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7.1 - The French Revolution

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1 7.1 - The French Revolution

2 What class of people belonged to the Second Estate?

3 Which group of people was the most heavily influenced by the Enlightenment?

4 Where in France did the sans-culottes live?
In the cities

5 What is the tax paid to the Church by members of the 3rd Estate?

6 How much is the tithe? 10%

7 The price of what important food staple doubled in 1789?

8 The extravagant spending of what monarchs led to the financial crisis?
Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Marie Antoinette

9 What nickname was given to Marie Antoinette for her extravagant spending?
Madame Deficit

10 How did Louis XVI propose to solve the financial crisis?
Impose taxes on the nobility

11 What group did Louis XVI call to approve his new tax?
Estates General

12 To what voting system did the 3rd estate want to change?
Each delegate would receive one vote

13 Who is the clergy member who spoke in favor of the formation of a new legislative body for France?

14 What is the name of the new group formed by the Third Estate to abolish the monarchy and create a representative government? National Assembly

15 What is the pledge taken by the members of the Third Estate to write a new constitution for France?
Tennis Court Oath

16 What is the name of the building the peasants stormed to obtain weapons and gun powder?
The Bastille

17 Why did the Great Fear break out in France?
Rumors spread that nobles were hiring outlaws to terrorize peasants

18 What was it that drove thousands of women to riot and drive the king from his palace?
The rising cost of bread

19 7.2 – Revolution Brings Reform and Terror

20 What document was adopted by the National Assembly as a statement of the revolutionary ideals?
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen

21 What is the slogan of the French Revolution?
Liberte, Equalite, Fraternite

22 Who is the revolutionary woman that wrote her own Declaration of the Rights of Women?
Olympe de Gouges

23 How did the reforms of the National Assembly affect the Church?
Sold church lands Required priests to be elected and paid by the state

24 To where did Louis XVI attempt to flee when he became concerned for his safety?
Austrian Netherlands

25 The Constitution of 1791 created which type of government for France?
Constitutional Monarchy (also acceptable: limited monarchy)

26 What is the legislative body created by the Constitution of 1791?
Legislative Assembly

27 How was power distributed by the Constitution of 1791?
The Legislative Assembly had the power to make laws, but the king retained the power to enforce the laws

28 Conservatives, Moderates, Radicals
The problems of food shortages and government debt led to the division of the French government into which three groups? Conservatives, Moderates, Radicals

29 Who were the reactionaries that fled France in search of aid to restore the Old Regime?

30 Who were the radical street dwellers who wished to push the reforms of the revolution further?

31 Which two nations urged the French to restore the Old Regime and were answered with a declaration of war? Austria and Prussia

32 How did the Parisian population respond to rumors the king’s supporters were planning to break out of prison and seize control of the city? They raided the prisons and murdered 1,000+ prisoners in what became known as the September Massacres

33 How did the government respond to the radical actions of the people during the September Massacres?
They replaced the monarchy and Legislative Assembly with a republic under the National Convention

34 Who did the National Assembly give the right to vote?
All adult men, but not women.

35 What radical political group led the radical changes?
The Jacobin Club

36 Who were the three most prominent leaders of the Jacobins?
Jean Paul Marat, Georges Danton, and Maximillien Robespierre

37 What became of Louis XIV when the National Convention came to power?
He was convicted of treason and beheaded by the guillotine

38 How did the Committee of Public Safety react to opposition to the revolution?
They ordered to arrest and execution of opponents in what came to be called the Reign of Terror

39 Why did the Reign of Terror come to an end?
Members of the National Convention feared for their own safety so they turned against Robespierre and sent him to the guillotine

40 Who did the National Convention put in charge of the government after the Reign of Terror in 1795?
The Directory

41 7.3 & 7.4 Napoleon

42 How did Napoleon gain recognition as a military leader?
He successfully defended the National Convention against a mob of royalist rebels who threatened the French Revolution

43 Where did Napoleon experience military success outside of France?
In Italy against the forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia

44 Where did Napoleon experience defeat against British forces led by Admiral Hiratio Nelson?

45 How did Napoleon come to lead the government of France?
He overthrew the Directory by driving the members of national legislature out and forcing the remaining leaders to name him First Consul

46 What term refers to the quick seizure of power Napoleon used to gain control?
Coup d’etat

47 The forces of Britain, Austria, and Russia joined to fight him in war
What challenge to his authority did Napoleon immediately face after seizing power? The forces of Britain, Austria, and Russia joined to fight him in war

48 How did that conflict turn out?
Napoleon defeated their forces and compelled them to sign peace treaties with France

49 How did Napoleon create the impression that he had be democratically chosen?
He held a plebiscite to approve a new constitution that gave him all real power

50 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the financial system in France?
He established more efficient tax collection & a national bank; both actions provided the government money and control over the economy

51 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the political system?
He fired corrupt officials and established schools (lycees) to train government agents who were appointed based on ability rather than family connections

52 How did Napoleon attempt to reform religion in France?
He signed a concordat with Pope Pius VII to restored the Church, but maintained the separation between church and state

53 How did Napoleon attempt to reform the legal system in France?
He revised the laws to make them more uniform under the Napoleonic Code

54 Free speech & press were restricted;
How did the Napoleonic Code limit rights and government control over people? Free speech & press were restricted; Slavery was restored in the French Caribbean

55 What action at the coronation of Napoleon displays his arrogance?
When he took his crown from the Pope so he could crown himself

56 The slave revolt and independence movement in Haiti
What event lead Napoleon to decide to give up his dream of a French empire in the New World? The slave revolt and independence movement in Haiti

57 Who led the slave uprising in Haiti?
Toussaint L’Ouverture

58 Why did Napoleon decide to sell the Louisiana Purchase to the USA?
He needed the $15 million to pay his war debts and he believed the USA would pose a threat to the British empire

59 As Napoleon built his European empire by conquering the Netherlands & parts of Italy, which country was the only one to resist him? Britain

60 In which battle did the British succeed in breaking Napoleon’s unchecked expansion?
Battle of Trafalgar


62 The Continental System
What three disastrous mistakes did Napoleon make that ended his empire? The Continental System The Peninsular War The Invasion of Russia

63 What did the Continental System attempt to do?
Make Europe self-sufficient by cutting trade with England by using a blockade

64 Why did Napoleon’s blockade fail?
The British navy was stronger, smugglers broke the blockade, and his allies ignored it

65 How did the British blockade of Europe impact the United States?
US ships were seized and sailors impressed to serve in the British navy; the conflict resulted in the War of 1812

66 Why did Napoleon send troops to Portugal through Spain?
To force Portugal to follow the Continental System

67 Why did the Spanish people object to Napoleon’s troops marching through Spain?
They feared Napoleon would weaken the power of the Catholic Church in Spain as he had done in France

68 Who did Napoleon put on the throne of Spain?
His brother, Joseph

69 What were the Spanish peasant fighters called that operated in small roving groups?

70 Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia?
Napoleon was angry Russia’s czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain and he distrusted Alexander’s designs on Poland

71 How did Alexander respond to the invading French Grand Army?
He ordered a retreat and the use of a scorched-earth policy

72 What was the farthest point of attack the French troops were able to make?

73 Why did the French fail to conquer Moscow?
The troops were unprepared for the harsh conditions of the Russian winter

74 After Napoleon’s enemies united against him and defeated him, to where was he exiled?
The island of Elba

75 Why did Napoleon decide to return to France from exile?
To overthrow Louis XVIII, who had grown unpopular as people feared he would try to turn back the effects of the Revolution

76 What was the last time period in which Napoleon ruled France called?
The Hundred Days

77 Where did Napoleon have his final showdown battle with the British & Prussians?
The Battle of Waterloo

78 To where was Napoleon sent the second time he was defeated?
St. Helena

79 7.5 – The Congress of Vienna

80 What was the overall goal of the Congress of Vienna?
The establishment of stability and collective security in Europe

81 Which five nations dominated the Congress of Vienna?
Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, and France

82 Which man stood out as the leader of the Congress of Vienna
Austrian prince Klemens von Metternich

83 What were Metternich’s three steps for the restoring Europe to its previous condition?
Contain France by surrounding it with powerful nations Create a balance of power to discourage nations for expanding Restore legitimate monarchs to the thrones of Europe

84 Which alliance was created by Russia, Prussia, and Austria to maintain Christian values in Europe?
The Holy Alliance

85 Which alliance was created by the nations of Europe to support the conditions created by the Congress of Vienna? Concert of Europe

86 How did the actions of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna impact conditions in the Americas?
Creole leaders rose up in rebellion against the peninsulares and declared their independence from European rule

87 What was the long-term legacy of the French Revolution and the Congress of Vienna?
Europe was reshaped both physically and politically. Nationalism spread and set into motion further forms. European colonies in the Americas began their independence movements.

88 Don’t forget to study the political spectrum chart as well.


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