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Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles March 7, 1936 re-occupies the Rhineland Important turning point for Hitler Allies don’t respond – Appeasement.

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Presentation on theme: "Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles March 7, 1936 re-occupies the Rhineland Important turning point for Hitler Allies don’t respond – Appeasement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles March 7, 1936 re-occupies the Rhineland Important turning point for Hitler Allies don’t respond – Appeasement USA Neutrality Acts – No sale of arms to nations at war – No Americans can travel to warring nations – No loans to nations at war

2 Warm Up 5/22 1.Why did many Japanese feel dissatisfied with the multi-party democratic system? 2.How did Tojo used nationalism to rise to power in the late 1920s early 1930s in Japan? 3.Why did Japan seize Manchuria in ? 4.Why was March 7, 1936 another “turning point” for Hitler?

3 Hitler continued to expand 2 nd target Austria (march 1938) next target Czechoslovakia (Sudentenland) Demands people are given self rule Neville Chamberlain (G.B.) convinces Czech. Govt to give in – Appeasement Hitler takes all of Czech. Munich Agreement – Sept. 28, 1938 – Hitler promises not more territorial gains – “Peace in our time” – Appeasement

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11 Hitler prepares of War By Fall ‘39 Hitler demands Polish Corridor (Danzig) Britain and France pledge to defend it Aug. ‘39 Germany & USSR sign 10 year non- aggression pact (Nazi/Soviet) – shocks world Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades Poland By end of Sept. Germany takes Poland w/ Blitzkrieg divides it with USSR – France and Britain mobilize for war

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16 Stalin takes Estonia, Latvia, & Lithuania, & Finland Germany overwhelms Scandinavia on April 9, 1940 attacking Denmark and Norway (airbases) USA “Cash and Carry” legislation

17 Germany blitzes west 1940 Chamberlain forced to resign because of appeasement – Winston Churchill takes over France prepares for war (Maginot Line) – thought war would be like WWI, not prepared for blitzkrieg and tanks May 10, 1940 Hitler attacks France through Belgium, Lux., and Neth. Allies pushed back to N. France & English channel (Evacuation of Dunkirk May 28 to June 4)

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21 The Fall of France June 10, 1940 Italy declares war and attacks France from south. Germany closes from north – France is doomed! June 22, 1940 France surrenders Germany occupies northern 2/3 of France Marshall Henri Petain occupies southern 1/3 (Vichy France) Underground resistance led by Charles de Gaulle

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25 Germany Attacks Great Britain Summer 1940 Operation Sea Lion Battle of Britain starts in July 1940 last 6 months Air battle RAF vs. Luftwaffe 1,200 Germany fighter & 1,300 bombers vs. 700 British fighters Britain’s 2 secret weapons – RADAR & ULTRA Britain bombs back in late Aug. – Hitler hits major cities & civilians people die per day/1,000-3,000 injured By the end of 1940 Hitler reluctantly gives up

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31 America increases aid to Allies Lend-Lease Act march 1941 US gives Britain 50 destroyers to fight “wolf packs” Congress approves Selective Service Act = lifts spirits of British US begins undeclared naval battle with Germany when Kearney & Rueben James are sunk Oct. 1941, 100 Americans die Battle of the Atlantic

32 Hitler invades the USSR Operation Barbarrosa April 1941 all of SE Europe forced to join Germany June 22, 1941 Germany invades USSR = surprises Red Army Goals: take Leningrad in North, Moscow in middle, Stalingrad in South Germany gets to goals but cannot take them = winter sets in, & Russians refuse to surrender

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34 Japan conquers an Asian Empire War with China continues since ’37 Japan joins the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis Sept ’40 (US begins to brake diplomatic relations) US begins to cut down exports of gas, scrap metal, & steel To replace these materials Japan wants S.E. Asian lands rich in oil, iron, tin, rubber (threat to US interests) Vital supplies needed to fight war with China

35 July 1941, Japan overruns French Indochina – US orders a total embargo Japan refuses to end war with China US brakes Japanese Code (MAGIC) – attack imminent, but where? Late Nov. ‘41 Japanese fleet sets sail

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37 Pearl Harbor Sunday Dec. 7, 1941 “A date which will live in infamy” – FDR Japan attacks Pearl Harbor on the Island of Oahu in Hawaii 2 hours 18 American ships sunk (8 battleships) 2,403 die, 1000’s wounded Next day (Dec. 8) US declares war = Axis declares war on US (Dec. 11) & Allies form; UK, USSR, USA

38 Japanese pilots take final preparations

39 Admiral Nagumo

40 Mitsuo Fuchida

41 Admiral Yamamoto

42 Burning ships in Pearl Harbor Dry Docks

43 Wheeler Air Field

44 USS West Virginia

45 USS Arizona

46 USS Shaw

47 Map of Battleship Row

48 USS Arizona Memorial

49 Allies turn the tide of war Japan then overruns the Pacific by Dec. ‘42 winning war in Pacific May ‘42 Battle of Coral Sea (Australia is saved) June 3, ‘42 Battle of Midway – Turning point in pacific – Admiral Nimitz Allies go on offensive “island hoping” starts at Guadalcanal in Solomon Isl. Aug. 7 Gen. Douglas MacArthur

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52 Allies launched a drive to victory Battle of the Atlantic being won by Allies North Africa dominated by Germans led by Gen. Erwin Rommel “Desert Fox” Allies push back at Suez Canal and El Alamein led by British Gen. Bernard Montgomery Turning point in Northern Africa

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54 Gen. Erwin Rommel

55 Gen. Bernard Montgomery

56 Operation Torch American’s led by Gen. Dwight Eisenhower pushed from west and trapped the Axis at Tunisia Next move to attack Axis through Italy The “soft underbelly” of the Axis powers

57 Dwight Eisenhower

58 Invasion of Italy

59 Soviet Forces take the offensive Most violent fighting of WWII on eastern front outside Moscow and Leningrad Battle of Stalingrad Aug – turning point on eastern front By winter German have control of Stalin’s prize city Soviet Gen. Georgi Zhukov leads counter attack surrounds city and cuts supply lines

60 German’s surrender on Jan. 31, 1943 against Hitler’s wishes Put’s Germany on defensive = beaten back to Poland Fall of Third Reich coming

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64 Fascist Rule crumbles in Italy July 9, 1943 Allies invade Italy at beaches of Sicily led by American Gen. George Patton & British Gen. Montgomery Stuns people and they turn on Mussolini Forced from power July 25, 1943, arrested

65 Gen. George Patton

66 Pietro Badoglio takes power and turns on Hitler! Surrenders Sept 3, 1943 Germans would occupy Northern Italy and defend it for two years Rome falls June 3, 1944 – Germany starts to collapse!

67 The Allies Invade France Operation Overlord Allied force of 2 million assemble in England for invasion with another million ready for sea and air support Germany knew invasion was coming – Allies go to great lengths to fool Germans as to location (Port of Calais) Fooled Hitler’s generals – not Hitler – he thought Normandy

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70 Hitler gives in and fortifies Calais D-Day Invasion June 6, 1944 (history’s largest amphibious assault) Shortly after midnight 23,000 airborne troops (2 Am., 1 Brit.) parachute/glide into France and began the attack 6:30 AM over 4,000 ships hit the beaches of Normandy Omaha and Utah, British & Canadian at Sword, June, and Gold) After 5 days Allies hold a strip of France 80 miles long Less than 3 weeks later 1 million men on shore and pushing inland (St. Lo and Caen)

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80 The German Reich Collapsed July 20 th, 1944 Operation Valkyre fails Aug. 24 th, 1944 Allies liberate Paris, France (Patton leading the way)

81 Gen. Klaus von Stauffenberg

82 Liberation of France

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84 Battle of the Bulge Dec. 16, 1944 Battle of the Bulge begins in the Ardennes Region of Belgium and Lux. Last ditch German offensive had early success but unable to take key city of Bastogne Allies hold and defeat Germans by Jan. ’45 Largest battle ever fought by US Army; 600,000 GIs, 80,000 killed/wounded. Germans lost 100,000.

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89 Hitler now fighting and losing the war on 3 fronts but refuses to surrender Mussolini is assassinated April 28, 1945 Hitler commits suicide on April 29, 1945 as Soviets close in on Berlin Admiral Karl Donitz takes over discusses peace Soviets take Berlin next day April 30, 1945 Germany Surrenders May 7, 1945 V-E Day FDR dies April 12, 1945, Harry Truman takes over

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92 President Truman

93 A Final Horror in the Pacific By ‘45 MacArthur and Allies have most of pacific back. Liberates Philippines. Feb. ’45 Iwo Jima (bloodiest battle) & Okinawa (last battle) open path to Japan Japan refuses to surrender goes to kamikaze tactics America begins heavy bombing of Japan March 9, 1945 Tokyo

94 Iwo Jima – Mt. Suribachi

95 The flag flies at Mt. Suribachi

96 Fire Bombing of Tokyo

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98 Manhattan Project and the Atomic Bomb Robert J. Oppenheimer July 16, 1945 Successful test in NM July 26, 1945 Truman warns Japan of “prompt & utter destruction” Aug. 6, 1945 The Enola Gay (B-29 Bomber) drops “little Boy” on Hiroshima 2/3 of city instantly destroyed 80,000 die Aug. 9, 1945 “fat man” dropped on Nagasaki 40,000 die

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107 Japan surrenders on Sept. 2, 1945 after Emperor overrule of war council WWII is over

108 Toll of War Economic costs: USA = 288 billion U.K. = 117 billion France = billion USSR = 93 billion Germany = billion Japan = 41.3 billion Death Tolls…

109 The Homefront People pay a heavy price – war fought in towns/cities Mobilizing for war” Factories convert to war time production (WPB) Rationing War stamps & bonds to help finance war Propaganda in all countries U.S. Japanese internment camps

110 Japanese Internment

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112 The Holocaust – Phase One = Isolate the Jew “Aryan” race proclaimed “master race” Anti-Semitic propaganda blames Jews for Germany’s problems Boycott of Jewish businesses (1933) Nuremburg Laws (1935) Kristallnacht (1938) Jews flee Germany – flood of Jewish refugees

113 The Holocaust – Phase Two = Extermination Jewish Ghetto’s (1939) Wannsee Conference Jan. 20, 1942 Reinhard Heydrich & Hinrich Himmler Deportations throughout Germany (‘42-’45) Einsatzgrupen Death Camp’s – gas chambers – crematorium Final Solution = Genocide (‘42-’45) 6 million Jews murdered

114 Reinhard Heydrich

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128 The Holocaust Liberation (‘44-’45) 300,000 Jews freed Resistance – Jewish Fighting Organization in Warsaw (’43) Treblinka, Poland uprising (Aug. ‘43) – camp closed

129 Post War Issues Approx. 50 million dead 50 million homes lost Europe in ruins (agriculture and industry) Many die from famine and disease Political unrest / instability

130 Nuremberg Trials st time in history leaders held accountable for actions during war time. Nazi leaders rounded up and convicted of… “Crimes against humanity” 22 defendants, 12 sentenced to death 200 eventually convicted of “war crimes” Operation “Last Chance” led by Efraim Zuroff, Israel director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center continues today.

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132 Important meetings Yalta Conference Feb. ‘45 Big three meet July ‘45 Potsdamn Germany divided into 4 zones Beginning of Cold War

133 The Big Three


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