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Chapter 20 The Dissolving Process Part 2. Rate of Solution The rate at which a material dissolves can be affected by: 1.Surface area.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20 The Dissolving Process Part 2. Rate of Solution The rate at which a material dissolves can be affected by: 1.Surface area."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 20 The Dissolving Process Part 2

2 Rate of Solution The rate at which a material dissolves can be affected by: 1.Surface area

3 Rate of Solution The rate at which a material dissolves can be affected by: 2.Agitation (stirring)

4 Rate of Solution The rate at which a material dissolves can be affected by: 3.Temperature Temperature not only affects how quickly we can dissolve a solute but also how much solute can be dissolved.

5 Factors Affecting Solubility Temperature Effects

6 Temperature and Solubility of Solids TemperatureSolubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KCl(s)NaNO 3 (s) 0° °C °C °C

7 Temperature and Solubility of Solids TemperatureSolubility (g/100 g H 2 O) KCl(s)NaNO 3 (s) 0° °C °C °C The solubility of most solids increases with an increase in the temperature.

8 Temperature and solubility

9 Factors Affecting Solubility Temperature Effects

10 Temperature and Solubility of Gases TemperatureSolubility(g/100 g H 2 O) CO 2 (g)O 2 (g) 0°C °C °C

11 Temperature and Solubility of Gases TemperatureSolubility(g/100 g H 2 O) CO 2 (g)O 2 (g) 0°C °C °C The solubility of gases decreases with an increase in temperature.

12 Thermal Pollution

13 Thermal pollution can occur when heated water is discharged into cooler streams or rivers. This heated water can increase biological activities and result in the reduction in oxygen content of the water.

14 Unsaturated Solutions Contains less than the maximum amount of solute. No undissolved solute present. Can dissolve more solute. Dissolved solute

15 Saturated Solutions Contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve. Tend to have undissolved solute at the bottom of the container. Solution is in equilibrium with undissolved solute.

16 What is the solubility of NaCl at room temperature (25°C)? Solubility ≈ 36g NaCl/100g of water

17 How could I dissolve the extra 4.0g of NaCl without adding more water?

18 Heat up the water to ≈ 90°C Solubility ≈ 40g NaCl/100g of water If we would cool the water back to room temperature we may create a supersaturated solution.

19 Supersaturated A supersaturated solution contains more than the maximum amount of solute and is unstable. It returns to a saturated solution if disturbed in some way (i.e.: a seed crystal)

20 Pressure and Gas Solubility More gas can dissolve at higher pressure.

21 Nitrogen Narcosis

22 This is a condition that can result from diving too deep, bringing on disorientation, euphoria, errors in judgment and even hallucinations or unconsciousness. Any of those can be fatal.

23 The Bends

24 A sometimes fatal condition resulting from the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the blood and tissues, because of too rapid ascent, seen especially in deep-sea divers ascending rapidly from a dive.

25 August 21, 1986 Lake Nyos – Cameroon, Africa 1800 people, thousands of cattle, and many more birds and animals are found dead.

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27 Lake Nyos

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29 Homework Worksheet: The Dissolving Process


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