Presentation on theme: "Industrial and Technological Boom Questions to answer Why did people’s daily lives change in the decades following the Civil War? How did advances in."— Presentation transcript:
Industrial and Technological Boom Questions to answer Why did people’s daily lives change in the decades following the Civil War? How did advances in electric power and communication affect life for people and businesses? What effects did the development of railroads have on industrial growth? What was the impact of the Bessemer process on America?
3 Factors lead to an Industrial Boom in the late 1800s in America 1.A wealth of natural resources -Oil = gasoline = fuel industry -Coal -Timber
2. An explosion of ingenuity and inventions = A higher standard of living 3. Growth of urban population = growth of cities = new markets for products = consumerism
Increased Demand 1.Growth of new ideas and inventions = increased demand 2.With all of the new innovation and inventions a patent system was necessary to protect inventors ingenuity 3.Patent = licenses that give an inventor exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention for a set period of time 4.Between 1790-1860, the fed. Gov’t. issues just 36,000 patents 5.1860-1890 = 500,000 patents issued
Secrecy was a must = fortunes could be made off innovations Without this technological “boom”, the Industrial Revolution would NOT have been possible!
Investors help expansion 1.European and American business leaders invest. 2.Combination of financial backing and ingenuity create new industries and expand on old ones. 3.Increased industrial productivity = American standard of living goes up
Industrialization 1. Rapid expansion of industry = increased standard of living by 1890. a. Work week reduced by 10 hours b. New opportunities in recreation = more demand for technology (phonograph, bicycle, camera)
Check out these innovations How do they impact your life today?
The Telegraph 1844, Samuel Morse successfully completes the 1 st telegraph message By 1900, the Western Union Telegraph Company owned more than 900,000 miles of wire and made 63 million telegraph messages a year!
The Telephone Alexander Graham Bell patents the “talking telegraph” in 1876. 1885 American Telephone and Telegraph Co. build long distance lines By 1900, 1.5 million telephones were in use
Alexander Graham Bell
Question Where would communication be today without Morse and Bell?
1.Thomas Edison, introduces the phonograph in 1877 2.Best known for his work with electricity 3.In 1880, Edison produced light in a sealed glass bulb (light bulb). 4.Used a workable filament made of bamboo fiber 5.Indoor lighting now possible?
Thomas Edison in Menlo Park, NJ
Question What would life be like today without indoor lighting? What affect would it have on our social lives? What affect would it have on business? What would you miss the most without electricity?
Indoor lighting changes “rhythm” of life No indoor lighting in 1865, rising and setting of sun dictated daily activities, business, etc. Imagine life without the benefits of refrigeration!
Expansion of Electricity 1.Central Power Stations - used to provide electricity for lamps, fans, printing presses, and other new appliances 2. Lewis Latimer improved on light bulb (son of an escaped slave) 3. George Westinghouse = 1885 use of a transformer to provide long distance power for home use (alternating current)
Two Major Companies Expand Electricity By 1898, General Electric and Westinghouse Electric power stations were lighting 2 million light bulbs across the land
Impact Productivity in business increased = produce more in less time = cost decreases Employment opportunities Household appliances such as refrigerator Rural areas lagged behind
Oil fuels industrial boom Edwin L. Drake = use of steam engine to drill for oil Titusville, PA 1858 Prior obtaining oil time-consuming & expensive
1859, Drake struck oil and it soon became a major industry A by-product of turning crude oil into kerosene was gasoline, but would be viewed as a waste product until the automobile
Edwin L. Drake
Drake’s well in Titusville, PA
Industrial Rev would change Transportation Old methods? -Canals connected rivers -Horse drawn wagons -Slow, inefficient, and expensive!
Robert Fulton first steamboat Clermont 1807 Western and southern farmers could ship their good around the world Erie Canal 1825 people could travel easily between Atlantic coast and Great Lakes Roads were built
Rise of Railroads 1.Industrial expansion and technological boom = increased demand for shipping routes to new markets = expansion of railroad industry
Railroads Early Locomotive – steam engine on wheels a. Could pull many cars at once b. Could hold people or freight Gave reliable way to transport goods Created millions of new jobs Helped farmers get produce to markets faster Travel took less time People traveled more for pleasure
Railroads – 1828 Baltimore and Ohio Line (B & O) Advances in communication came next, postal service, regular mail delivery
Growth of Railroads Major expansion during and after Civil War Completion of the first Transcontinental Railroad on May 10, 1869 at Promontory Summit, Utah after 7 years of construction. Most workers were immigrants = Chinese Government funded most of project Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroad companies
Promontory Summit, Utah 1869
Technological Advances expand railroads Track gages and signals Air brake systems Granville Woods = telegraph system for communication of moving trains Growth of railroads leads to development of towns in west Time zones created to improve scheduling
Soon networks of communication developed magazines, newspapers, and books – literacy rate up! All contributed to the Industrialization of America. The USA became a major textile producer because of cotton production
Question What impact might improved transportation have on business? What impact might it have on families and social life?
Expansion of Business Growth of business = easier to ship goods = lower shipping costs = further expansion of business
Bessemer Process 1856 Henry Bessemer = create steel from scrap metal = more durable Iron rails would be replaced by steel Melt iron, add carbon and remove impurities Steel was lighter, stronger, and more flexible
Steel leads to mass production New age of building begins Steel bridges (Brooklyn Bridge 1883) Skyscrapers (Chicago Reliance Building 1890) 16 stories, the way our cities/country looks changes