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1Unit Three Chapter Eight U.S. HistoryUnit ThreeChapter Eight
2The Northern SectionGeographic, economic, and cultural differences of the United States broken into 2 sections: North & South.Farming in the Northwest:Corn, wheat and grains = profitable.Could spoil, had to turn them into a product that would not spoil.Rise of specialized businesses.
3Industries in the Northeast: Urban areas: Areas made up mostly of one or more cities.Population Density: The amount of people living within a given space. This greatly increased!!!Industrialization:Increased rapidly in Connecticut with Eli Whitney building a factory (for his interchangeable parts)Products: tin, iron, leather, shoes, carpet, etc.Remember Lowell’s textile mill?They hired young, unmarried women to run machines.Women = $3.25 for 73 hour work week.Replaced by Irish immigrants who would take less than them!
4Growth of Cities:Farmland had become overgrown by all the people living in the US, so more people came to the cities for work.Most people still in rural areas though…but cities are growing!Manhattan had 33,000 in 1790 to 516,000 by 1850.Things that used to be taken care of in the home (medical care, education, care for elderly) can’t be done in the city b/c people are working…Hospitals and schools began to develop and fill this gap!Tenements – crowded apartments with poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort.Problems:Number of these was on the rise.Poor police and fire systems.No sewer systems or reliable supplies of waterBy 1832, thousands killed by cholera (intestinal disease caused by contaminated water).
6The Southern Section The Economy of the South: “King Cotton” More people want comfy cloths, not wool =)1820 = 160 million pounds of raw cotton.1830 = harvest doubled1850 = +1billion pounds1860 = 2/3 of the total value of American exports.States of the south:Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Carolinas, GAKentucky, Tenn, Alabama, Mississippi, LA, ArkThe Southern Section
7The Southern Section Geography of southern farming While the North developed, the South stayed rural.Made up of farms and countryside, not cities.Fertile soil and plentiful rain helped farmers.South was dependent on North for banks, shipping companies, and textile mills few southerners entered into this business.Even preachers, lawyers, and doctors hoped to retire and become plantation farmers.In truth, most farm families owned few or no slaves.Half the cotton crop was produced on farms with six slaves or fewer.Cotton gin caused most states to change their main crop to cotton, while Virginia and North Carolina stayed with Tobacco.
8The Southern Section (cont.) Very slow urban growth.Some southern cities were: New Orleans, Charleston, and Richmond.Cities were smaller here than in the North, but had some of the same problems (poor housing and sanitation).Only 8% of southerners lived in towns with more than 4,000 people.By 1850, there were 3.7 million African Americans… 12% were free.Most lived in southern cities or rural areas away from large plantations.
9The Slavery System Agrarian System Life of a Slave: By 1804, all Northern states had banned slavery or passed laws to end it gradually.1808, Congress banned all further importation of slaves to U.S.1820, 1.5 million slaves, by 1850 doubled to 3.2 million, and by 1860 the slave population made up half of South Carolina and Mississippi’s population and 2/5 of the population of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, and Louisiana.Life of a Slave:Slaves were property, not people. Price of slaves would rise.By 1837, the price of a “good” slave was $1,300.After the purchase, they only cost $15-60/year to support.
11Small Plantations – vs – Large Plantation Most slaves lived on these.Lived in sizable community of slaves, usually 20 or more.Tended to be harsher here than on smaller plantations.Workers toiled in gangs under supervision of foremen.Life really bad for women.Baring/caring for children, took care of houses, cooked/served food, cleaned houses and clothes, labored in fields.Some had to endure the threat of physical or sexual abuse by their slave owners.Slaves often worked side by side with their owners in the field.Sometimes ate together and slept in the same house.
12Slave RevoltsOnly a small percentage of slaves ever managed to escape their captivity or to win their freedom.Rebellion, especially on a large scale, stood little chance of success.Historians have documented scores of slave rebellions, most were small, spontaneous responses to cruel treatment and ended in tragic failure.Significance:These were a white southerners nightmare!Many African American communities outnumbered the white population.Virginia, briefly considered ending slavery to ease this threat.Many southern states tightened restrictions on slaves to make sure this didn’t happen again.Virginia and North Carolina passed laws against teaching enslaved people to read.Some states prevented African Americans from moving freely or meeting.
13Slave Revolts – Vesey’s Plan In 1800, Denmark Vesey bought his freedom with $600 he won in the lottery.A priest, self-educated, read anti-slavery lit.Grew increasingly angry at the sufferings of his fellow African Americans.He preached against slavery, quoting the Declaration of Indep and the Bible.He criticized African Americans who would not stand up to whites.In 1822, he turned to action and laid plans for the most ambitious slave revolt in American History.
14Slave Revolts – Vesey’s Plan Involved hundreds (or thousands) of rebels.Vesey plotted to seize the city of Charleston in July 1822.Also, intended to raid the arsenal, kill all the white residents, free the slaves, and burn the city to the ground.He was betrayed by some of his followers.In June, South Carolina troops smashed the rebellion before it could get started.35 African Americans were hanged, including Vesey.Another 32 were expelled from South Carolina.Four white men received fines and prison terms for aiding the rebels.
16Nat Turner’s Rebellion 31 year old African American preacher.He planned and carried out a violent uprising in AugActing under what he believed was divine inspiration, he led about 70 slaves in raids on white families in southeastern VA.Attacked 4 plantations, they killed 57 white people.Local militia captured most of the rebels.VA hanged about 20 of these slaves, including Turner.Crowds of angry whites rioted, slaughtering about a hundred African Americans who had had no part in the revolt.
17Few Other Problems…Poverty, alcoholism, illiteracy, overcrowded housing, poor health care, abuse of women, declining moral values.These problems plagued cities early on.Many people felt cities needed to reform.It will begin with faith based reformers.
18The Second Great Awakening Money came less from Fed Gov’t b/c church membership had dropped.Early 1800’s – 1/10 Pioneers was a member of a churchStarted in KY and TN; a revival of religious faith in the early 1800sWas Evangelical b/c it emphasized1.) The Scripture is the final authority2.) Salvation can only be achieved through a personal belief in Jesus Christ3.) People demonstrate true faith by leading a transformed life and by performing good deeds.“Witnessing for Christ”
19The Second Great Awakening (cont.) Democratic!Anyone, rich or poor, could win salvationEvangelical religions stressed the importance of the congregation (people of the church) other than the ministers.Common feature – revivalA gathering where people were revived, or brought back to religious life, by listening to preachers and accepting Jesus Christ.New Denominations grew (sub-types)Baptists, Methodists, Unitarians, Mormons, Millennialists, etc.
20The Second Great Awakening (cont.) The African-American ChurchMethodist, and other evangelical churches open to blacks and whitesBoth white and black Christians sang spirituals (Folk hymns)Southern slaves interpreted Christian message as promise of freedomStarted their own church (African Methodist Episcopal Church) under leadership of Richard Allen in 1792.1830s and 1840s – Women became leaders in reform movementsLet them connect with others and help!Were able to influence the beliefs and standards of behavior in their community.
21Section #1: “Middle Class Reform” Protestant Revivalists: believed that God was all-powerful but that God allowed people to make their own destinies.Charles Grandison Finney: Central figurePreached with passion and fire!Lyman Beecher: father to Henry Ward Beecher, Harriett Beecher Stowe, & Catherine BeecherWarned America: “the vast extent of territory, our numerous and increasing population, Diversity of local interests, the power of selfishness, and the fury of sectional jealousy and hate.”Said good people would make a good country!
22Section #1 cont. Transcendentalists (“rise above”): Centered in Concord, MassachusettsTaught that the process of spiritual discovery and insight would lead a person to truths more profound than he or she could reach through reason. Humans are naturally good. Promote self-reliance.
23Ralph Waldo Emerson Leader of the movement. (1803 – 1882) Recognized as a major American poet.Young wife died, so he questioned his beliefs.“What is man born for, but to be a reformer, a reformer of what man has made, a renouncer of lies; a restorer of truth and good ?”
24Henry David Thoreau Best works: “Walden, or life in the Woods” Suffered tragedy to make him question…Failed at teaching, broken engagement, death of brother.Built a cabin on lake Walden and spent 2 years writing and thinking.Where he wrote Walden.
25Henry David Thoreau (cont.) “Why should we be in such desperate haste to succeed, and in such desperate enterprises? If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away.” --- Walden (1854)Strong opponent of war with Mexico.True to his beliefs, he protested in 1846 by not paying taxes.Jailed for this and later described it in his famous essay Civil Disobedience.In his later years, he devoted lots of time to the anti-slavery movement, or helping escaped slaves free.
26The Temperance Movement Social problem of the early 1800’s.At this point, Americans consumed more alcoholic beverages per person than any other time in the country's history.An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.U.S. “actually threatened with becoming a nation of drunkards.” – Greene and Delaware Moral Society, 1815Women reformers particularly saw it as threatening.Abstinence: to not drink alcohol.
27Temperance Movement (cont.) By 1834 the American Temperance Society had 7,000 local organizations with 1,250,000 members.Abraham Lincoln, young lawyer who saw Temperance Movement like American Revolution.He looked forward to the “happy day when…the victory shall be complete – when there shall be neither a slave nor a drunkard on the earth.Maine outlaws alcohol in 1851.Protests of brewers, distillers, and other citizens usually led to repeal of such laws.
28Public Education Public Education needed to be reformed too! Buildings were old, textbooks were scarce, teacher quality was poor.Many people began demanding tax-supported public schools.Democracy needs literate, informed voters and morally upright citizens.Opposition:Tax payers with no kids, or kids went to private schools hated this suggestionSome families needed their kids to work and didn’t want them going to school past a certain age.
29Horace Mann – leads reforms! Self-educatedServed in Mass legis.State’s 1st Sec. of Board of Ed.Believed in “the absolute right to an education of every human being that comes into the world.”Wanted to raise taxes for public ed.Divided schools into grade levels.Established first public high school in 1821.Fought against slavery.
30Moral EducationLike other middle-class reformers, Mann wanted an education that promoted self-discipline and good citizenship.Schools taught kids how to behave, stand in line to wait turn, be polite to others, and respect authority.Learned through McGuffey’s Readers.Promoted evangelical Protestant values.
31Limits of Reform Schools more common in North than South. Where schools did exist:Girls discouraged from attendingFree blacks often turned away or were segregated (separated according to race).Some African American colleges opened.Some private colleges became coeducational.For most part, only white males were welcomed at Universities.
32Reforming PrisonsIn 1800’s many states built prisons for those who committed crimes.Supposed to be in isolation here for years.Prisoners were supposed to lead regular, disciplined lives, reflect on their sins, and maybe become law abiding citizens.But Dorothea Dix, a Boston schoolteacher, found out otherwise…
33Dorothea Dix’s Discovery She discovered all kinds of people (men, women, young/old, sane/insane, first-timers, and repeat offenders) all together in bad conditions.Dressed in ragsPoorly fedChained together in unheated cellsSpent next 2 years going to all prisons in Mass.Submitted findings to Mass legislature.Treating the Mentally ill as criminals rather than patients, “is to condemn them to mental death.”She convinced state to improve conditions and create separate institutions for the mentally ill.15 others states did the same!
34Utopian CommunitiesMost reformers worked to improve society at large, while some formed Utopian Communities.Small societies dedicated to perfection in social and political conditions.Utopia, appeared in literature earlier.Described a place where human greed, sin, and egotism did not exists, and people lived in prosperity as equals.Utopian reformers, angry about urban problems, believed these kinds of societies would be possible.
35Not so much… First half of 1800’s, 100 communities arose. Most famous – New Harmony, IndianaFounded in 1825 by Scottish man Robert Owen.Owen wanted a town with well-educated and hardworking people, sharing property in common and living in harmony.Fell victim to laziness, selfishness, and quarreling.Most were religiously oriented.Shakers (from Quakers) established their first community in New Lebanon, NY in 1787.Lead lives of productive labor, moral perfection, and equality among men and women.Best known today for great furniture!Peaked in 1840 with 6,000 members, few survived into late 1900’s.
36Section #2: The Antislavery Movement David Walker spread his message interestingly.He bought cloths from sailors returning to port, put copies of his pamphlet “Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World” in them, and then resold the.He said white people should all cooperate so that all Americans can “live in peace and happiness together.”But if they would not listen he warned, “We must and shall be free…in spite of [white people], for America is as much our country as it is yours.Angry southerners in response to antislavery literature, ban anti-slavery publications and made it illegal to teach slaves to read.Yet, fighters of the ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT (the movement to end slavery), continued to fight!
37Roots of AbolitionismEarliest known antislavery protest came from the Mennonites, Christian sect of German immigrants, who declared in 1688:“There is a saying, that we should do to all men like as we will be done ourselves; making no difference of what generation, descent, or colour they are. And those who steal or rob men, and those who buy or purchase them, are they not all alike?”From every state north of Maryland passes laws that gradually abolish slavery.No more importing slaves after 1808.
38Different ApproachesA Quaker, Benjamin Lundy, founded an antislavery newspaper called The Genius of Universal Emancipation.The paper called for a gradual program of EMANCIPATION, freeing of slaved persons.He wanted to stop the spread of slavery to new states and end the slave trade within the U.S. first.By the end of the 1820’s, nearly 50 African American antislavery groups had formed in the nation..
39Different Approaches Continued: The Colonization of Liberia Early 1800’s some abolitionists favored COLONIZATION, a program to send free blacks and emancipated slaves to Africa.Thinking Af. Amers. would never be treated equally, these abolitionists formed the American Colonization Society in 1816.They established the West African country of Liberia (sounds like Liberty!) in 1822.Many white supporters of this didn’t believe in racial equality.Many wanted to rid the US of slavery & African Americans.Some felt this would be good and not allow for slave revolts!Tended to offend African Americans.By 1831, only about 1,400 free African Americans had migrated to Liberia.
41Radical Abolitionism Most famous was William Lloyd Garrison. We will learn about him later.Another famous abolitionist was Frederick Douglass.We will learn about him later as well.
42Divisions Among Abolitionists 1.) Divisions over Women’s ParticipationMost Americans didn’t approve of women’s participation in politics.2.) Divisions over RaceFor Af Amers the movement was personal and had an urgency which many white people didn’t understand.Some black reformers felt that white reformers regarded them as inferior.“We find ourselves occupying the very same position in relation to our Anti-Slavery friends, as we do in relation to the pro-slavery part of the community – a mere secondary, underlining position.”Dr. Martin Delany, one of first black students to graduate from Harvard
43More Divisions of Abolitionists 3.) Divisions over TacticsSome felt Constitution supported slavery, so winning by passing new laws is pointless b/c any new laws would be unconstitutional.Some disagreed and wanted to focus on legal means.Whereas others will resort to violence!
44The Underground RRSome reformers relied on other means to attack slavery, both legal and illegal.Some risked their lives and created the Underground RR – a network of escape routes that provided protection and transportation for slaves fleeing north to freedom.Men & women acting as conductors acted as guides to these escaped slaves.Number of escaped slaves varies from ,000.
45Resistance to Abolitionism… In the North?!? Northern merchants were worried that the antislavery movement would sour trade relations.White workers and labor leaders feared competition from escaped slaves willing to work for lower wages.Many people did not want Af Amers in their community, viewed them as socially inferior.At public events of abolition, violence could erupt.Stones and rotten eggs thrown at speakersVoices drowned out with horns or drums.Buildings were burnt down.Sometimes people were shot and killed, like Elijay P. Lovejoy.
46Opposition in the South Most southerners were angered by the criticisms leveled at slavery.Attacks by abolitionists made many more southerners determined to defend slavery.It was very dangerous for southerners to speak against slavery.Southern postmasters refused to deliver abolitionist literature.In 1836, southerners passed the GAG RULE, for the next eight years prohibited antislavery petitions from being read or acted upon in the House.This was proof for abolitionists that slavery threatened the rights of all Americans, white and black.
47Section #3: The Movement for Women’s Rights Reformers believed that women were central to success of a strong, democratic nation.Some women suggested: start by reforming society from within the home.Cultural and Legal Limits on Women:Many lower class women worked in factories.Middle class women were freed from cooking and making cloths, as more products appeared on shelves.What should they do then?Remain in the Home? Raise/educate children? Entertain guests? Serve husbands? Do community service?Certainly not dabble in politics!
48Strict Legal Limitations Women could not vote.In most states, married women could not own property.Women, generally, could not keep money they earned.Instead they gave it to their husband or father.
49Public Roles for WomenMore women are becoming educated, more grow eager to apply their knowledge and skills beyond the home.Became angry with laws/attitudes that prevented them with doing so.Participating in a movement!1st taste of the world outside family.Marched in parades, participated in boycotts, gave lectures at public assemblies.Many women began to identify with each other in their bad positions in society.
50Fighting for Abolition Battle to end slavery is how women emerged into the political world.Women compared their situation with that of enslaved African Americans.Neither group could vote or hold office.Both were denied full rights of citizens.Women began to attend meetings, gather petitions, give public talks, and write pamphlets/books.
51Male Opposition Many men were horrified with this development. Some men found it distasteful for women to be involved politically.Many people did think that women were more virtuous then men, but that they should use it in the home rather than the public.
52A Women’s Rights Movement 1840 – first World Anti-Slavery Convention in London.American women were not allowed to attend.Two delegates said, “hey, let’s throw our own!”July 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York… first women’s rights convention in US History.Seneca Falls ConventionElizabeth Cady Stanton delivered the Declaration of Sentimate.
53Excerpt from: Declaration of Sentimates “The history of mankind is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations [seizure of power] on the part of man toward women, …[to establish] absolute tyranny over her…[B]ecause women do feel themselves aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently deprived of their most sacred moral rights, we insist that they have immediate admission to all the rights and privileges which belong to them as citizens of the United States.”
54Seneca Falls Convention They passed 12 resolutions.Signed by 68 women and 32 men.They urged women to demand equal legal and political rights.9th resolution called for women’s suffrage.This resolution split women all over the world.
55Slow Progress for Women’s Rights The S.F. Convention did not trigger an immediate downpour of rights.Most Americans still felt as though women should do improve society in the home only.By 1890 – more than 2,500 women/year graduated from college.Educated women began to appear in jobs that they had once been forbidden to do.For African American women, the issue of emancipation was more pressing as opposed to women’s rights.