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7.1 - The French Revolution What class of people belonged to the Second Estate? Nobles.

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Presentation on theme: "7.1 - The French Revolution What class of people belonged to the Second Estate? Nobles."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 7.1 - The French Revolution

3 What class of people belonged to the Second Estate? Nobles

4 Which group of people was the most heavily influenced by the Enlightenment? Bourgeoisie

5 Where in France did the sans-culottes live? In the cities

6 What is the tax paid to the Church by members of the 3rd Estate? Tithe

7 How much is the tithe? 10%

8 The price of what important food staple doubled in 1789? Bread

9 The extravagant spending of what monarchs led to the financial crisis? Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette

10 What nickname was given to Marie Antoinette for her extravagant spending? Madame Deficit

11 How did Louis XVI propose to solve the financial crisis? Impose taxes on the nobility

12 What group did Louis XVI call to approve his new tax? Estates General

13 To what voting system did the 3rd estate want to change? Each delegate would receive one vote

14 Who is the clergy member who spoke in favor of the formation of a new legislative body for France? Sieyes

15 What is the name of the new group formed by the Third Estate to abolish the monarchy and create a representative government? National Assembly

16 What is the pledge taken by the members of the Third Estate to write a new constitution for France? Tennis Court Oath

17 What is the name of the building the peasants stormed to obtain weapons and gun powder? The Bastille

18 Why did the Great Fear break out in France? Rumors spread that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants

19 What was it that drove thousands of women to riot and drive the king from his palace? The rising cost of bread

20 7.2 – Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

21 What document was adopted by the National Assembly as a statement of the revolutionary ideals? Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

22 What is the slogan of the French Revolution? Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite

23 Who is the revolutionary woman that wrote her own Declaration of the Rights of Women? Olympe de Gouges

24 How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Church? Sold church lands Required priests to be elected and paid by the state

25 To where did Louis XVI attempt to flee when he became concerned for his safety? Austrian Netherlands

26 The Constitution of 1791 created which type of government for France? Constitutional Monarchy (also acceptable: limited monarchy)

27 What is the legislative body created by the Constitution of 1791? Legislative Assembly

28 How was power distributed by the Constitution of 1791? The Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but the king retained the power to enforce the laws

29 The problems of food shortages and government debt led to the division of the French government into which three groups? Conservatives, Moderates, Radicals

30 Who were the reactionaries that fled France in search of aid to restore the Old Regime? Emigres

31 Who were the radical street dwellers who wished to push the reforms of the revolution further? Sans-culottes

32 Which two nations urged the French to restore the Old Regime and were answered with a declaration of war? Austria and Prussia

33 How did the Parisian population respond to rumors the king’s supporters were planning to break out of prison and seize control of the city? They raided the prisons and murdered 1,000+ prisoners in what became known as the September Massacres

34 How did the government respond to the radical actions of the people during the September Massacres? They replaced the monarchy and Legislative Assembly with a republic under the National Convention

35 Who did the National Assembly give the right to vote? All adult men, but not women.

36 What radical political group led the radical changes? The Jacobin Club

37 Who were the three most prominent leaders of the Jacobins? Jean Paul Marat, Georges Danton, and Maximillien Robespierre

38 What became of Louis XIV when the National Convention came to power? He was convicted of treason and beheaded by the guillotine

39 How did the Committee of Public Safety react to opposition to the revolution? They ordered to arrest and execution of opponents in what came to be called the Reign of Terror

40 Why did the Reign of Terror come to an end? Members of the National Convention feared for their own safety so they turned against Robespierre and sent him to the guillotine

41 Who did the National Convention put in charge of the government after the Reign of Terror in 1795? The Directory

42 7.3 & 7.4 Napoleon

43 How did Napoleon gain recognition as a military leader? He successfully defended the National Convention against a mob of royalist rebels who threatened the French Revolution

44 Where did Napoleon experience military success outside of France? In Italy against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia

45 Where did Napoleon experience defeat against British forces led by Admiral Hiratio Nelson? Egypt

46 How did Napoleon come to lead the government of France? He overthrew the Directory by driving the members of national legislature out and forcing the remaining leaders to name him First Consul

47 What term refers to the quick seizure of power Napoleon used to gain control? Coup d ’ etat

48 What challenge to his authority did Napoleon immediately face after seizing power? The forces of Britain, Austria, and Russia joined to fight him in war

49 How did that conflict turn out? Napoleon defeated their forces and compelled them to sign peace treaties with France

50 How did Napoleon create the impression that he had be democratically chosen? He held a plebiscite to approve a new constitution that gave him all real power

51 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the financial system in France? He established more efficient tax collection & a national bank; both actions provided the government money and control over the economy

52 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the political system? He fired corrupt officials and established schools (lycees) to train government agents who were appointed based on ability rather than family connections

53 How did Napoleon attempt to reform religion in France? He signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII to restored the Church, but maintained the separation between church and state

54 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the legal system in France? He revised the laws to make them more uniform under the Napoleonic Code

55 How did the Napoleonic Code limit rights and government control over people? Free speech & press were restricted; Slavery was restored in the French Caribbean

56 What action at the coronation of Napoleon displays his arrogance? When he took his crown from the Pope so he could crown himself

57 What event lead Napoleon to decide to give up his dream of a French empire in the New World? The slave revolt and independence movement in Haiti

58 Who led the slave uprising in Haiti? Toussaint L ’ Ouverture

59 Why did Napoleon decide to sell the Louisiana Purchase to the USA? He needed the $15 million to pay his war debts and he believed the USA would pose a threat to the British empire

60 As Napoleon built his European empire by conquering the Netherlands & parts of Italy, which country was the only one to resist him? Britain

61 In which battle did the British succeed in breaking Napoleon ’ s unchecked expansion? Battle of Trafalgar

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63 What three disastrous mistakes did Napoleon make that ended his empire? 1.The Continental System 2.The Peninsular War 3.The Invasion of Russia

64 What did the Continental System attempt to do? Make Europe self-sufficient by cutting trade with England by using a blockade

65 Why did Napoleon ’ s blockade fail? The British navy was stronger, smugglers broke the blockade, and his allies ignored it

66 How did the British blockade of Europe impact the United States? US ships were seized and sailors impressed to serve in the British navy; the conflict resulted in the War of 1812

67 Why did Napoleon send troops to Portugal through Spain? To force Portugal to follow the Continental System

68 Why did the Spanish people object to Napoleon ’ s troops marching through Spain? They feared Napoleon would weaken the power of the Catholic Church in Spain as he had done in France

69 Who did Napoleon put on the throne of Spain? His brother, Joseph

70 What were the Spanish peasant fighters called that operated in small roving groups? guerillas

71 Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Napoleon was angry Russia ’ s czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain and he distrusted Alexander ’ s designs on Poland

72 How did Alexander respond to the invading French Grand Army? He ordered a retreat and the use of a scorched-earth policy

73 What was the farthest point of attack the French troops were able to make? Moscow

74 Why did the French fail to conquer Moscow? The troops were unprepared for the harsh conditions of the Russian winter

75 After Napoleon ’ s enemies united against him and defeated him, to where was he exiled? The island of Elba

76 Why did Napoleon decide to return to France from exile? To overthrow Louis XVIII, who had grown unpopular as people feared he would try to turn back the effects of the Revolution

77 What was the last time period in which Napoleon ruled France called? The Hundred Days

78 Where did Napoleon have his final showdown battle with the British & Prussians? The Battle of Waterloo

79 To where was Napoleon sent the second time he was defeated? St. Helena

80 7.5 – The Congress of Vienna

81 What was the overall goal of the Congress of Vienna? The establishment of stability and collective security in Europe

82 Which five nations dominated the Congress of Vienna? Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France

83 Which man stood out as the leader of the Congress of Vienna Austrian prince Klemens von Metternich

84 What were Metternich’s three steps for the restoring Europe to its previous condition? (1)Contain France by surrounding it with powerful nations (2)Create a balance of power to discourage nations for expanding (3)Restore legitimate monarchs to the thrones of Europe

85 Which alliance was created by Russia, Prussia, and Austria to maintain Christian values in Europe? The Holy Alliance

86 Which alliance was created by the nations of Europe to support the conditions created by the Congress of Vienna? Concert of Europe

87 How did the actions of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna impact conditions in the Americas? Creole leaders rose up in rebellion against the peninsulares and declared their independence from European rule

88 What was the long-term legacy of the French Revolution and the Congress of Vienna? Europe was reshaped both physically and politically. Nationalism spread and set into motion further forms. European colonies in the Americas began their independence movements.

89 Don’t forget to study the political spectrum chart as well.

90 THE END


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