Presentation on theme: "Preparing for Effective Argumentation. What’s the connection? Emotional Appeals are often employed in propaganda Logical Fallacies are often present in."— Presentation transcript:
Preparing for Effective Argumentation
What’s the connection? Emotional Appeals are often employed in propaganda Logical Fallacies are often present in those appeals Positive or negative connotation? –TECHNIQUE
Aristotle’s Appeals The goal of argumentative writing is to persuade your audience that your ideas are valid, or more valid than someone else's. The Greek philosopher Aristotle divided the means of persuasion, appeals, into three categories--Ethos, Pathos, Logos.
Rhetoric Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing effectively (Webster's Definition). According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos.
Ethos Refers to the trustworthiness or credibility of the writer or speaker. Greek for “character” The impact of ethos is often called the argument's 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.'
Pathos Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience' often associated with emotional appeal 'appeal to the audience's sympathies and imagination.' An appeal to pathos causes an audience not just to respond emotionally but to identify with the writer's point of view--to feel what the writer feels.
Logos Greek for 'word' Refers to the internal consistency of the message--the clarity of the claim, the logic of its reasons, and the effectiveness of its supporting evidence. The impact of logos on an audience is sometimes called the argument's logical appeal.
Logical Fallacy Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. Fallacies can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim. Avoid these common fallacies in your own arguments and watch for them in the arguments of others. *from Purdue OWL
Red Herring Red Herring: This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them. Example: The level of mercury in seafood may be unsafe, but what will fishers do to support their families?
Ad hominem Ad hominem: This is an attack on the character of a person rather than her/his opinions or arguments. Example: Green Peace's strategies aren't effective because they are all dirty, lazy hippies.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc Post hoc ergo propter hoc: This is a conclusion that assumes that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.' Example: I drank bottled water and now I am sick, so the water must have made me sick.
Ad misericordiam (appeal to pity) Assent or dissent to a statement or an argument is sought on the basis of an irrelevant appeal to pity. In other words, pity, or the related emotion is not the subject or the conclusion of the argument. Example: Oh, Officer, There's no reason to give me a traffic ticket for going too fast because I was just on my way to the hospital to see my wife who is in serious condition to tell her I just lost my job and the car will be repossessed. –Person L argues statement p or argument A. –L deserves pity because of circumstance y. –Circumstance y is irrelevant to p or A. –Statement p is true or argument A is good.
Dicto simpliciter A fallacy in which a general rule is treated as universally true regardless of the circumstances: a sweeping generalization. Example: Exercise is good; therefore, everyone should exercise
Circular Reasoning Circular Argument: This restates the argument rather than actually proving it. Example: Barak Obama is a good communicator because he speaks effectively.
Which of the following is NOT circular reasoning? 1. Mike was the best candidate for president, because he was totally better than any of the others. 2. Parent: “It’s bed time, go to bed.” Child: “Why?” Parent: “Because I said so.” 3. If such actions were not illegal, then they would not be prohibited by the law.4. They signed Jackie Chan to play the lead, because Hollywood cannot make an action movie without a big star.
Appeal to Authority When a well-known figure is used as supporting evidence for a statement’s validity, the hope is that merely by association with the person's name, the idea will be accepted. The strategy is a fallacious argument because the person may not be an expert on the subject in question or there is no evidence that shows that the well-known figure is in support of the proposed statement. Example: Tim Tebow takes additional vitamin C tablets, which he swears keeps him healthy.
Slippery Slope This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either. Example: If we ban Hummers because they are bad for the environment eventually the government will ban all cars, so we should not ban Hummers.
Appeal to Force Appeal to force is committed when the arguer threatens (even implicitly) that some harm will come to the persuadee unless the persuadee accepts the conclusion. It is a fallacy if the harmful circumstances are not related to the topic of the conclusion of argument.
Propaganda Dissemination of information—facts, arguments, rumors, half-truths, or lies—to influence public opinion. The systematic effort to manipulate other people’s beliefs, attitudes, or actions by means of symbols (words, gestures, banners, monuments, music, clothing, insignia, hairstyles, designs on coins and postage stamps, and so forth).
In The Fine Art of Propaganda, the IPA stated that "It is essential in a democratic society that young people and adults learn how to think, learn how to make up their minds. They must learn how to think independently, and they must learn how to think together. They must come to conclusions, but at the same time they must recognize the right of other men to come to opposite conclusions. So far as individuals are concerned, the art of democracy is the art of thinking and discussing independently together."
Logical Fallacies Part I: Do you follow?
Logical Fallacies Part II: Still following?
Plain Folks By using the plain-folks technique, speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people." The device is used by advertisers and politicians alike.
Bandwagon This type of propaganda is used to pacify us—it makes something sound less threatening than it should. Example: “All veterans are voting for our candidate!”
Scare Tactics This technique gets people to act out of fear rather than logical thinking. Example: “My opponent will cut jobs!”
Innuendo This technique hints bad things about somebody (or a group) but doesn’t explain or provide any proof.
Appeal to Science This technique suggests that something is good because it is more scientifically advanced.
Snob Appeal This technique makes people think they are better that others if they act a certain way.
Name-Calling The name-calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence. Example: Hitler did this when he said, “Jews are swine.”
Glittering Generality The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. While Name Calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence. We believe in, fight for, live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas. Such words include civilization, good, right, democracy, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, medicine, health, and love.
Euphemisms This type of propaganda is used to pacify us—it makes something sound less threatening than it should. Often used in the military…
George Carlin on euphemisms…
Testimonial Using a famous person to try to make you buy or support something or someone Similar to “Transfer”—certain people, words, pictures act as symbols when they are paired with products, ideas, etc. Example: Tiger Woods wears Nike, Jessica Simpson recommends Proactive.
Humor Giving the audience a reason to laugh or to be entertained by clever use of visuals or language. Examples: Geico commercials (so easy, a caveman can do it…NOT the gecko…let’s be honest, he’s NOT funny…in fact, I’d like to motion that he be removed from their commercials…he makes me want to buy Geico LESS….)