and maiden, The sky gathered again And the sun grew round that very day.
Tools—Symbol An object or action that stands for something beyond itself Green Light and Gamma Ways By Thylias Moss Miss Liberty is green, the horizon and sky plus yellow skin. She is a minority too, color of ridiculous Martian fable and not a man. Handicapped, disabled. Another immigrant.
Tools—Metonymy An idea associated with something substituted for the whole The Big Apple = New York The Crown = Royalty Land of the Free and Home of the Brave = USA The Suits = stuffy, upper middle class, bosses