Presentation on theme: "8. In time, the shows grew in quantity and splendor: Julius Caesar himself gave a munus with more than three hundred pairs of gladiators. The taste of."— Presentation transcript:
8. In time, the shows grew in quantity and splendor: Julius Caesar himself gave a munus with more than three hundred pairs of gladiators. The taste of the spectacles changed as well: the public wanted to be astounded, so silver armors, exotic animals, choreographies, music and "special effects" were used. Choreographies: a. The art of creating and arranging dances or ballets. b. A work created by this art. 2. Something, such as a series of planned situations, likened to dance arrangements.
9. During the games gifts were offered to the spectators; small balls or tablets, with the image of the gift stamped on it, were thrown to the public. One could win food, a slave, or even a house or a ship. And then there was the sparsio: to refresh the people petals of flowers and perfumes were thrown from above.spectatorssparsio
10. Many laws dealt with the matter, starting from the republican times. One of the constant themes of the regulations seems to have been the desire to limit the organization of games by the newly rich. One of the main worries of the ruling class was to limit the expenses of games, that could ruin a household, and to curb the pretentions of the new class of enriched merchants and liberti.expenses A winner pretentions : an allegation of doubtful value : pretext 2 : a claim or an effort to establish a claim 3 : a claim or right to attention or honor because of merit 4 : an aspiration or intention that may or may not reach fulfillment 5 vanity, pretentiousnesspretentiousness
11. This was a social phenomenon that came with the improvement of the economy in a peaceful Mediterranean. New classes of merchants, slave drivers, landowners made their appearance on the scene and sometimes posed a threat to the incumbent rich. They could afford enormous expenses in order to become popular and be accepted by the public and the good society. http://www.the-colosseum.net/games/munera.htm incumbent 1 : the holder of an office or ecclesiastical beneficeecclesiasticalbenefice 2 : one that occupies a particular position or place
III. Continued C. Borrowed from the Etruscans the Triumph and the symbols of authority including the Fasces D. The Capitoline photo Hill was the site of Rome’s first temple and becomes the center of Rome’s municipal government E. Ritual city planning –1. the mundus mundus readingthe mundus The Lincoln memorial with the fronts of the chair's arms shaped to resemble fasces The Umbilicus Urbis Romae was the "Navel of the City of Rome".Rome Legend tells that Romulus had a circular pit dug in the Forum when he founded the city, and all new citizens to Rome had to throw in a handful of dirt from the place of origin and the first fruit of the year into the pit as a sacrifice. The Mundus had a subterranean part and an external part. The Umbilicus Urbis Romae was probably the external part of the Mundus. The Mundus was considered a gate to the underworld. It was opened three times each year, and these days were particularly calamitous as the evil spirits of the underworld could escape. Arch of Septimius Severus
Possible Essay Questions C-13 Beginnings 1000 B.C.—500 B.C. What qualities of the Etruscans and their way of life made them deserve to be called “Italy’s first highly civilized people”? Briefly explain Etruscan religious beliefs and relate how they treated those who had died.