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Absolute Monarchs in Europe

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Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchs in Europe"— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolute Monarchs in Europe 1500-1800
Chapter 5 Absolute Monarchs in Europe

2 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
-Charles V of the Hapsburg Empire controlled most of Europe between 1520 and 1555: Spain, Spain’s American Empire, Italy, Austria, the Netherlands, and Germany -After the Peace of Augsburg he divided his empire between his brother Ferdinand who received Austria and the Holy Roman Empire and his son Philip II, who inherited Spain, the Spanish Netherlands, and the American Colonies

3 -When the King of Portugal died in 1580, Philip II claimed the throne and took over the Portuguese Empire: Africa, India, and the East Indies -Spain stock piled incredible wealth from the Gold and Silver mines of South America and Africa -Philip II felt an obligation to defend his Catholic religion against the Ottomans (Muslims) and Protestants -Defeated a large Ottoman fleet at Lepanto, but the Spanish Armada lost to the British in 1588

4 -Velazquez painted the royal family during the time period
- Due to great wealth from the Americas, Spanish nobles are now able to patronize the Arts -El Greco was a native born Greek who spent a great deal of time painting in Spain -Painted deeply religious figures of martyrs and saints using rich colors and distorted figures -Velazquez painted the royal family during the time period -Cervantes wrote Don Quixote, a book about a Spanish nobleman who becomes crazy after reading too many books about knights -Became the birth of the modern European novel

5 -The large amounts of gold and silver caused for rapid inflation in Spain
-Nobles did not have to pay taxes leaving the burden to the lower classes -The Spanish relied heavily on foreign trade due to the guild system still in place -Spanish goods were more expensive that foreign goods -Spanish were giving money to their enemies

6 -The Seven Northern Provinces of the Netherlands defeated an army of Spanish soldiers by flooding the lowlands, became the Protestant Netherlands led by William of Orange -The remaining ten Southern Provinces became Catholic Belgium remaining under Spanish control

7 -The Dutch who had the largest merchant fleet in 1636, +4,800 ships, became the leaders of trade in Europe -Traded grain from Poland, timber from Scandinavia, and gradually Amsterdam and the Netherlands became the center of banking in Europe -Rembrandt became a leading Dutch artist using contrast to show distinctive facial characteristics

8 -Many European rulers ruled by absolutism believing they were granted their power by divine right
-The middle class usually supported the monarchs due to the stability they provided after the turmoil of religious, political, and economic unrest of centuries past -Rulers looked to free themselves from the nobility that once had an influence on their power

9 France’s Ultimate Monarch
-Between 1562 and 1598, France fought a series of internal religious wars between Huguenots and Catholics -Resulted in an unstable government and a weakened nation -Henry IV became the first king in the Bourbon dynasty of France -Proved to be a strong leader, ended religious fighting, and strengthened the economy -Converted to Catholicism, but allowed Protestants to worship freely -”Edict of Nantes” gave freedom of religion -Stabbed to death by a fanatic


11 -Henry’s son Louis XIII became the new king, however he was a weak leader -Cardinal Richelieu siezed the opportunity to have a wide influence on the king and became, in effect, the ruler of France -The Cardinal removed walls from noble’s castles and Protestant cities -Also, looked to weaken the Hapsburg Empire by involving France in a 30 year war against them


13 -Descartes was part of a group of thinkers known as the skeptics, who placed doubt in the forefront of philosophical thinking -Became a leader in Enlightenment thinking and scientific method

14 -Louis XIV became the leader of France at an early age -The Thirty Years War had ended and France was the leading power in Europe -Because of his young age Cardinal Mazarin served as the temporary ruler of France until Louis came of age -He put in place high taxes and threatened nobles; violence erupted over these policies and Louis would never forget the threat he felt


16 -When Louis finally took control at age 23, he strengthened the power of the central government and look to further weaken the power of the nobles -Louis with the assistance of Jean Baptiste Colbert looked to strengthen the French nation into a mercantilist power- making everything France needed, IN FRANCE -Protected French factories and expanded colonies to make them a source of raw materials and a market for French goods


18 -In 1685, after Colbert’s death, Louis cancelled the Edict of Nantes that allowed Huguenots to worship in France: many skilled artisans and business people left -Louis lived life to the fullest spending incredible amounts of money on food, clothing, and on the Palace of Versailles, where the arts flourished -France had a dominant army under Louis, but failed to achieve in far reaching conquest as the European nations united under the League of Augsburg to battle against Louis


20 -England, Austria, and the Dutch joined together to wage war on France and Spain when, Spain’s king Charles II died without an heir -Louis grandson became king putting two Bourbon kings in charge of the two most powerful nations in Europe -The War of Spanish Succession lasted 12 years and ended with the Treaty of Utrecht -Britain gained Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Hudson Bay


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