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Sampling Techniques, Safety, and Sample Quality Control Ohio Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Training December 5, 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Sampling Techniques, Safety, and Sample Quality Control Ohio Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Training December 5, 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sampling Techniques, Safety, and Sample Quality Control Ohio Department of Transportation Hazardous Materials Training December 5, 2006

2 Introduction Bill Biehl, PG Senior Project Manager Hull & Associates, Inc.

3 Three Areas to Cover: Collecting a Representative Sample Sampling Safety Sampling Quality Control Introduction

4 Typical Waste Streams include: –Soil –Sediment –Sludges & Slurries –Waste Piles –Drums or Containerized Wastes –Surface Water –Surficial Contamination (C&D considerations) Others (Air, Soil Gas, Biota) Collecting a Representative Sample

5 Waste Streams Common To ODOT Facilities

6 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies A.Non-Submerged Solids / Sludges / Sediment Examples: Soil Waste Piles Drums Catch Basin Sludges Surface Run-off Areas

7 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) Non-Submerged Soils / Sludges / Sediments Sampling Spoon, Trowel, or Scoop Encore Sampler* Shovel Hand Auger w/ Sampler Trier Soil Recovery Probe / Grain Sampler

8 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) B.Submerged Solids / Sludges / Sediment Examples: O/W Separator Sludge Outfall Sediments Drums

9 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) Submerged Soils / Sludges / Sediments Sampling Spoon, Trowel, or Scoop Sludge Sampler Dredge Sampler

10 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) C.Water / Liquids Examples: O/W Separators UST Observation Well Drums ASTs Spill Containment Cells Surface Waters

11 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) Liquids / Water Bailer COLIWASSA Drum Thief Peristaltic Pump Weighted Bottle Lab Sample Container

12 Collecting a Representative Sample - Sampling Methodologies (con’t) D. Surficial Contamination - Chip or Wipe Samples Examples: Lead paint on concrete Battery acid spill on concrete PCB-contaminated oil

13 Collecting a Representative Sample – Sampling Strategy Sampling Strategy - making sure the sample reflects the characteristics of the population or media being sampled a.Biased Sampling (looking for “worst case”) b.Composite Sampling (looking for “average”) c.Grab Samples (specific location / time) d.Random Sampling (unknown or variable concentrations) i.Simple ii.Stratified (sampling based on varying colors/grain size) iii.Systematic (grid pattern)

14 Sampling Safety Up to date H&S Training Recommend a H&S Plan (incl. physical hazards) Familiar with chemical, MSDS, routes of exposure Proper PPE –Consider Exposures and probability for spillage –Level D: long sleeves, protective glasses, proper sampling gloves (e.g. nitrile is most universal) –Level C: Tyvek, boots, face shield, respirator

15 Sampling Safety

16 Sampling QA/QC A.Sampling Procedures 1.Sample Collection Practices 2.Sample Documentation B.Custody Procedures 1.Samplers Objective 2.Lab Objective

17 Sampling QA/QC A.Sampling Procedures 1.Sample Collection Practices Sample Containers & Preservatives –Zero headspace Sample Labeling Sample Identification –ODOT-specific –Unique & Descriptive Sampling Equipment Preparation and Decontamination Sample Storage and Transportation

18 Sampling QA/QC A.Sampling Procedures 1.Sample Collection Practices a)Sample Containers & Preservatives VOCs require “zero-headspace” - VOA vial test Minimize volatilization Minimize cross-contamination (“in-situ sample”) Pay close attention to preservatives (special note about nitric acid) Plenty of Sample! (sand & gravel ≠ clay) Note Holding Time Requirements

19 Sampling QA/QC A.Sampling Procedures 2.Sample Documentation Field Notes (ODOT-specific form) Sample Identification (double-check notes/COC/sample bottle) Chain-of- Custody

20 Sampling QA/QC B.Custody Procedures 1.Samplers Objective Site / Project Information Sample ID / Number of sample containers Preservation Requested Analyses Special Notations (i.e., HOLD, report to MDL) Custody Signatures

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23 Sampling QA/QC What is “Custody”? The National Enforcement Investigations Center (NEIC) of the U.S. EPA defines custody as: 1. The sample is in your physical possession; 2. The sample is within view after being in your physical possession; 3. The sample was in your possession and then you locked or sealed it to prevent tampering; and/or 4. The sample is placed in a designated secure place with limited access to authorized personnel only.

24 Sampling QA/QC B.Custody Procedures 1.Lab Objective COC is the master document of communication between sampler and lab COC used to catalog sample and assign a unique lab ID number Lab will notify of problems or discrepancies (identification discrepancies, shipping problems, preservative problems)

25 Thank you! Hull & Associates, Inc Glendale Ave. Ste 300 Toledo, Ohio (419)


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