Presentation on theme: "The Biology of Love * *Please note. This discussion in no way attempts to discuss love in a religious context. Rather it is merely an entertaining way."— Presentation transcript:
The Biology of Love * *Please note. This discussion in no way attempts to discuss love in a religious context. Rather it is merely an entertaining way to learn about the sometimes comical world of biological reproduction.
“If not for sex[ual reproduction], much of what is flamboyant and beautiful in nature would not exist.” –Olivia Judson, Dr. Tatiana’s Sex Advice to All Creation
A sexual organism has only 50% of the “fitness” of an asexual organism. In a game between sex and "asex," asex always wins -- other things being equal. That's because asexual reproduction is easier, and it's guaranteed to pass genes on to one's offspring. 123 4 12
A sexual organism has only 50% of the “fitness” of an asexual organism. asexuality is more common in species that are little troubled by disease: boom-and-bust microscopic creatures, arctic or high-altitude plants and insects. 123 4 12
The Red Queen's Hypothesis is an evolutionary hypothesis ~ 1983. The term is taken from the Red Queen's race in Lewis Carroll's “Through the Looking-Glass”. The Red Queen said: "It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place." The Red Queen Principle can be stated thus:
"For an evolutionary system, continuing development is needed just in order to maintain its fitness relative to the systems it is co-evolving with. When one changes… (prey) so does the other have to (predator)!
The hypothesis is intended to explain the advantage of sexual reproduction at the level of individuals. By making every individual an experiment, when mixing mother's and father's genes, sexual reproduction may allow a species to evolve quickly- …just to hold onto the ecological niche that it already has in the ecosystem.
First coined by Leigh Van Valen of the University of Chicago, it refers to Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, in which the Red Queen tells Alice, "It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place." This never-ending evolutionary cycle describes many natural interactions between hosts and disease, or between predators and prey: As species that live at each other's expense coevolve, they are engaged in a constant evolutionary struggle for a survival advantage. They need "all the running they can do," because the landscape around them is constantly changing.
The Red Queen hypothesis for sex is simple: SEX IS NEEDED TO FIGHT DISEASE!! Diseases specialize in breaking into cells, either to eat them, as fungi and bacteria do, or, like viruses, to subvert their genetic machinery for the purpose of making new viruses. To do that they use protein molecules that bind to other molecules on cell surfaces. The arms races between parasites and their hosts are all about these binding proteins.
The Red Queen hypothesis for sex is simple: SEX IS NEEDED TO FIGHT DISEASE!! Parasites invent new keys; For if one lock is common in one generation, the key that fits it will spread like wildfire. So you can be sure that it is the very lock not to have a few generations later.
The Red Queen hypothesis for sex is simple: SEX IS NEEDED TO FIGHT DISEASE!! According to the Red Queen hypothesis, sexual reproduction persists because it enables host species to evolve new genetic defenses against parasites that attempt to live off them.
Lucky in Love Sex is the best strategy for winning the lottery… keeping your genes afloat!!