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INCREASING SUFFRAGE 15TH AMENDMENT=BLACKS 19TH AMENDMENT=WOMEN 24TH AMENDMENT=NON-TAXPAYERS 26TH AMENDMENT=18 TO 21 YEAR OLDS CH 8 SUM.

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Presentation on theme: "INCREASING SUFFRAGE 15TH AMENDMENT=BLACKS 19TH AMENDMENT=WOMEN 24TH AMENDMENT=NON-TAXPAYERS 26TH AMENDMENT=18 TO 21 YEAR OLDS CH 8 SUM."— Presentation transcript:

1 INCREASING SUFFRAGE 15TH AMENDMENT=BLACKS 19TH AMENDMENT=WOMEN 24TH AMENDMENT=NON-TAXPAYERS 26TH AMENDMENT=18 TO 21 YEAR OLDS CH 8 SUM

2 STATE QUALIFICATIONS 18, CITIZEN, RESIDENT, REGISTERED REASONS FOR NOT VOTING CANNOT VOTERS SUPPORTIVE NON-VOTERS (Oakwood ?) ALIENATED NON-VOTERS (Jefferson ?) LACK OF INTEREST / APATHY CH 8 SUM

3 AMERICANS… LESS LIKELY TO VOTE THAN EUROPEANS US HAS MORE ELECTIVE OFFICES US HAS MORE ELECTIVE OFFICES ( ABOUT 52, 000+) US HAS A COMPLEX REGISTRATION PROCESS US HAS A COMPLEX REGISTRATION PROCESS US POLITICAL PARTIES ARE WEAKER US POLITICAL PARTIES ARE WEAKER US HAS LESS DAILY GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT US HAS LESS DAILY GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT

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6 Australia 95% Malta 94% Austria 92% Belgium 91% Italy 90% Luxembourg 90% Iceland 89% New Zealand 88% Denmark 87% Germany 86% Sweden 86% Greece 86% Venezuela 85% Czech Rep.85% Brazil 83% Switzerland 54% Poland 51% Brazil 83% Netherlands 83% Costa Rica 81% Norway 81% Romania 81% Bulgaria 80% Israel 80% Portugal 79% Finland 78% Canada 76% France 76% U.K.76% Ireland 74% Spain 73% Japan 71% Japan 71% Estonia 69% Hungary 66% Russia 61% India 58% U. S.54% Switz54% Poland 51%

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10 INACTIVES (22%) LITTLE PARTICIPATION IF ANY PAROCHIAL PARTICIPANTS NO VOTING OR CAMPAIGNING CONTACT OFFICIALS ABOUT SPECIFIC PROBLEMS

11 COMMUNALISTS ENGAGED W/ NONPARTISAN COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES VOTING SPECIALISTS REGULARLY VOTE BUT VERY LITTLE ELSE

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13 CAMPAIGNERSVOTE GET INVOLVED W/ CAMPAIGNS COMPLETE ACTIVISTS (11%) PARTICPATES IN ALL FORMS OF POLITICAL ACTIVITIES

14 MORE EDUCATED (MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR) HIGHER INCOME UNION MEMBERSHIP POLITICALLY AFFILIATED CIVIC INVOLVEMENT OLDERMARRIEDRELIGIOUS

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29 LACK OF POLITICAL EFFICACY “INTERNAL” AND/OR “EXTERNAL” LACK OF MOTIVATION UNINSPIRING CANDIDATES NO REALIGNING ISSUES AKA “CRITICAL ELECTIONS” “BUSY”

30 Figure Why People Don’t Vote  Back

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34 Voters lining up outside a Baghdad polling station during the 2005 Iraqi election. Voter turnout was considered high despite widespread concerns of violence. Baghdad2005 Iraqi electionBaghdad2005 Iraqi election

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37 WOMEN VOTING IN AFGHANISTAN

38 “BALLOT CONFUSION” ??

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40 SOUTH AFRICANS WAITING TO VOTE FOR THE FIRST TIME (1994)

41 12 HOURS OF LATER

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45 Ways to Improve Voter Turnout  Make registration and absentee voting easier.  Make Election Day a holiday.  Strengthen political parties.

46 Patterns in Vote Choice  Party members most dependable for party nominees.  Ticket-splitting has increased.  Race: minorities largely vote for Democrats.  Gender: women usually vote for Democrats.  Income: poor typically vote for Democrats.  Ideology: liberals largely vote for Democrats.  Issues: prospective and retrospective judgments.

47 AV- Turnout of Eligible Voters  Back

48 Figure South v. Non-South  Back

49 Figure Registered Voters  Back

50 Figure Electoral College 2008  Back

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54 McCain47.2Bush49.9 Obama51.2Gore Bush50.8Dole41 Kerry48.7Clinton47.3

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56 Figure Gerrymandering  Back

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59 Gerrymander “art”

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66 Figure Electronic Voting Machines  Back

67 Elections and Voting Behavior Chapter 10 Edwards, Wattenberg, and Lineberry Government in America: People, Politics, and Policy Fourteenth Edition

68 How American Elections Work Types of elections: Primary elections: Select party nominees Select officeholders General elections: Select options on specific policies Referendum: state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve proposed legislation or constitutional amendment Initiative : process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote, given a sufficient number of signatures

69 Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice Suffrage: the legal right to vote Extended to African Americans by the 15 th Amend Extended to Women by the 19 th Amendment Extended to people over 18 by the 26 th Amendment

70 Whether to Vote: A Citizen’s First Choice U.S. has low voter turnout Political Efficacy: the belief that one’s political participation really matters Civic Duty: the belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote Those who see clear differences between parties are likely to vote. If indifferent, then one may rationally abstain from voting.

71 From Government in America, 13th edition.

72 Registering To Vote Voter Registration: a system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of the election day Registration procedures differ by state. Motor Voter Act: passed in 1993, requires states to permit people to register to vote when they apply for their driver’s license

73 Who Votes? More education = more likely to vote. Most important factor BUT connected to many other ‘traits’ Older = more likely to vote UNTIL mobility becomes a problem Caucasian = more likely to vote. BUT, other ethnicities are higher with comparable education or higher income Female = more likely to vote

74 Who Votes? Married = more likely to vote Union member = more likely to vote Traits are cumulative –possessing several adds up

75 Candidates want a good visual image. Especially on dimensions of integrity, reliability, and competence Personality plays a role in vote choice, especially if a candidate is perceived to be incompetent or dishonest. (Elite?) (Career Politician?) How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens’ Decisions

76 Party Identification People still generally vote for a party they agree with. With the rise of candidate-centered politics, parties’ hold on voters declined in the 1960s and 1970s. (More split- ticket voting.) Is this changing with increase ‘partisanship’? Many more voters make an individual voting decision and are up for grabs each election, (so-called floating voters). How Americans Vote: Explaining Citizens’ Decisions

77 Mandate Theory of Elections* The idea that the winning candidate has a mandate from the people to carry out his or her platforms and politics *Politicians like the theory better than political scientists do.

78 Policy Voting Basing your vote choice on issue preferences and where the candidates stand on policy issues Policy voting may occur if : Voters know where they and the candidates stand on issues and see differences between candidates Unlikely to occur because: Candidates can be ambiguous on the issues. Media tend to focus on the “horse race” not issues. Today candidates are forced to take a clear stand in the party primaries increasing chances for policy voting.

79 Understanding Elections and Voting Behavior Candidates who vow to continue popular policies are more likely to win elections. Retrospective voting: voters cast a vote based on what a candidate has done for them lately. Those who feel worse-likely to vote against incumbents. Bad economies make politicians nervous.

80 Start Here onThursday

81 The Last Battle: The Electoral College Electoral college actually elects the president— founders wanted him chosen by the elite of the country States (political parties) choose the electors Winner-Take-All system gives bigger emphasis to more populated states

82 How the Electoral College works Each state has as many votes as it does Representatives and Senators. Winner of popular vote typically gets all the Electoral College votes for that state Electors meet in December, votes are reported by the vice president in January If no candidate gets a majority (270 votes), the House of Representatives votes for president, with each state casting one vote.

83 A Tale of Three Elections

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85 Elections and the Scope of Government Federal Gov’t does more now because… Elections generally support government policies and power. Voters feel they are sending a message to government to accomplish something Thus, the government expands to fill the needs of the voters.

86 Summary Voters make two basic decisions at election time: 1-Whether to vote 2-Who to vote for Party identification, candidate evaluations, and policy positions drive vote choice. How important are demographics ? Voter Demographics = Stereotyping? Does this influence campaigns? Policies? Elections are fundamental to a democracy.

87 WILSON CH. 6 - POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IMPORTANT TERMS ACTIVIST AUSTRALIAN BALLOT CAMPAIGNERSCOMMUNALISTS COMPLETE ACTIVISTS ELIGIBLE ELECTORATE FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT

88 GRANDFATHER CLAUSES INACTIVES LITERACY TEST MOTOR-VOTER BILL NINETEENTH AMENDMENT PAROCHIAL PARTICIPANTS POLL TAX REGISTERED VOTERS WILSON CH. 6 - POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IMPORTANT TERMS

89 TWENTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT TWENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT VOTER APATHY VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1970 VOTING-AGE POPULATION VOTING SPECIALISTS WHITE PRIMARIES WILSON CH. 6 - POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IMPORTANT TERMS

90 WILSON CH. 6 - POLITICAL PARTICIPATION QUESTIONS 1-IS VOTER PARTICIPATION LOWER IN THE USA THAN IN EUROPEAN CONTRIES? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER. 2-WHAT HAVE BEEN THE POLICY CONSEQUENCES OF A BROADER ELECTORATE.

91 3-WHAT COULD BE DONE TO INCREASE VOTER TURNOUT? 4-WHAT SORTS OF PEOPLE ARE OVERREPRESENTED ANOUNG THOSE WHO PARTICIPATE A GREAT DEAL? DOE THIS BIAS THE POLICIES THE GOVERNMENT WILL ADOPT? IF SO, WHICH ONES? WILSON CH. 6 - POLITICAL PARTICIPATION QUESTIONS


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