Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Chapter 12 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Chapter 12 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Chapter 12 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

2 12.1 Why Sex? In sexual reproduction, offspring arise from two parents and inherit genes from both Asexual reproduction produces genetically identical copies of a parent (clones)

3 Advantages of Sexual Reproduction An adaptive trait can spread more quickly through a sexually reproducing population than through an asexually reproducing one Collectively, offspring of sexual reproducers have a better chance of surviving the effects of a harmful mutation that arises in the population

4 Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants

5 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Sexual reproduction generates new combinations of traits in fewer generations than does asexual reproduction The process inherent to sexual reproduction that gives rise to this variation is meiosis, a nuclear division mechanism that halves the chromosome number

6 12.2 Meiosis Halves the Chromosome Number Sexual reproduction mixes up alleles from two parents Meiosis, the basis of sexual reproduction, is a nuclear division mechanism that occurs in immature reproductive cells of eukaryotes

7 Homologous Chromosomes Somatic (body) cells of humans and other sexually reproducing organisms are diploid One chromosome of each pair is maternal, and the other is paternal Except for a pairing of nonidentical sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes carry the same set of genes

8 Introducing Alleles Genes are regions in an organism’s DNA that encode information about heritable traits In sexual reproduction, pairs of genes are inherited on pairs of chromosomes, one maternal and one paternal Alleles are different forms of the same gene Offspring of sexual reproducers inherit new combinations of alleles, the basis of traits

9 Figure 12-2a p190 A Corresponding colored patches in this fluorescence micrograph indicate corresponding DNA sequences in a homologous chromosome pair. These chromosomes carry the same set of genes.

10 Figure 12-2b p190 Genes occur in pairs on homologous chromosomes. The members of each pair of genes may be identical, or they may differ slightly, as alleles. B Homologous chromosomes carry the same series of genes, but the DNA sequence of any one of those genes might differ just a bit from that of its partner on the homologous chromosome.

11 ANIMATED FIGURE: Genetic terms To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

12 Gametes and Germ Cells Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of reproductive cells (gametes) from two parents In plants and animals, gametes form inside special reproductive structures or organs Division of immature reproductive cells (germ cells) gives rise to gametes

13 Figure 12-3a p190 Reproductive organs of a human male testis (where sperm originate)

14 Figure 12-3b p190 Reproductive organs of a human female ovary (where eggs develop)

15 Figure 12-3c p190 Reproductive organs of a flowering plant ovary (where sexual spores that give rise to egg cells form) anther (where sexual spores that give rise to sperm cells form)

16 ANIMATED FIGURE: Reproductive organs To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

17 What Meiosis Does Meiosis in animal germ cells gives rise to eggs (female gametes) or sperm (male gametes) Gametes have a single set of chromosomes, so they are haploid (n): Their chromosome number is half of the diploid (2n) number Meiosis of a human germ cell (2n) produces gametes with 23 chromosomes: one of each pair (n)

18 Two Divisions in Meiosis Meiosis partitions the chromosomes of one diploid nucleus (2n) into four haploid (n) nuclei In meiosis I, each duplicated homologous chromosome is separated from its partner In meiosis II, sister chromatids are separated

19 Meiosis Halves the Chromosome Number C Sister chromatids separate in meiosis II. The now unduplicated chromosomes are packaged into four new nuclei. B Homologous partners separate. The still-duplicated chromosomes are packaged into two new nuclei. Stepped Art A In meiosis I, each duplicated chromosome in the nucleus pairs with its homologous partner.

20 Fertilization The diploid chromosome number is restored at fertilization, when two haploid gametes (one egg and one sperm) fuse to form a zygote, the first cell of a new individual

21 Take-Home Message : Sexual Reproduction Increases Variation in Heritable Traits Corresponding genes on homologous chromosomes vary in sequence as alleles Alleles are the basis of traits; sexual reproduction mixes up alleles from two parents Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes; it precedes the formation of gametes or spores Meiosis halves the diploid (2n) chromosome number, to the haploid number (n); when two gametes fuse at fertilization, the chromosome number is restored; the zygote has one set of chromosomes from each parent

22 12.3 Visual Tour of Meiosis Meiosis halves the chromosome number During meiosis, chromosomes of a diploid nucleus become distributed into four haploid nuclei

23 Summary of Steps in Meiosis

24 Meiosis Meiosis I One diploid nucleus to two haploid nuclei Prophase I. Homologous chromosomes condense, pair up, and swap segments. Spindle micro- tubules attach to them as the nuclear envelope breaks up. plasma membrane spindle nuclear envelope breaking up centrosome 1 Metaphase I. The homologous chromosome pairs are aligned midway between spindle poles. one pair of homologous chromosomes 2 Anaphase I. The homologous chromosomes separate and begin heading toward the spindle poles. 3 Telophase I. Two clusters of chromosomes reach the spindle poles. A new nuclear envelope forms around each cluster, so two haploid (n) nuclei form. 4 Stepped Art

25 Meiosis Meiosis II Two haploid nuclei to four haploid nuclei Anaphase II. All sister chromatids separate. The now unduplicated chromo - somes head to the spindle poles. 7 Telophase II. A cluster of chromosomes reaches each spindle pole. A new nuclear envelope encloses each cluster, so four haploid (n) nuclei form. 8 Metaphase II. The (still duplicated) chromosomes are aligned midway between poles of the spindle. 6 Prophase II. The chromosomes condense. Spindle microtubules attach to each sister chromatid as the nuclear envelope breaks up. No DNA replication 5 Stepped Art

26 3D ANIMATION: Meiosis

27 Take-Home Message: What happens to a cell during meiosis? During meiosis, the nucleus of a diploid (2n) cell divides twice. Four haploid (n) nuclei form, each with a full set of chromosomes—one of each type

28 ANIMATION: Meiosis I and II To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

29 12.4 How Meiosis Introduces Variation in Traits Crossovers and the random sorting of chromosomes into gametes result in new combinations of traits among offspring Along with fertilization, these events contribute to the variation among the offspring of sexually reproducing species

30 Crossing Over in Prophase I Crossing over is the process by which a chromosome and its homologous partner exchange heritable information in corresponding segments Crossing over occurs during condensation in prophase I

31 A Here, we focus on only two of the many genes on a chromosome. In this example, one gene has alleles A A and a; the other has alleles B and b. Stepped Art B Close contact between homologous chromosomes promotes crossing over between nonsister chromatids. Paternal and maternal chromatids exchange corresponding pieces. C Crossing over mixes up paternal and maternal alleles on homologous chromosomes. Figure 12-6 p194

32 ANIMATED FIGURE: Crossing over To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

33 Chromosome Segregation Homologous chromosomes can be attached to either spindle pole in prophase I, so each homologue can be packaged into either one of the two new nuclei Random assortment produces (8,388,608) possible combinations of homologous chromosomes

34 The four possible alignments of three pairs of chromosomes in a nucleus at metaphase I. 1 Stepped Art Resulting combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the two nuclei that form at telophase I. 2 Resulting combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes in the four nuclei that form at telophase II. Eight different combinations are possible. 3 Figure 12-7 p195

35 ANIMATED FIGURE: Random alignment To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

36 Take-Home Message: How does meiosis introduce variation in combinations of traits? Crossing over is recombination between nonsister chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I; it makes new combinations of parental alleles Homologous chromosomes can be attached to either spindle pole in prophase I, so each homologue can end up in either one of the two new nuclei

37 12.5 From Gametes to Offspring Aside from meiosis, the details of gamete formation and fertilization differ among plants and animals

38 Gamete Formation in Plants Sporophytes Diploid bodies with specialized structures that form spores (haploid cells) that give rise to gametophytes through mitosis Gametophytes A multicelled haploid body inside which one or more gametes form

39 Figure 12-8a p196 mitosis zygote (2n) multicelled sporophyte (2n) Diploid Fertilization Haploid Meiosis gametes (n)spores (n) multicelled gametophyte (n)

40 Figure 12-8b p196 mitosis zygote (2n) multicelled body (2n) Diploid Fertilization Haploid Meiosis gametophyte (n)

41 Figure 12-8c p196 multicelled sporophyte (2n) multicelled body (2n)

42 ANIMATED FIGURE: Generalized life cycles To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

43 Gamete Formation in Animals Males Meiosis of primary spermatocytes produces four haploid spermatids, which mature into sperm Females Meiosis of a primary oocyte forms cells of different sizes; the secondary oocyte gets most of the cytoplasm and matures into an ovum (egg); other cells (polar bodies) get little cytoplasm and degenerate

44 Sperm Formation in Animals male germ cell 1 23 sperm 4 Stepped Art

45 ANIMATED FIGURE: Sperm formation To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

46 Egg Formation in Animals female germ cell 56 egg 7 Stepped Art

47 ANIMATED FIGURE: Egg formation To play movie you must be in Slide Show Mode PC Users: Please wait for content to load, then click to play Mac Users: CLICK HERECLICK HERE

48 Fertilization Chance combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes through fertilization produce a unique combination of genetic information Fertilization The fusion of two haploid gametes (sperm and egg) resulting in a diploid zygote

49 Fertilization

50 Take-Home Message : How does meiosis fit into the life cycle of plants and animals? Meiosis and cytoplasmic division precede the development of haploid gametes in animals and spores in plants The union of two haploid gametes at fertilization results in a diploid zygote

51 12.6 Mitosis and Meiosis – An Ancestral Connection? Though they have different results, mitosis and meiosis are fundamentally similar processes Meiosis may have evolved by the remodeling of existing mechanisms of mitosis

52 Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis I One diploid nucleus to two haploid nuclei Prophase I Chromosomes condense. Homologous chromosomes pair. Crossovers occur (not shown). Spindle forms and attaches chromosomes to spindle poles. Nuclear envelope breaks up. Metaphase I Chromosomes align midway between spindle poles. Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate and move toward at spindle poles. Telophase I Chromosome clusters arrive opposite spindle poles. New nuclear envelopes form. Chromosomes decondense. Stepped Art

53 Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Stepped Art Anaphase Sister chromatids separate and move toward at spindle poles. Mitosis One diploid nucleus to two diploid nuclei Prophase Chromosomes condense. Spindle forms and attaches chromosomes to spindle poles. Nuclear envelope breaks up. Metaphase Chromosomes align midway between spindle poles. Telophase Chromosome clusters arrive opposite spindle poles. New nuclear envelopes form. Chromosomes decondense

54 Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis Stepped Art Telophase II Chromosome clusters arrive at spindle poles. New nuclear envelopes form. Chromosomes decondense. Meiosis II Two haploid nuclei to four haploid nuclei Prophase II Chromosomes condense. Spindle forms and attaches chromosomes to spindle poles. Nuclear envelope breaks up. Metaphase II Chromosomes align midway between spindle poles. Anaphase II Sister chromatids separate and move toward opposite spindle poles.

55 Evidence in BRCA Genes Molecular products of BRCA genes monitor and repair breaks in DNA, for example during DNA replication prior to mitosis These same molecules monitor and fix breaks in homologous chromosomes during crossing over in prophase I of meiosis Mutations that affect these molecules can affect the outcomes of both mitosis and meiosis Sexual reproduction probably originated by mutations that affected mitosis

56 Mouse Cell Nuclei During Meiosis

57 Take-Home Message: Are the processes of mitosis and meiosis related? Meiosis may have evolved by the remodeling of existing mechanisms of mitosis


Download ppt "Albia Dugger Miami Dade College Chapter 12 Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google