2Democracy and the “Common Man” Alexis de Tocqueville (French writer and visitor to the US) and others from Europe were amazed by the informal manners, democratic attitudes, and “equality” they witnessed in America
3Godey’s Lady’s Book – “Vogue” of it’s time for all ladies to copy latest styles More equality, except…Who’s left out?Self-made man – was the hero of the age
4Expansion of Suffrage1824 – 1840 – no longer just the wealthy elite involved in politics – more lower and middle class voters than ever beforeUniversal male suffrageParty nominating conventionsPopular election of the president – electors chosen by voters rather than legislature
5Rise of Third-PartiesMore elected officesPopular campaigningTwo-Party System –national scale
6Rotation of officeSpoils system – rewarding party loyalty with government jobsRotation in office – pros and cons?Both of the above affirmed the democratic ideal that one man was as good as another
7Revolution of 1828Jackson elected after the “Corrupt Bargain” and election of John Quincy Adams in 1824Campaigns both included MUDSLINGING and personal attacks on candidates and their wivesRachel and Andrew were living as husband and wife for two years before they found out that her first husband had actually never completed the divorce. Meanwhile, Jackson supporters were by no means innocent. Adams was accused of installing gambling tables in the White House at the public expense, of padding his expense account, and even of pimping women for the Tsar of Russia
8THREE TIMES the number of voters than last election
9Second Party System1. Democratic Party – favored local rule, limited government, free trade, equal opportunities (White males)-opposed monopolies, national bank, high tariffs, and high land pricesSupported by southerners, westerners, small farmers, urban workersJackson’s Party
102. Whig Party (Anti-Jackson) – favored Clay’s American System, national bank, federal funding for internal improvements, protective tariffOpposed immorality, crime, blamed immigrantsSupported by New Englanders, mid-Atlantic, upper Middle-West, Protestants, middle class urban professionals
11Activity 1: Use the previous notes to answer the question below in paragraph form. You will then share your paragraph with a neighbor.Analyze the extent to which electoral politics influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840
12Presidency of Andrew Jackson Common man? – extraordinary ordinary man – self-made manKitchen CabinetPeggy Eaton AffairMore vetoes than all previous presidentsInternal improvements and states’ rights: The Maysville Road veto – Jackson vetoed rival Clay’s plan because it was wholly within one state (Kentucky)
14Indian Removal Act (1830)Jackson convinced best solution for land-hungry citizensNative Americans would move west of the Mississippi with “help” of Bureau of Indian Affairs to Oklahoma territory
15Worcester v. Georgia (1832) – laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of Cherokee territories – Jackson sided with the states – “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”1838 – Trail of Tears – 15,000 Cherokees forced to leave, 4,000 died on journeyOther Native groups included: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole
16The Nullification Crisis – right of states to declare a federal law null and void Webster-Hayne Debates (1830)1. Tariff issue – Calhoun’s South Carolina did not want to collect, Jackson and Congress passed Force Bill – take military action if necessary – compromise – lower tariff and nullification postponed2. The Union: Calhoun and Jackson – Jackson favored federal authority regarding nullification, but also supported Southern slavery by stopping anti-slavery literature distributions in US mail
17The Bank War: Jackson and Biddle Biddle – managed bank effectively, but some felt he catered to the wealthyJackson vetoed bank – believed it was unconstitutional, “hydra of corruption”, expense of common peopleWon re-election over Clay partly due to issue, ¾ of electoral vote
18Martin Van Buren VP to Jackson Panic of 1837 partly due to veto of BUS and pet banks – Democrats and Van Buren blamed
19“Log Cabin and Hard Cider” Campaign of 1840 Tippecanoe and Tyler Too – Whig’s candidate William Henry Harrison, popular war heroCampaigning – log cabins rolling down streets, free drinks, buttons, name-calling – “Martin Van Ruin”78% of eligible voters turned outFate of Harrison?
20Creating and American Culture A. Cultural Nationalism – new enthusiasm for reformB. Education reform/ professionalism1. Horace Mann – led tax-supported public school movement, compulsory attendance, longer school year, teacher training2. Moral education – McGuffey readers, hard work, punctual, soberHigher education – result of 2nd Great Awakening, Mt. Holyoke and Oberlin admitted women
22Religion; revivalism 1. Second Great Awakening 1820s -40s 2. Burned Over District and Western New York/ Charles G. Finney3. Baptists and Methodists in South – Peter Cartwright led outdoor revivals, camp meetings
23Utopian experiments 1. Mormons – founded by Joseph Smith Book of Mormon – connection between lost tribes of Israel and Native AmericansSmith gained followers and moved west, murdered in IllinoisBrigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah – establish prosperous, cooperative religious communityPolygamy
24Oneida Community – founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 cooperative livingCommitted to perfect social and economic equality, free-loveShared property and marriage partnersPlanned reproduction, communal child rearing, economic success
25ShakersFounded by Mother Ann Lee – believed to be female embodiment of ChristCommunal livingSeparation of the SexesOpportunities for women
26Activity 2 – Answer the following in paragraph form. Analyze the extent to which the Second Great Awakening influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840.
27Transcendentalists Challenged materialism of American society Individualism, emotion, and natureRalph Waldo Emerson –self reliance, independent thinkingHenry David Thoreau – Essay on Civil Disobedience and WaldenBrook Farm – communal, combine manual labor and intellectuals
28National literature, art, and architecture Painting - Hudson River School – expressed romantic age’s fascination with the natural worldArchitecture – Greek styles, democratic spiritLiterature – American writers and American themes –Cooper’s Leather-stocking Tales and Last of the Mohicans, Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter, and Melville’s Moby Dick
29Reform Crusades - Feminism; roles of women in the 19th century Cult of DomesticityStemmed from women’s involvement in anti-slavery movementGrimke SistersLucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady StantonSeneca Falls Convention (1848) – Declaration of Sentiments – modeled after?
30AbolitionismAmerican Colonization Society (1817) – Back to Africa – LiberiaAmerican Anti-Slavery Society (1831) – William Lloyd Garrison – immediate emancipation, burned ConstitutionBlack Abolitionists – Frederick Douglass and his North Star, Sojourner TruthViolent Abolitionists – David Walker, Nat Turner
31TemperanceUsed moral arguments to protest excessive drinking and alcoholOne of first reform movements women got involved inAmerican Temperance Society – by 1840s million membersWomen’s Christian Temperance UnionSupported by factory ownersOpposed by German and Irish immigrants
32Criminals and insane Mental Hospitals and Dorothea Dix Schools for Blind and DeafPrisons –solitary confinement for reflection of sins, structure and discipline for moral reform, work programs
33Activity 3 – Work with a partner on the following question. The Jacksonian Period (1824 – 1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man”. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider the reform movements of the Jackson Age in your response.
34Essay Questions1. Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840Jacksonian economic policyChanges in electoral politicsSecond Great AwakeningWestward Movement
35Essay QuestionThe Jacksonian Period (1824 – 1848) has been celebrated as the era of the “common man”. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response.Economic DevelopmentPoliticsReform Movements
36Unit 5 “Quiz”1. What system was used during the Jackson age to reward loyal party members with jobs?2. Who headed the National Bank during the Jackson Age?3. Who led the movement for public education reform?4. Who helped establish safe institutions for the mentally insane?5. What religion did Joseph Smith begin after an angel visited him?