Presentation on theme: "Ch 9 Sections 2 & 3. Learning targets I can explain how events in Europe created challenges for the New American Government. I can List the Dangers Washington."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 9 Sections 2 & 3
Learning targets I can explain how events in Europe created challenges for the New American Government. I can List the Dangers Washington warned about. I can Explain the issues that divided Americans during Adam’s presidency.
The French Revolution, which began in 1789, Initially supported by the U.S., French declared war on Great Britain revolution became excessively brutal U.S. claimed neutrality on the issue. The French Revolution
Jay’s Treaty Under Jay’s Treaty Britain abandoned the Ohio River Valley Britain paid reparations for American ships captured during its war with France.
Pinckney’s Treaty Pinckney’s Treaty with Spain opened up the port of New Orleans and travel along the Mississippi River to Americans.
Washington Retires- 2 Statements: 1)Avoid party politics at all costs! -only leads to fighting 2) Foreign policy- stay neutral and out of other countries business
Section 3: The Federalists in Charge Washington’s cabinet members argued over a number of issues: 1)How to interpret the Constitution? -loose vs. strict 2)Hamilton’s creation of a National Bank -necessary or too much power? 3)Who to side with in the war between Britain and France? -ally or trading partner? 4)What kind of a nation would the U.S. be? -world power, leader or mind own business?
Loose Construction of the Constitution: Anything not specifically prohibited is OK! Necessary and Proper Clause Strict Construction of the Constitution: Government can only do exactly what the Constitution says and no more!
The Formation of Political Parties A political party tries to influence government policy by promoting its ideas Have a lot of power in American government despite not being mentioned in the Constitution Began separating over the issue of strict vs. loose interpretation of the Constitution Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans
Election of 1796 John Adams elected president Thomas Jefferson, his rival and runner- up in the election is vice-president U.S. Capital moves to Washington D.C.
XYZ Affair Alliance with France breaks down Adams sends representatives to try and talk to France Three French agents “X,Y, and Z” say that they will talk but only if the U.S. gives France $10 million and a $250,000 bribe to the French minister of foreign affairs Leads to the end of the U.S./French alliance
Alien and Sedition Acts Many people thought John Adams was becoming too powerful Federalist Congress passes laws: –Increased waiting period to become a citizen –President could arrest “disloyal” aliens –Sedition (saying anything false or harmful about the government) is outlawed –Did this take away freedom of speech??? I HATE Federalists!
States Rights Democratic-Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison fought back States’ rights theory says that a state could nullify (cancel out) any federal law they felt violated the Constitution within their state Challenged the authority of the National government and led to Jefferson’s election
Thomas JeffersonAlexander Hamilton Democratic - RepublicansFederalists Objective: To analyze the differences between the first political parties.
Hamilton and Jefferson: Differing Views Alexander HamiltonThomas Jefferson Favored trade, manufacturing and cities Believed that the federal government should have more power than the states Believed in a loose interpretation of the Constitution was pro-British Favored farmers and rural communities Believed that states should have more power than the federal government (state’s rights) Believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution was pro-French
pro-British First Political Parties led by Alexander Hamilton strong central government led by industry and the wealthy emphasis on manufacturing, shipping, and trade loose interpretation of the Constitution favored the national bank favored protective tariffs led by Thomas Jefferson strong state governments led by the “common man” emphasis on agriculture “Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens.” – Thomas Jefferson strict interpretation of the Constitution opposed the national bank opposed protective tariffs pro-French
1.Francois Goulet Farmer from Georgia 5 th grade education 2. Brandon Smith Lawyer from Boston, MA College graduate 3. John Marshall Virginia planter College graduate Future Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Believed that the judicial branch was too weak 4. Hans Gruber German immigrant Pennsylvania farmer 5. Sally Moore Mother of five Employee of a Massachusetts textile mill 6. James Prescott Banker from Delaware Member of the Delaware state legislature 7. Mary Worthington Merchant from South Carolina Sells mainly European products Am I a Federalist or a Republican?
1.Francois Goulet Farmer from Georgia 5 th grade education Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 2. Brandon Smith Lawyer from Boston, MA College graduate Republican Federalist
3. John Marshall Virginia planter College graduate Future Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Believed that the judicial branch was too weak 4. Hans Gruber German immigrant Pennsylvania farmer Am I a Federalist or a Republican? Republican Federalist
6. James Prescott Banker from Delaware Member of the Delaware state legislature Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 5. Sally Moore Mother of five Employee of a Massachusetts textile mill Republican Federalist
7. Mary Worthington Merchant from South Carolina Sells mainly European products Am I a Federalist or a Republican? Republican