2 Learning targetsI can explain how events in Europe created challenges for the New American Government.I can List the Dangers Washington warned about.I can Explain the issues that divided Americans during Adam’s presidency.
3 The French Revolution The French Revolution, which began in 1789, Initially supported by the U.S.,French declared war on Great Britainrevolution became excessively brutalU.S. claimed neutrality on the issue.
8 Washington Retires- 2 Statements: Avoid party politics at all costs!-only leads to fighting2) Foreign policy- stay neutral and out of other countries business
9 Section 3: The Federalists in Charge Washington’s cabinet members argued over a number of issues: 1)How to interpret the Constitution? -loose vs. strict 2)Hamilton’s creation of a National Bank -necessary or too much power? 3)Who to side with in the war between Britain and France? -ally or trading partner? 4)What kind of a nation would the U.S. be? -world power, leader or mind own business?
10 Loose Construction of the Constitution: Anything not specifically prohibited is OK!Necessary and Proper ClauseStrict Construction of the Constitution:Government can only do exactly what the Constitution says and no more!
11 The Formation of Political Parties A political party tries to influence government policy by promoting its ideasHave a lot of power in American government despite not being mentioned in the ConstitutionBegan separating over the issue of strict vs. loose interpretation of the ConstitutionFederalists vs Democratic-Republicans
12 Election of 1796 John Adams elected president Thomas Jefferson, his rival and runner-up in the election is vice-presidentU.S. Capital moves to Washington D.C.
13 XYZ Affair Alliance with France breaks down Adams sends representatives to try and talk to FranceThree French agents “X,Y, and Z” say that they will talk but only if the U.S. gives France $10 million and a $250,000 bribe to the French minister of foreign affairsLeads to the end of the U.S./French alliance
14 Alien and Sedition Acts Many people thought John Adams was becoming too powerfulFederalist Congress passes laws:Increased waiting period to become a citizenPresident could arrest “disloyal” aliensSedition (saying anything false or harmful about the government) is outlawedDid this take away freedom of speech???I HATE Federalists!
15 States RightsDemocratic-Republicans led by Jefferson and Madison fought backStates’ rights theory says that a state could nullify (cancel out) any federal law they felt violated the Constitution within their stateChallenged the authority of the National government and led to Jefferson’s election
16 Democratic - Republicans Objective: To analyze the differences between the first political parties.Alexander HamiltonThomas JeffersonFederalistsDemocratic - Republicans16
17 Hamilton and Jefferson: Differing Views Alexander HamiltonThomas JeffersonFavored farmers and rural communitiesFavored trade, manufacturing and citiesBelieved that the federal government should have more power than the statesBelieved that states should have more power than the federal government (state’s rights)Believed in a loose interpretation of the ConstitutionBelieved in a strict interpretation of the Constitutionwas pro-Britishwas pro-French17
18 First Political Parties Democratic Republicans FederalistsDemocratic Republicansled by Alexander Hamiltonled by Thomas Jeffersonstrong central government led by industry and the wealthystrong state governments led by the “common man”emphasis on agriculture“Cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens.” – Thomas Jeffersonemphasis on manufacturing, shipping, and tradeloose interpretation of the Constitutionstrict interpretation of the Constitutionfavored the national bankopposed the national bankfavored protective tariffsopposed protective tariffspro-Britishpro-French18
19 Am I a Federalist or a Republican? Francois GouletFarmer from Georgia5th grade education2. Brandon SmithLawyer from Boston, MACollege graduate3. John MarshallVirginia planterFuture Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtBelieved that the judicial branch was too weak4. Hans GruberGerman immigrantPennsylvania farmer5. Sally MooreMother of fiveEmployee of a Massachusetts textile mill6. James PrescottBanker from DelawareMember of the Delaware state legislature7. Mary WorthingtonMerchant from South CarolinaSells mainly European products
20 Am I a Federalist or a Republican? Francois GouletFarmer from Georgia5th grade educationRepublican2. Brandon SmithLawyer from Boston, MACollege graduateFederalist
21 Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 3. John MarshallVirginia planterCollege graduateFuture Chief Justice of the Supreme CourtBelieved that the judicial branch was too weakFederalist4. Hans GruberGerman immigrantPennsylvania farmerRepublican
22 Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 5. Sally MooreMother of fiveEmployee of a Massachusetts textile millFederalist6. James PrescottBanker from DelawareMember of the Delaware state legislatureRepublican
23 Am I a Federalist or a Republican? 7. Mary WorthingtonMerchant from South CarolinaSells mainly European productsRepublican