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Chapter Two Words, Terms and People to Know

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1 Chapter Two Words, Terms and People to Know
Neolithic Revolution Cro-Magnons Neanderthals Homo habilis Neolithic Paleolithic Homo sapiens Post-and-Lintel

2 Time Traveler’s Tool Box Skills for Understanding a Trip Through Time

3 Chapter 2 Historical Thinking-- Essential skill for any Time Traveler
Historical Thinking and Skills Historical thinking begins with a clear sense of time: past, present and future, and becomes more precise as students progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that you can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions. HISTORY IS AN ARGUMENT ABOUT THE PAST

4 1. Chronological Thinking
Chronological thinking is at the heart of historical reasoning. Without a strong sense of chronology--of when events occurred and in what temporal order--it is impossible to examine relationships among those events or to explain historical causality. Chronology provides the mental scaffolding for organizing historical thought.

5 You Should Think chronologically: Therefore, you will be able to:
A. Distinguish between past, present, and future time.  B. Identify the temporal structure of a historical narrative or story. (beginning, middle, end) C. Establish temporal order in constructing historical narratives of their own.  D. Measure and calculate calendar time. by days, weeks, months, years, decades, centuries and millennia, from fixed points of the calendar system: BC (before Christ) and AD (Anno Domini, "in the year of our Lord") in the Gregorian calendar and the contemporary secular designation for these same dates, BCE (before the Common Era) and CE (in the Common Era); and compare with the fixed points of other calendar systems such as the Roman (753 BC, the founding of the city of Rome) and the Muslim (622 AD, the hegira).     E. Interpret data presented in time lines and create time lines.  F. Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration; explain historical continuity and change.  G. Compare alternative models for periodization. (identifying the organizing principles on which each is based; regarding blocks of time and history as eras or periods can help to organize our understanding of continuity and change.

6 The Ancients and Time Perspective
1. a. A view or vista. b. A mental view or outlook: 2. Subjective evaluation of relative significance; a point of view Hetodotus “The Father of History” (c. 484–425 BC). The Greek historian Herodotus, tells of a thief who was to be executed. As he was taken away he made a bargain with the king: in one year he would teach the king's favorite horse to sing hymns. The other prisoners watched the thief singing to the horse and laughed. "You will not succeed," they told him. "No one can."To which the thief replied, "I have a year, and who knows what might happen in that time. The king might die. The horse might die. I might die. And perhaps the horse will learn to sing. -- "The Mote in God's Eye", Niven and Pournelle

7 Perspective It really is…all in how you look at something that makes all the difference! From one view man is a pretty insignificant and recent advent…

8 The Earth From Outer Space
The universe is roughly 20 billion years old. The world is roughly 4.5 billion years old. For most of the history of the world mankind did not exist. If all history could be broken into a 24 hour day, mankind would not exist until less than one minute before midnight . All written history would fit into the one or two seconds before the end of the day.

9 Perspective: The circumference of the earth at the
The Earth From Outer Space Perspective: The circumference of the earth at the equator is 24, miles (40, kilometers).

10 This is our home-the home of our species
This is our home-the home of our species. It may be the only place in the Universe that has sentient life.

11 The Earth From The Moon. She has been described as a Pale Blue Dot!

12 It behooves us to know about it and our tenure on its surface. We
Better take care of “Mother Earth”. She is currently all we have!

13 From another perspective….

14 The Fate of the Earth by Jonathan Schell
‘The death of an individual person is a loss of one subject, and of all its needs, longings, sufferings, and enthusiasms—of its being. But the …’ Chapter II The Second Death pg. 128

15 Although his time on earth is relatively short man’s arrival is the only thing that gives the earth meaning…

16 The Difficulty of Teaching History: A lot of “Stuff” has happened
The Difficulty of Teaching History: A lot of “Stuff” has happened! Why Man Creates by Saul Bass 1968

17 History As A Study Prehistory—before the advent of writing. The time before the development of written records; ends about 3,000 b.c.. Archaeology—study of the remains of past human life. Archaeologist Artifacts/geofacts Historian: Historians are concerned with the continuous, systematic narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all events in time.

18 Tell me a story! narrative is a made up story that is created in a constructive format that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events. The word derives from the Latin verb narrare, "to recount", A narrator is, within any story the person who conveys the story to the audience.

19 Tellers of Stories Barbara Tuchman Victor David Hanson Edward Gibbons
Frederick Jackson Turner Bruce Catton Eugen Weber David Mccullough

20 "A lot of life, is about things so trivial we do not bother to
record them — only sometimes to note their absence, as with manners." Eugen Weber “Nothing is more concrete than history, nothing less interested in theories or in abstract ideas,…”. “The great historians have fewer ideas about history than amateurs do; they merely have a way of ordering their facts to tell their story. It isn’t theories they look for, but information, documents, and ideas about how to find and handle them.” Eugen Weber (Time—God’s way of making sure everything doesn’t happen at once!) Various Concepts of time Eastern/Western

21 History * History is not merely reflective—but can also be predictive.
Agreed upon myths? The aggregate of past events? A record or narrative description of past events? The discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings. The continuum of events occurring in succession, leading from the past to the present and even into the future; "all of human history”. * History is not merely reflective—but can also be predictive. All that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge; "the dawn of recorded history"; "from the beginning of history" History is closely tied to geography and is in many ways determined by it. Herodotus is called the "Father of Geography", he is the oldest known geographer. "geography is destiny," there are many forms of determinism -- but geographical is related to environmental determinism and both can be traced at least to the historian Herodotus, in ancient Greece,

22 What We’re Attempting To Do.

23 When using primary sources, it is important to understand the past on its own terms, rather than simply evaluating it in terms of the norms and values acceptable today. Try never to accept something as necessarily true merely because an “authority” has offered an opinion. Do your own research Read as much as you can on a subject so that you can draw educated conclusions about the meaning of recorded events.

24 Consider Many Points of View
When researching a topic, especially about American or world history, it is important to consider many points of view. By comparing these different points of view, you get a better understanding of what actually happened and why. Viewpoints differ greatly! One way to compare sources and views is to use note cards. When you research a topic, write different information on separate note cards. Identify each card by its topic and the source where you found the information. Then you can group all the cards on the same topic together and compare what they say. You can quickly see what these different sources say about the same topic, and make generalizations or draw conclusions about that topic.

25 Location, Location, Location
People respond to the environment Sometimes they adapt or adjust—clothing. Sometimes they modify or change it—irrigation, dams etc. People must take into account the physical features of the earth’s surface when deciding where and how to live The study of geography includes looking at human/environment interaction, or how and why people live where they do and how people respond to their environment

26 Land, Water and Climate 30 % of the earth is land
Land is made up of 4 main kinds of landforms, or natural features Mountains-rise at least 2000 feet ASL Hills-rise from 500to 2000 feet ASL Plateaus are raised areas of flat land—elevation 300 to 3000 feet ASL Plains—large flat or gently rolling land rise less than 1000 feet ASL Earth's physical features take millions of years to change. When humans are added, these changes take on a whole new meaning. Human geography is the study of human-made features and phenomena on Earth. Geographers want to know how these features and phenomena affect Earth's environment.

27 Landforms in History Throughout history landforms have played an important part in deciding where people will live. People mostly settled in plains or river valleys where soil was rich enough for crops to grow Climate is important in determining where people live: Jared Diamond Tropical Zone Temperate Zone (Guns, Germs and Steel) Polar Zone

28 Tectonic Plates Movement of the earth’s crust causes forces humans must be aware of including volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunami.

29 Rivers Cataracts Silt Delta Tributaries

30 OAT Geography Vocabulary
Physical Feature- The study of the natural features of the earth's surface, especially in its current aspects, including land formation, climate, currents, and distribution of flora and fauna. Human Feature-Field of knowledge that studies human-made features and phenomena on the Earth from a spatial perspective. (where is man-made “stuff” located) Climate-the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time Vegetation- The plants of an area or a region; plant life: The vegetation is lush on the Hawaiian Islands. (Vikings in Greenland) Weathering-Any of the chemical or mechanical processes by which rocks exposed to the weather undergo changes in character and break down. Seismic Activity-the frequency, intensity, etc. of earthquake activity in a given region also seismic activity Estuary-a bay or inlet, often at the mouth of a river, in which large quantities of freshwater and seawater mix together. these unique habitats are necessary nursery grounds for many marine fishes and shellfishes.

31 Peninsula- peninsula is a piece of land that is nearly surrounded by water but connected to mainland via an isthmus Scrub- dense vegetation consisting of stunted trees or bushes Tectonic Plates- The dozen or so plates that make up the surface of the Earth. Their motion is studied in the field of plate tectonics. Tropical- relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator). Delta- A delta is a landform that is created at the mouth of a river where that river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, reservoir, flat arid area, or another river. Cataracts -A term used to describe vertical waterfalls which possess a large volume of water. Tundra- A treeless area between the icecap and the tree line of Arctic regions, having a permanently frozen subsoil and supporting low-growing vegetation such as lichens, mosses, and stunted shrubs. Monsoons- a seasonal wind in southern Asia; blows from the southwest (bringing rain) in summer and from the northeast in winter Silt- a fine sediment of mud or clay deposited by moving water Tributaries- tributary is a stream or river which flows into a mainstream (or parent) river. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea

32 Thinking About Things William of Ockham the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar developed a way of thinking. Occam's razor razor refers to the act of shaving away unnecessary assumptions to get to the simplest explanation. The principle states that the explanation of any phenomenon should make as few assumptions as possible, eliminating those that make no difference in the observable predictions of the explanatory hypothesis or theory. In Latin--"entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem", roughly translated as "entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity". often paraphrased as "All other things being equal, the simplest solution is the best."

33 ORGANIZING HISTORICAL INFORMATION There are several ways to organize and present historical information. CHRONOLOGICAL History is the study of the past. It often helps to organize past events in the order in which they occurred. This helps the historian to see how earlier events affected later ones. One way to organize events in this fashion is simply to list them in chronological order. Another way is to make a timeline of key events Finally, an outline can be an effective way to organize information chronologically if each major heading of the outline refers to a specific time period. This is the way your lecture notes will be organaized.

34 timelines

35 The Waves of History How “waves” of people, ideas and goods move around the world Cultural diffusion-direct, forced, indirect 4 big waves Migration (purposeful in case of people) website Agriculture (see slide 32) (Neolithic) Civilization/Urbanization (Neolithic) (article on climate change and early cities) Industrialization (1790s in U.S.) Other Waves Use of tools (Paleolithic) Fire (paleolithic) Spoken language (paleolithic) Agriculture (Neolithic) Written Language

36 “Waves” Channeled by Geography
Zheng He's treasure ships were mammoth ships with nine masts, four decks, and were capable of accommodating more than 500 passengers, as well as a massive amount of cargo. Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta both described multi-masted ships carrying 500 to 1000 passengers in their translated accounts.Niccolò Da Conti, a contemporary of Zheng He, was also an eyewitness of ships in Southeast Asia, claiming to have seen 5 masted junks weighing about 2000 tons[ Zheng He's fleet included 300 ships, including 62 treasure ships, with some which were said to have been 137 m (450 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide. There are even some sources that claim some of the treasure ships might have been as long as 600 feet (180 m) ( 1405 to 1433A.D.). “Waves” Channeled by Geography Another Ingredient in the wave theory is Choice—China during Middle Ages stops voyages of discovery and turns inward. Each Society decides how it will react to these “waves”. resist them adapt to them modify them Humans can choose. 'you can be whoever you choose to be', ...

37 The Changing World,… or Is the Sky Really Falling?
Thomas Robert Malthus predicted that,… "in the 1970s and 1980s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death", that nothing can be done to avoid mass famine greater than any in the history, and radical action is needed to limit the overpopulation….” between 1980 and 1989, some 4 billion people, including 65 million Americans, would perish in the "Great Die-Off." Earth Day issue of The Progressive 1975 Published 1968 predicted population collaspe at around 4 billion people by in the 1980’s “Whatever the cause of the cooling trend, its effects could be extremely serious, if not catastrophic. Scientists figure that only a 1% decrease in the amount of sunlight hitting the earth's surface could tip the climatic balance, and cool the planet enough to send it sliding down the road to another ice age within only a few hundred years.” TIME June 24, 1974

38 Glacial Ice During the Last Ice Age

39 Ice In The Modern World

40 The First Humans Theories on prehistory and early man constantly change as new evidence (article) comes to light Louis Leakey, British paleoanthropologist preserved brain

41 Evolution—Charles Darwin
Human Origins ? Evolution—Charles Darwin Creationism— literal interpretation of the Bible Catastrophism Intelligent Design Theistic Evolution 41

42 Early Discoveries

43 Stages of Early Human Development Neolithic Period 10,000 BCE (?)
1. 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE Paleolithic Age: ( Old Stone Age ) 2,500,000 BCE to 8,000 BCE 2. 1,500,000 BCE ,000 BCE ,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE 4. 30,000 BCE -- 10,000 BCE Neolithic Period 10,000 BCE (?)

44 Stage 1 4,000,000 BCE – 1,000,000 BCE (?) Hominids --> any member of the family of two-legged primates that includes all humans. (very small-3 to 31/2 feet tall) Australopithecines An opposable Thumb

45 Stage 1 First “True” people on earth (p.37 of text): million years ago HOMO HABILIS ( “Man of Skills” ) found in East Africa. created stone tools.

46 Stage 2 Roughly-1,5000,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE
HOMO ERECTUS ( “Upright Human Being” ) BIPEDALISM Larger and more varied tools --> primitive technology—bipedalism thought to have forced larger brain development First hominid to migrate and leave Africa for Europe and Asia. First to use fire ( 500,000 BCE ) (fire Paleolithic period)

47 Are we all Africans “under the skin”????
Differing Human Migration Theories Are we all Africans “under the skin”????

48 Stage 3 NEANDERTHALS: 250,000-30,000 BCE
Neander Valley, Germany (1856) First humans to bury their dead. Made clothes from animal skins. Lived in caves and tents.

49 HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Human Being” )
Stage 3 250,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE HOMO SAPIENS ( “Wise Human Being” ) Cro-Magnons Cro Magnon Man is the earliest known modern man, Homo sapiens sapiens ( 40,000 BCE – 10,000 BCE ) Neanderthals H. sapiens neanderthalis ( 200,000 BCE – 30,000 BCE )

50 Chapter 2 Prehistoric People 8000-3000 B.C.
I. The Paleolithic Age Stone Age Term: prehistory (time after people first appeared but before they developed writing) A million years ago 1st people in grassland of Africa article on human extinction began to migrate B. People migrated during the last Ice Age about 1.75 million years ago—lasted until 10,000 years ago. C. Obtaining Food Clan bands of 40-50 Home Territory—about 2 square miles Scientists trying to clone, resurrect extinct mammoth woolly mammoth skeleton is seen on display at the Venetian Resort Hotel Casino in Las Vegas in September 2009. January 17th, 2011

51 I. Continued D. Making Tools Flakes flint mines Places to Locate: Olduvai gorge pg. 36 Making Fire (paleolithic) People to Know: Lucy p. 36 F. Seeking Shelter 1. By 100,000 years ago people (Homo erectus, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis , Homo sapiens sapiens-- Cro-magnon) living in China, western Europe and southwestern Asia were living in caves most of the time. New find in Russia G. Making Clothing (paleolithic)

52 H. Development of Language
Increased vocal mechanics Language gave man the ability to work together and share ideas & pass along ideas & beliefs from generation to generation. (civilization)

53 I Continued I. The Neanderthals
Homo Habilis Homo Habilis (skillful man) Perhaps the first true people Homo Erectus (man who walks upright) Between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago came Homo Sapiens (Man who thinks). There were two varieties. a.)Neanderthal—river in Germany pitfalls builders 1st to bury their dead b.) Co-Magnons J. The Cro-Magnons -- named after an area in southern France Homo neanderthalensis, adult male. Reconstruction based on Shanidar 1 by John Gurche for the Human Origins Program,

54 Life Styles of the Neanderthals (6:05)

55 Stage 3 CRO-MAGNONs: Homo sapiens sapiens ( “Wise, wise human” )
By 30,000 BCE they replaced Neanderthals. WHY???

56 Early Modern Humans (3:36)

57 Give the Preliterate Savages Their Due!
The Short Story About 12,000 years ago, the valleys of western Montana lay beneath a lake nearly 2,000 feet deep. Glacial Lake Missoula formed as the Cordilleran Ice Sheet dammed the Clark Fork River just as it entered Idaho. The rising water behind the glacial dam weakened it until water burst through in a catastrophic flood that raced across Idaho, Oregon, and Washington toward the Pacific Ocean. Thundering waves and chunks of ice tore away soils and mountainsides, deposited giant ripple marks, created the scablands of eastern Washington and carved the Columbia River Gorge. Over the course of centuries, Glacial Lake Missoula filled and emptied in repeated cycles, leaving its story embedded in the land. Flood Facts: The ice dam was over 2000 feet tall. Glacial Lake Missoula was as big as Lakes Erie and Ontario combined. The flood waters ran with the force equal to 60 Amazon Rivers. Car-sized boulders embedded in ice floated some 500 miles; they can still be seen today claims-evidence-noahs-biblical-flood/ Give the Preliterate Savages Their Due! Why you should not summarily dismiss what the “ancients” knew-- or thought they knew.

58 Evolution—Charles Darwin
Human Origins ? Evolution—Charles Darwin Creationism— literal interpretation of the Bible Catastrophism Intelligent Design Theistic Evolution

59 I. Continued Named after a rock shelter in France discovered in 1868 (see slide 12) Appeared in N. Africa, Asia and Europe around 100,000 years ago Skillful tool makers Spear thrower atlatl (slide 11) Ax Reached Austraila abound 40, 000 years ago. Prehistoric giant animals killed by man, not climate: study (WHO KILLED THE ROO?) The first modern European: Forensic artist Richard Neave reconstructed the face based on skull fragments from 35,000 years ago

60 The atatl was the most deadly of all paleolithic weapons.
…that is until the development of the stone age CHAINSAW!

61 Early Weapons of Mass Destruction

62 Cave Paintings Religion
“But I have begun this story in the cave, like the cave of the speculations of Plato, because it is a sort of model of the mistake of merely evolutionary introductions and prefaces.  It is useless to begin by saying that everything was slow and smooth and a mere matter of development and degree.  For in the plain matter like the [cave paintings] there is in fact not a trace of any such development or degree. Monkeys did not begin pictures and men finish them; Pithecanthropus did not draw a reindeer badly and Homo Sapiens draw it well.  The higher animals did not draw better and better portraits; the dog did not paint better in his best period than in his early bad manner as a jackal; the wild horse was not an Impressionist and the race horse a Post-Impressionist. All we can say of this notion of reproducing things in shadow or representative shape is that it exists nowhere in nature except in man; and that we cannot even talk about it without treating man as something separate from nature.  In other words every sane sort of history must begin with man as man, a thing standing absolute and alone.” G. K. Chesterton The Everlasting Man Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) Cave Paintings Religion Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its Paleolithic cave paintings. The original caves are located near the village of Montignac, in the Dordogne département. They contain some of the best-known Upper Paleolithic art. These paintings are estimated to be 17,000 years old. They primarily consist of primitive images of large animals, most of which are known from fossil evidence to have lived in the area at the time. Ancient cave paintings over 15,000 years old can be seen in Australia which illustrate Aborigines' relationship with nature.

63 Where Did I Come From? Why Am I Here? Where Am I Going?
The Big Three Questions Every Individual and Every Society Must Ask and Answer Where Did I Come From? Why Am I Here? Where Am I Going? Value of Myths Joseph Campbell p Death, Ritual and Myth


65 When Burial Begins Hundreds of millennia ago, early humans began to ‘bury’ some of their dead. Then burials became more elaborate. Why? Paul Pettitt answers: Paul Pettitt is a Research Fellow at Keble College, Oxford 1. We are all so accustomed to the idea of burying the dead, that it takes a moment to realize just how peculiar this behavior really is. Most animals blithely ignore the dead bodies of other members of their pack or herd. What makes us so different? How and when did burial begin?

66 2. We can probably assume that a degree of curiosity - at least - about the dead body was common to all archaic human species, as it can be observed among higher primates today. Chimpanzees are certainly aware of the moment of death of their kin, and primatologist Jane Goodall has observed how the attitude of mothers to their sick offspring changes from one of intensive care to carelessness and even disinterest immediately following death. Other chimps have been observed carefully examining the bodies of the dead, and even carrying them around for a few hours.

67 3. For some 20 years, Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Ammerman have been studying the pygmy chimpanzees (bonobos) of the Taï Forest in Ivory Coast. In 1989, they observed a particularly remarkable example of mortuary behavior around one corpse - that of Tina, a 10-year-old female who died after being ambushed by a leopard. Several individuals gathered quickly around the corpse, making loud calls. After a brief period 12 adults sat in silence around the body, with some males occasionally showing aggression, making ostentatious 'displays' nearby and dragging the corpse around for short distances.

68 4. High-ranking females inspected the body, seemingly allowed to do so by high-ranking males who were guarding the corpse, and who chased off individuals of lesser rank. Some 30 minutes after Tina died, two high-ranking males began to groom the corpse - an action that lasted for well over an hour, while lower-ranking adults and infants were at the same time intensively inspecting the spot at which she was killed. Occasionally, the individuals guarding the body would make 'play' faces and laugh, probably to ease tension or confusion.

69 5. It is very easy to conclude from this fascinating episode that reverent care for the dead body may have taken place amongst the very earliest hominids, alongside a range of tension-relieving activities and rituals in which social rank governed access to the corpse. But we can only speculate as to why these rituals began. Undoubtedly the higher primates do not like to see themselves killed and eaten by other predators, an event that prompts mourning and worry. Primates must also recognize that the dead individual, formerly part of the social group, has changed in a sudden and irreversible fashion - and has gone. This must inevitably cause confusion and perhaps sorrow.

70 6. Among hominids, no evidence is found for treatment of the dead until about 300,000 years ago. But during the preceding hundreds of millennia of human development, we can predict certain types of funeral behavior over and above that observed among modern chimpanzees. Corpses decay and must be removed from the camp or cave. It seems likely that the bodies of group members would be disposed of in places of significance in the landscape - perhaps in rivers or natural holes, up trees, even on the tops of sacred mountains. We can never prove it, of course. A corpse left in the open air leaves no archaeological trace.

71   7. The earliest true burials, however, are of anatomically modern humans. They are found from some time before 100,000 years ago at the gates of Europe - in Israel and in the Nile Valley. In Skhul and Qafzeh caves on Mount Carmel a number of men, women and children were buried, a few apparently with simple grave goods. At Taramsa in Egypt a child was apparently lain against the side of a cobble extraction pit and covered up between 40,000 and 80,000 years ago.

72 8. Even as far away as Lake Mungo in Australia, an adult was buried in a sand dune in the same broad period as Taramsa. Intriguingly, these earliest burials are all of modern humans, which has led some scholars to suggest that the chronologically later burial of Neanderthals in Europe may be an idea that spread from our own species to the last archaic humans. We simply cannot tell, but given the non-burial mortuary activity of earlier Neanderthals, it is likely that Neanderthals came up with the idea of burial of their own accord.

73 9. We often forget that it is only in the modern, Western world that burial of the dead has been a more or less universal and commonplace practice. Not only in the earliest periods but throughout prehistory, humans disposed of the bodies of their loved ones by a variety of means, most of which have left no traces and can be only be guessed at by scholars today.

74 10. Yet in some ways modern societies are turning full circle and returning to the varied rituals of the past. In recent decades cremation has become palatable once again in the Christian world; and we tend to scatter the ashes of the deceased in 'significant' places in the landscape - not so much sacred rivers or mountains nowadays, but more likely a home town, a cherished picnic spot, or the stadium of the dead person's favorite football team. for entire article see above

75 "Otzi," Italy's prehistoric iceman, shown above, probably does not have any modern day descendants, according to a study published in late A team of Italian and British scientists who sequenced his mitochondrial DNA - which is passed down through the mother's line - found that Otzi belonged to a genetic lineage that is either extremely rare or has died out. Otzi's 5,300-year-old corpse was found frozen in the Tyrolean Alps in 1991. Read more: "Archeological wonders" - Human remains are seen in a grave, near Eulau in Germany. The 4,600-year-old grave in Germany containing the remains of two adults and their children provides the earliest evidence of a nuclear family, researchers said. The skeletal remains of horses are seen above at the Yangshe dig site in January. The outstanding feature at the Yangshe dig is a large pit containing 48 chariots and 105 horses that were buried with a Jin ruler particularly noted for his military campaigns during the Western Zhou Dynasty (1120 BC to 781 BC) with the largest horse and chariot pit dating from the Shang and Zhou Dynasties (1600 to 256 BC) so far found in China, predating the terracotta warrior tomb of China's first emperor Qin Shihuang by over 600 years, said archaeologist Ji Kunzhang. Read more: "Archeological wonders" -

76 At what point do we arrive at “Civilization”?
Eight Features of Civilization 1. Cities 2. Well-Organized Central Governments 3. Complex Religions 4. Job Specialization 5. Social Classes 6. Arts and Architecture 7. Public Works 8. Writing

77 Section Two: Describes the developments o the Neolithic, or New Stone Age—the beginning of farming (Neolithic Revolution) , the domestication of animals, and the formation of villages. The Neolithic Age A Farmers and Herders Southwest Asia—wheat, barley Eastern Asia—millet, rice and soy beans Mexico—Corn, squash, potatoes Africa—peanuts, sorghum Domesticated Animals Donkeys Camels Llamas Population grows to 5 million by 8,000 B.C. 4,000 B.C. population grows to 90 million Origins of Food Production

78 Ancient Farming (4:41)

79 Cultural Diffusion: How Things Move From Place to Place over Time.
Attempts to explain why Eurasian civilizations, as a whole, have survived and conquered others, while attempting to refute the belief that Eurasian hegemony is due to any form of Eurasian intellectual, moral, or inherent genetic superiority. Jared Diamond, in his book Guns, Germs and Steel argues that: the gaps in power and technology between human societies originate in environmental differences amplified by various positive feedback loops; and that, if cultural or genetic differences have favored Eurasians (for example Chinese centralized government, or improved disease resistance among Eurasians), it is only so because of the influence of geography. Direct diffusion is when two cultures are very close to each other, resulting in intermarriage, trade, and even warfare. (Sumerian City-states) Forced diffusion occurs when one culture subjugates (conquers or enslaves) another culture and forces its own customs on the conquered people. The Columbian Exchange (Spain conquers Aztec) Indirect diffusion happens when traits are passed from one culture through a middleman to another culture, without the first and final cultures ever being in direct contact. (Phoenicians)

80 A topographically favorable spot
At Chalain, (France) certain villages were built on small peninsulas. Often formed with the ruins of previous villages, these settlements offered unquestionable defensive advantages. Thus it appears that villages built next to a lake have natural defenses on three sides. When they are built on wetlands, the surrounding soft and spongy ground makes access to the village difficult. If we look at other types of Neolithic sites, we can see that defense is a constant preoccupation of early Neolithic villages wherever they are found.

81 Neolithic Revolution means: Change from hunting
gathering to food production by farming

82 II. Continued B. Early Villages Places to Locate: Jericho, Catal Huyuk Pg. 43 1. food production allowed people to live in one area a.) people in areas with good soil and water b.) earliest villages– food production is the most important difference between Paleolithic and Neolithic People Post-and lintel was an important contribution to architecture (the construction of buildings) Jericho—West Bank between Israel and Jordan 8,000 B.C. Abu Hureyra—Syria 7,500 B.C. Catal Huyuk—Turkey B. C. C. Specialization Terms to Learn: Specialization Fewer people involved in food production allowed others to turn to other pursuits Neolithic people learned to work metals Abu Hureyra

83 CatalHuyuk 6,500 B.C. Çatal Hüyük

84 Things That Make A CIVILIZATION
Advanced Cities Size (?) village or a city.? Key difference is that a city Is a center of trade for a larger area. Ancient city dwellers depended on trade Advanced Technology Things That Make A CIVILIZATION Record- Keeping Specialized Workers Complex Institutions: Religious, Social, Governmental (a long-lasting pattern of organization in a Community) Monarchy?




88 II. continued D. Government (A government is a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group) Single chief rules with the help of a small group E. Religion Priests/ Chief/ Ruler At first pray to forces of nature later used gods and goddesses to represent these forces. Earth Mother goddess of fertility was usually the most important of the deities worshipped Prehistoric image from St Martin's, Guernsey, La Gran'mère du Chimquière, a statue menhir thought to be a Neolithic mother goddess A figure often interpreted as a depiction of a mother goddess from Samarra, ca 6000 BCE (Louvre Museum)

89 Essay Test Question—Pick one question to prepare for tomorrow’s test
In an essay explain the Neolithic Revolution and how it changed the way people lived. In an essay list and explain at least three major developments of the Paleolithic period prior to the Neolithic Revolution. A brief composition, usually in prose, that gives the author's views. You MUST PREPARE YOUR ESSAY A method of examination, or homework, by which a student presents his/her knowledge of the subject by writing a composition.

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