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Ch 6 Consciousness.  I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what  is happening inside or outside itself.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 6 Consciousness.  I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what  is happening inside or outside itself."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 6 Consciousness

2  I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what  is happening inside or outside itself.  A. Construct - a concept requiring a belief in something that cannot be seen or touched but that seems to exist.  1. all day long, we combine millions of brief memory images of ourselves with our current images of the world  B. Levels of consciousness  1. subconscious - consciousness just below our present awareness  2. unconscious - thoughts or desires about which we have no direct  knowledge   I. Defining Consciousness - the organism ’ s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what  is happening inside or outside itself.  A. Construct - a concept requiring a belief in something that cannot be seen or touched but that seems to exist.  1. all day long, we combine millions of brief memory images of ourselves with our current images of the world  B. Levels of consciousness  1. subconscious - consciousness just below our present awareness  2. unconscious - thoughts or desires about which we have no direct  knowledge 

3 Consciousness  C. Biological clocks - internal chemical units that control regular cycles in parts of  the body (programmed and regulated by nature)  1. free - running cycles - cycles set up by biological clocks that are under  their own control, ignoring the environment  a. body has a natural rhythm that free-runs on a cycle of 25hrs.  2. entrainment - process of altering the free-running cycle to fit a different  rhythm (training)  a. in a light / dark cycle we must entrain to the Earth (24 hrs)  D. Circadian rhythm - sequences of behavioral changes that occur every 24 hrs.  1. human circadian rhythm has high and low points. (low temperature, low  blood pressure, weakness - occurs around am)  C. Biological clocks - internal chemical units that control regular cycles in parts of  the body (programmed and regulated by nature)  1. free - running cycles - cycles set up by biological clocks that are under  their own control, ignoring the environment  a. body has a natural rhythm that free-runs on a cycle of 25hrs.  2. entrainment - process of altering the free-running cycle to fit a different  rhythm (training)  a. in a light / dark cycle we must entrain to the Earth (24 hrs)  D. Circadian rhythm - sequences of behavioral changes that occur every 24 hrs.  1. human circadian rhythm has high and low points. (low temperature, low  blood pressure, weakness - occurs around am)

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5 II. The Nature of Sleep and Dreams  A. First hour of sleep is the deepest - dramatic fall in blood pressure, heart rate  and breathing. Unexpected events occur the rest of the night  B. twilight state - relaxed state just before we fall asleep, electrical activity in the  brain begins to slow  C. Sleep helps restore the body (1) making of new cells (2) chemical in the brain  that were used up are restored (3) Body hair grows most rapidly  D. REM - (rapid eye movement) most important purpose of sleep - dreaming  1. occurs times a night  2. brain begins to fire furiously  3. blood pressure zooms upward  4. eyes move rapidly from side to side and up and down  5. breathing and heartbeat are very rapid  6. body is in a paralyzed state  7. REM occurs about every 90 min.  8. dreams last about min. with each lasting longer than the previous  9. dreams you remember are those that occur closest to morning  A. First hour of sleep is the deepest - dramatic fall in blood pressure, heart rate  and breathing. Unexpected events occur the rest of the night  B. twilight state - relaxed state just before we fall asleep, electrical activity in the  brain begins to slow  C. Sleep helps restore the body (1) making of new cells (2) chemical in the brain  that were used up are restored (3) Body hair grows most rapidly  D. REM - (rapid eye movement) most important purpose of sleep - dreaming  1. occurs times a night  2. brain begins to fire furiously  3. blood pressure zooms upward  4. eyes move rapidly from side to side and up and down  5. breathing and heartbeat are very rapid  6. body is in a paralyzed state  7. REM occurs about every 90 min.  8. dreams last about min. with each lasting longer than the previous  9. dreams you remember are those that occur closest to morning

6 Sleep Cycle  E. Brain Changes  1. waking state + five brain-wave patterns  a. awake (beta waves)  b. stage 1 (alpha waves)  c. REM periods  d. stage 2  e. stage 3  f. stage 4 (delta waves)  2. typical pattern of a night ’ s sleep  Awake (beta) - get in bed and relax stage 1(alpha) - begin twilight  state (moving into stage 2) - stage 3 (moving into deeper sleep) -  stage 4 (delta) deepest sleep (1 hour into sleep) - head in a reverse  direction - on the way back before stage one you will enter REM  E. Brain Changes  1. waking state + five brain-wave patterns  a. awake (beta waves)  b. stage 1 (alpha waves)  c. REM periods  d. stage 2  e. stage 3  f. stage 4 (delta waves)  2. typical pattern of a night ’ s sleep  Awake (beta) - get in bed and relax stage 1(alpha) - begin twilight  state (moving into stage 2) - stage 3 (moving into deeper sleep) -  stage 4 (delta) deepest sleep (1 hour into sleep) - head in a reverse  direction - on the way back before stage one you will enter REM

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8 Sleep Cycle  3. NREM Sleep - second type of sleep (non-rapid eye movement)  a. brain is still active  b. no organizational stories found in REM  c. may be the time the body rests  d. growth hormone is secreted in adolescents (reason for long sleep)  4. Purpose of Dreaming - 3 major hypothesis  a. to process information - dreams process the past day or more  b. to work out unsolved problems - when you wake you have  solved the problem or forgotten it.  c. to make sense of random stimulation to the brain - unnecessary material is being flushed out - dreams occur using the bits and pieces of the random stimulation  3. NREM Sleep - second type of sleep (non-rapid eye movement)  a. brain is still active  b. no organizational stories found in REM  c. may be the time the body rests  d. growth hormone is secreted in adolescents (reason for long sleep)  4. Purpose of Dreaming - 3 major hypothesis  a. to process information - dreams process the past day or more  b. to work out unsolved problems - when you wake you have  solved the problem or forgotten it.  c. to make sense of random stimulation to the brain - unnecessary material is being flushed out - dreams occur using the bits and pieces of the random stimulation

9 III. Psychology of Dreams  A. Dream Content  1. things from normal day - family, friends, school  2. worries, fears, feeling inferior  3. arguments  4. strange dreams do not mean something is wrong  5. concept that dreams are symbolic or represent deep, hidden needs and  desires  6. 50% of dreams are in color - 50% are in black and white  B. Nightmares - frightening dream during REM  1. REM rebound - increase in number of dreams after being deprived of  REM sleep (drinking too much alcohol - not getting  enough sleep  2. nightmares are not caused by eating something strange  C. Night terrors  1. a horrible dream occurring during NREM, when the body is not prepared  for it  2. major bodily changes - breathing rate zooms upward, person feels  choked, heart rate takes off  3. feeling of panic, fear of dying, sleeper usually awakes suddenly  sweating, nauseated and afraid  A. Dream Content  1. things from normal day - family, friends, school  2. worries, fears, feeling inferior  3. arguments  4. strange dreams do not mean something is wrong  5. concept that dreams are symbolic or represent deep, hidden needs and  desires  6. 50% of dreams are in color - 50% are in black and white  B. Nightmares - frightening dream during REM  1. REM rebound - increase in number of dreams after being deprived of  REM sleep (drinking too much alcohol - not getting  enough sleep  2. nightmares are not caused by eating something strange  C. Night terrors  1. a horrible dream occurring during NREM, when the body is not prepared  for it  2. major bodily changes - breathing rate zooms upward, person feels  choked, heart rate takes off  3. feeling of panic, fear of dying, sleeper usually awakes suddenly  sweating, nauseated and afraid

10 IV. Practical Issues in Sleep  A. Social Entrainment - going to too many parties, visiting too much, “ hanging out ”  1. rhythms are altered  B. Length of Sleep - body tends to seek about hours  1. teenagers need hours  2. today people are sleeping less and doing more  3. productivity suffers, prone to mental confusion and accidents  4. too much sleep is not good - brain is drowsy  5. long sleepers tend to die earlier  C. Walking and Talking in your sleep  1. usually occurs during stage 4  2. it is not harmful to awaken someone who is sleepwalking  D. Sleep Disturbance  1. insomnia - the inability to get enough sleep  a. getting out of the circadian cycle  b. taking drugs or alcohol - especially before going to sleep  c. REM is blocked  d. excessive alcohol use can cause severe REM rebound while a  person is still awake (bugs and snakes crawling all over, etc.)  2. narcolepsy - person falls instantly into sleep no matter what is going  on in the environment (very dangerous)  3. sleep apnea - person ’ s breathing often stops while the person is asleep  A. Social Entrainment - going to too many parties, visiting too much, “ hanging out ”  1. rhythms are altered  B. Length of Sleep - body tends to seek about hours  1. teenagers need hours  2. today people are sleeping less and doing more  3. productivity suffers, prone to mental confusion and accidents  4. too much sleep is not good - brain is drowsy  5. long sleepers tend to die earlier  C. Walking and Talking in your sleep  1. usually occurs during stage 4  2. it is not harmful to awaken someone who is sleepwalking  D. Sleep Disturbance  1. insomnia - the inability to get enough sleep  a. getting out of the circadian cycle  b. taking drugs or alcohol - especially before going to sleep  c. REM is blocked  d. excessive alcohol use can cause severe REM rebound while a  person is still awake (bugs and snakes crawling all over, etc.)  2. narcolepsy - person falls instantly into sleep no matter what is going  on in the environment (very dangerous)  3. sleep apnea - person ’ s breathing often stops while the person is asleep

11 V. States of Consciousness (does not occur naturally)  A. Hypnosis - state of relaxation in which attention is focused on certain objects,  acts, or feelings  1. suggestion is basic to hypnosis (it can relieve minor pain)  2. myths - (1) hypnosis is a special trance state (2) hypnotist can control  the person being hypnotized (3) hypnosis improves memory  3. trance - another word for the state of deep relaxation that can occur  during hypnosis. 4. Age Regression - The process where someone relives their childhood under hypnosis. - Does not really happen  B. Meditation - a form of self-control in which the outside world is cut off from  consciousness  1. very effective in lowering blood pressure or slowing heart rate  A. Hypnosis - state of relaxation in which attention is focused on certain objects,  acts, or feelings  1. suggestion is basic to hypnosis (it can relieve minor pain)  2. myths - (1) hypnosis is a special trance state (2) hypnotist can control  the person being hypnotized (3) hypnosis improves memory  3. trance - another word for the state of deep relaxation that can occur  during hypnosis. 4. Age Regression - The process where someone relives their childhood under hypnosis. - Does not really happen  B. Meditation - a form of self-control in which the outside world is cut off from  consciousness  1. very effective in lowering blood pressure or slowing heart rate

12 Tips  Sleep is important for learning! Sleep deprivation results in intellectual deprivation!  Sleep as much as you feel you need  Avoid alarm clocks  Forget about trying to fall asleep at pre-planned time! Let your body decide!  Forget about trying to fall asleep quickly! If your body decides it is the right time, it will come naturally!  Do not try to make yourself sleepy! It is enough you stay awake and keep on working/learning long enough!  It is much better to eliminate the source of stress rather than to try to forget stressful situations right before the bedtime!  Learn the details of your sleep timing (how many hours you sleep, how many hours before you need to take a nap or go to sleep again, etc.). Use this knowledge to optimize your schedule  Be careful with caffeine. Drink coffee only upon awakening (or after a nap if you take one)  Do not go beyond a single drink of alcohol per day. Drink it at siesta time  Quit smoking!  Use siesta time for a nap if you find it helpful  If you cannot fall asleep in 30 minutes, get up! You are not yet ready for sleep!  If you sleep it out and still not feel refreshed, be sure you do not sleep against your circadian rhythm. Remember that you may need 1-2 weeks to synchronize all bodily functions before this starts working!  If you cannot get refreshing sleep even in free-running conditions after at least a month of trying, consult a sleep specialist Remember, however, that a bad night is a factor of life. Few can avoid it. Do not get alarmed even if it happens weekly  Sleep is important for learning! Sleep deprivation results in intellectual deprivation!  Sleep as much as you feel you need  Avoid alarm clocks  Forget about trying to fall asleep at pre-planned time! Let your body decide!  Forget about trying to fall asleep quickly! If your body decides it is the right time, it will come naturally!  Do not try to make yourself sleepy! It is enough you stay awake and keep on working/learning long enough!  It is much better to eliminate the source of stress rather than to try to forget stressful situations right before the bedtime!  Learn the details of your sleep timing (how many hours you sleep, how many hours before you need to take a nap or go to sleep again, etc.). Use this knowledge to optimize your schedule  Be careful with caffeine. Drink coffee only upon awakening (or after a nap if you take one)  Do not go beyond a single drink of alcohol per day. Drink it at siesta time  Quit smoking!  Use siesta time for a nap if you find it helpful  If you cannot fall asleep in 30 minutes, get up! You are not yet ready for sleep!  If you sleep it out and still not feel refreshed, be sure you do not sleep against your circadian rhythm. Remember that you may need 1-2 weeks to synchronize all bodily functions before this starts working!  If you cannot get refreshing sleep even in free-running conditions after at least a month of trying, consult a sleep specialist Remember, however, that a bad night is a factor of life. Few can avoid it. Do not get alarmed even if it happens weekly


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