2Sigmund Freud - Psychoanlytical Theory A. Sigmund Freud ( ) General background to Freud’s theory:1. Freud’s theory dominated psychology from the early 1900’s through thelate 1940’s.2. Freud believed that the core of one’s personality appeared within thefirst five or six years of life and was more or less fixed by that age3. Individual development had its source in the family and the conflicts thatevery family has. Our feelings about ourselves come from anxieties,jealousies, and guilt regarding how we relate to other family member andhow they view us.4. Freud’s family lifea. father was 20 years older than motherb. father had children by a previous marriagec. father had a mistressd. 8 children between Freud’s father and mothere. physician
3Levels of Consciousness 1. Conscious - awareness of what is going on inside or outside the person2. Subconscious - consciousness just below our present awareness3. Unconscious - according to psychoanalytic belief, the psychological part of us that contains childhood conflicts we are unaware of but that continue to control our behavior. (True feelings sometimes appear in dreams or in mistakes we make when speaking)a. free association - Freudian process in which the person says everything that appears in the mind, even if the ideas or images seem unconnected.b. repression - the process of pushing the needs and desires that cause guilt into the unconscious. Freud believed that once our repressed conflicts surface and we face them, whatever physical or psychological symptoms we have will eventuallydisappear.
4Levels of Consciousness 4. Libido - real (biological, not symbolic) energy inside humans which controls behavior. Freud thought that this internal energy continuously seeks discharge and creates tension. This energy is largely expressed through two means - sex and aggression
5Freud’s Map of the Mind1. Id - contains our basic needs and drives. Contains our major energy force (libido) which is constantly seeking expression. “Pleasure Principle”2. Superego - hold the id in check roughly synonymous with the conscience. Causes guilt for being bad, and pride for doing the right things. Develops from punishments and rewards from our parents.3. Ego - the “self” that allows controlled id expression within the boundaries of the superego. The ego helps one to balance or compromise between the id and superego “Reality Principle”
6Freud’s Stages of Personality Development 1. personality formed by age 5 or 62. adult psychological problems have their roots in early childhood and can be traced to unresolved conflicts that are generated during that time1. when conflict is not resolved some libidinal energy getsstuck (fixated)
7Stage 1 - Oral Stage (0-18 months) a. infants totally reliant on caregivers for survivalb. feeding is the main source of infant pleasurec. the mouth is the body structure most frequently associated with biological drives (hunger) and pleasurable sensationsd. infants obtain nourishment from sucking at breast or bottlee. erogenous zone - mouthf. central task of the infant during this “oral dependent” period is to establish general attitudes of dependence, independence, trust and reliance in regard to other peopleg. in time the breast / bottle may be replaced by infant’s thumbh. the oral stage ends when the infant is “weaned”i. personality problems develop when one is weaned too early or too latej. - behaviors - depending too much on other peoplerejecting othersvery sarcasticself-starvation(oral behaviors - gum chewing, nail biting, smoking, overeating)
8Oral StageOral Passive Personality Type - Given excessive oral stimulation in infancy. This type is cheerful, optimistic, expects the world to “mother” him/her, continually seeking approval. His/her psychological adjustment is characterized by gullibility, passivity, immaturity, and excessive dependency.Oral Aggressive Personality Type - Caused by mother’s delay of gratification or absence. Reflected in adults who are argumentative, pessimistic, “bitingly” sarcastic, and often cynical about everything around them. Persons of this character type also tend to exploit and dominate others as long as their own needs exist.
9Stage 2 - Anal Stage (11/2 to 3 years) a. during this time parents of young children are concerned with“potty training” Freud was convinced that the way in which toilet training is approached by parents and caregivers has specific effects of later personality developmentb. with the onset of toilet training, the child must learn to distinguish between the demands of the id (pleasure from immediate defecation) and the social constraints imposed by parent (self-control over excretory needs).c. Freud claimed that all later forms of self-control and mastery have their origin in the anal staged. Freud identified two general patterns used by parents in toilet training:Rigid, demanding parents - “Go Potty NOW!!!”OREncouraging, praising, more “permissive”e. behaviors - being excessively stingy overly generous sticking rigidly to rules and regulations being irresponsible and rebellious
10Anal StageAnal Retentive Personality Type - If child develops patterns of “holding back” and refusing to “perform” for Mommy and Daddy, the may develop the “Anal Retentive Personality Type. This “type” of adult is obstinate, stingy, orderly, and punctual. This person lacks a the ability to make fine distinctions or to tolerate confusion and ambiguity.Anal Expulsive Personality Type - A second possible outcome to parental strictness about toilet training. Traits include: destructiveness, disorderliness, impulsiveness, and even sadistically cruel. With respect to adult love relationships, this type views others as objects to be possessed.
11Stage 3 - Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years) a. child’s libidinal interests shift to a new erogenous zone of the body, the genitalsb. during this stage, children can be observed examining their sex organs, and expressing interest in matters pertaining to birth & sexc. Oedipus Complex - male desire to marry his mother and have jealous, hostile feelings toward his fatherElectra Complex - female desire to marry her father and have jealous, hostile feelings toward her mother.d. these complexes normally are resolved as the child “identifies” with his father or mother. This provides the child with a set of values, morals, attitudes, and gender-related behaviors.e. Freud believed that failure to resolve this conflict through identification can result in anxiety, extreme guilt, phobias, and depression
12Phallic StagePhallic Personality Type (male) - Strive to be successful, and attempt to at all times to assert their masculinity and virility. Have to convince others that they are “real men”Phallic Personality Type (female) - Results in flirtatiousness, seductiveness, and promiscuity, although the individual may appear naïve and innocent in relationships. Some women try to prove that they are superior to men.
13Stage 4 - Latency Stage ( 6 to 12 years) a. conflicts and problems from earlier stages remain subduedb. child’s energies are channeled into non sexual activities, such as intellectual pursuits, athletics and peer relationsc. latency can be viewed as a period of preparation for the important growth that will take place in the final psycho sexual staged. the decline in the sexual drive was regarded by Freud as partly due to the physiological changes in the child’s personality
14Stage 5 - Genital Stage ( puberty onward) a. with the onset of puberty comes sexual and aggressive drives combined with an increased awareness of and interest in the opposite sexb. this stage begins due to biochemical and physiological changesc. in early adolescence, people prefer their same sex peersd. gradually, interest shifts more to the opposite sexe. the “crushes” of early adolescence normally lead to the selection of a marriage partner and the raising of a familyf. old conflicts resurface
15Genital StageThe “Genital Character” is the ideal personality type according to Freud. This “type” has learned to work, postpone gratification, share with others in a warm and caring way, and above all, assume a more active role in dealing with life’s problem.If there were severe, traumatic experiences in early childhood, with fixations at particular stages, adequate adjustments during the “genital stage” will be difficult, if not impossible. The old conflicts and experiences reappear or resurface. Although the ways in which they are expressed may have a changed, their content is left over from the first 5 years of life.