Presentation on theme: "Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles"— Presentation transcript:
1 Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles March 7, 1936 re-occupies the RhinelandImportant turning point for HitlerAllies don’t respond – AppeasementUSA Neutrality ActsNo sale of arms to nations at warNo Americans can travel to warring nationsNo loans to nations at war
2 Warm Up 5/22Why did many Japanese feel dissatisfied with the multi-party democratic system?How did Tojo used nationalism to rise to power in the late 1920s early 1930s in Japan?Why did Japan seize Manchuria in ?Why was March 7, 1936 another “turning point” for Hitler?
3 Hitler continued to expand 2nd target Austria (march 1938)next target Czechoslovakia (Sudentenland)Demands people are given self ruleNeville Chamberlain (G.B.) convinces Czech. Govt to give in – AppeasementHitler takes all of Czech.Munich Agreement – Sept. 28, 1938Hitler promises not more territorial gains“Peace in our time”Appeasement
11 Hitler prepares of WarBy Fall ‘39 Hitler demands Polish Corridor (Danzig)Britain and France pledge to defend itAug. ‘39 Germany & USSR sign 10 year non-aggression pact (Nazi/Soviet) – shocks worldSept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades PolandBy end of Sept. Germany takes Poland w/ Blitzkriegdivides it with USSR – France and Britain mobilize for war
16 Stalin takes Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania, & Finland Germany overwhelms Scandinavia on April 9, 1940 attacking Denmark and Norway (airbases)USA “Cash and Carry” legislation
17 Germany blitzes west1940 Chamberlain forced to resign because of appeasement – Winston Churchill takes overFrance prepares for war (Maginot Line) – thought war would be like WWI, not prepared for blitzkrieg and tanksMay 10, 1940 Hitler attacks France through Belgium, Lux., and Neth.Allies pushed back to N. France & English channel (Evacuation of Dunkirk May 28 to June 4)
21 The Fall of FranceJune 10, 1940 Italy declares war and attacks France from south.Germany closes from north – France is doomed!June 22, 1940 France surrendersGermany occupies northern 2/3 of FranceMarshall Henri Petain occupies southern 1/3 (Vichy France)Underground resistance led by Charles de Gaulle
25 Germany Attacks Great Britain Summer 1940 Operation Sea LionBattle of Britain starts in July 1940 last 6 monthsAir battle RAF vs. Luftwaffe1,200 Germany fighter & 1,300 bombers vs. 700 British fightersBritain’s 2 secret weapons – RADAR & ULTRABritain bombs back in late Aug. – Hitler hits major cities & civilians people die per day/1,000-3,000 injuredBy the end of 1940 Hitler reluctantly gives up
31 America increases aid to Allies Lend-Lease Act march 1941US gives Britain 50 destroyers to fight “wolf packs”Congress approves Selective Service Act = lifts spirits of BritishUS begins undeclared naval battle with Germany when Kearney & Rueben James are sunk Oct. 1941, 100 Americans dieBattle of the Atlantic
32 Hitler invades the USSR Operation BarbarrosaApril 1941 all of SE Europe forced to join GermanyJune 22, 1941 Germany invades USSR = surprises Red ArmyGoals: take Leningrad in North, Moscow in middle, Stalingrad in SouthGermany gets to goals but cannot take them = winter sets in, & Russians refuse to surrender
34 Japan conquers an Asian Empire War with China continues since ’37Japan joins the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Sept ’40 (US begins to brake diplomatic relations)US begins to cut down exports of gas, scrap metal, & steelTo replace these materials Japan wants S.E. Asian lands rich in oil, iron, tin, rubber (threat to US interests)Vital supplies needed to fight war with China
35 July 1941, Japan overruns French Indochina – US orders a total embargo Japan refuses to end war with ChinaUS brakes Japanese Code (MAGIC) – attack imminent, but where?Late Nov. ‘41 Japanese fleet sets sail
37 Pearl HarborSunday Dec. 7, 1941 “A date which will live in infamy” – FDRJapan attacks Pearl Harbor on the Island of Oahu in Hawaii2 hours 18 American ships sunk (8 battleships)2,403 die, 1000’s woundedNext day (Dec. 8) US declares war = Axis declares war on US (Dec. 11) & Allies form; UK, USSR, USA
49 Allies turn the tide of war Japan then overruns the Pacific by Dec. ‘42 winning war in PacificMay ‘42 Battle of Coral Sea (Australia is saved)June 3, ‘42 Battle of Midway – Turning point in pacific – Admiral NimitzAllies go on offensive “island hoping” starts at Guadalcanal in Solomon Isl. Aug. 7Gen. Douglas MacArthur
52 Allies launched a drive to victory Battle of the Atlantic being won by AlliesNorth Africa dominated by Germans led by Gen. Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox”Allies push back at Suez Canal and El Alamein led by British Gen. Bernard MontgomeryTurning point in Northern Africa
59 Soviet Forces take the offensive Most violent fighting of WWII on eastern front outside Moscow and LeningradBattle of Stalingrad Aug – turning point on eastern frontBy winter German have control of Stalin’s prize citySoviet Gen. Georgi Zhukov leads counter attack surrounds city and cuts supply lines
60 German’s surrender on Jan. 31, 1943 against Hitler’s wishes Put’s Germany on defensive = beaten back to PolandFall of Third Reich coming
64 Fascist Rule crumbles in Italy July 9, 1943 Allies invade Italy at beaches of Sicily led by American Gen. George Patton & British Gen. MontgomeryStuns people and they turn on MussoliniForced from power July 25, 1943, arrested
66 Pietro Badoglio takes power and turns on Hitler Pietro Badoglio takes power and turns on Hitler! Surrenders Sept 3, 1943Germans would occupy Northern Italy and defend it for two yearsRome falls June 3, 1944 – Germany starts to collapse!
67 The Allies Invade France Operation OverlordAllied force of 2 million assemble in England for invasion with another million ready for sea and air supportGermany knew invasion was coming – Allies go to great lengths to fool Germans as to location (Port of Calais)Fooled Hitler’s generals – not Hitler – he thought Normandy
70 Hitler gives in and fortifies Calais D-Day Invasion June 6, 1944 (history’s largest amphibious assault)Shortly after midnight 23,000 airborne troops (2 Am., 1 Brit.) parachute/glide into France and began the attack6:30 AM over 4,000 ships hit the beaches of Normandy Omaha and Utah, British & Canadian at Sword, June, and Gold)After 5 days Allies hold a strip of France 80 miles longLess than 3 weeks later 1 million men on shore and pushing inland (St. Lo and Caen)
84 Battle of the BulgeDec. 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge begins in the Ardennes Region of Belgium and Lux.Last ditch German offensive had early success but unable to take key city of BastogneAllies hold and defeat Germans by Jan. ’45Largest battle ever fought by US Army; 600,000 GIs, 80,000 killed/wounded. Germans lost 100,000.
89 Hitler now fighting and losing the war on 3 fronts but refuses to surrender Mussolini is assassinated April 28, 1945Hitler commits suicide on April 29, 1945 as Soviets close in on BerlinAdmiral Karl Donitz takes over discusses peaceSoviets take Berlin next day April 30, 1945Germany Surrenders May 7, 1945 V-E DayFDR dies April 12, 1945, Harry Truman takes over
93 A Final Horror in the Pacific By ‘45 MacArthur and Allies have most of pacific back. Liberates Philippines.Feb. ’45 Iwo Jima (bloodiest battle) & Okinawa (last battle) open path to JapanJapan refuses to surrender goes to kamikaze tacticsAmerica begins heavy bombing of JapanMarch 9, 1945 Tokyo
98 Manhattan Project and the Atomic Bomb Robert J. OppenheimerJuly 16, 1945 Successful test in NMJuly 26, 1945 Truman warns Japan of “prompt & utter destruction”Aug. 6, 1945 The Enola Gay (B-29 Bomber) drops “little Boy” on Hiroshima2/3 of city instantly destroyed 80,000 dieAug. 9, 1945 “fat man” dropped on Nagasaki 40,000 die
107 Japan surrenders on Sept. 2, 1945 after Emperor overrule of war council WWII is over
108 Toll of War Economic costs: USA = 288 billion U.K. = 117 billion France = billionUSSR = 93 billionGermany = billionJapan = 41.3 billionDeath Tolls…
109 The Homefront People pay a heavy price – war fought in towns/cities Mobilizing for war”Factories convert to war time production (WPB)RationingWar stamps & bonds to help finance warPropaganda in all countriesU.S. Japanese internment camps
112 The Holocaust – Phase One = Isolate the Jew “Aryan” race proclaimed “master race”Anti-Semitic propaganda blames Jews for Germany’s problemsBoycott of Jewish businesses (1933)Nuremburg Laws (1935)Kristallnacht (1938)Jews flee Germany – flood of Jewish refugees
113 The Holocaust – Phase Two = Extermination Jewish Ghetto’s (1939)Wannsee Conference Jan. 20, 1942Reinhard Heydrich & Hinrich HimmlerDeportations throughout Germany (‘42-’45)EinsatzgrupenDeath Camp’s – gas chambers – crematoriumFinal Solution = Genocide (‘42-’45) 6 million Jews murdered
129 Post War Issues Approx. 50 million dead 50 million homes lost Europe in ruins (agriculture and industry)Many die from famine and diseasePolitical unrest / instability
130 Nuremberg Trials 19461st time in history leaders held accountable for actions during war time.Nazi leaders rounded up and convicted of…“Crimes against humanity”22 defendants, 12 sentenced to death200 eventually convicted of “war crimes”Operation “Last Chance” led by Efraim Zuroff, Israel director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center continues today.