Presentation on theme: "U.S. Imperialism Era 1898-1920 *Spanish-American War, 1898 *American Expansionism Power Point created by Robert L. Martinez Primary Content Sources: The."— Presentation transcript:
U.S. Imperialism Era *Spanish-American War, 1898 *American Expansionism Power Point created by Robert L. Martinez Primary Content Sources: The Americans (McDougal Little) & Mastering The Grade 11 Taks Social Studies Assessment (Killoran, Zimmer, Jarrett).
Spanish-American War, 1898 "Cuban volunteers in their barracks. Many of these were cigar makers at Tampa. "The "Army of the Cuban Republic" was made up from 40 Cubans from Jacksonville, 200 from New York, and 150 from Key West. They set sail on the Florida to join the rebels on May 21st.
The Spanish-American War marked a major turning point in U.S. foreign relations. At the conflicts conclusion, America would emerge as a world empire. American troops in Havana, Cuba.
In 1895, Cuban workers rebelled against Spain, seeking their independence. A Spanish army was sent to Cuba to crush the rebellion with brutal force. Several factors led to U.S. intervention in the conflict. Spanish Frigate “Vizcaya”
SPANISH TROOPS MARCHING THROUGH SAN JUAN, THE CAPITAL OF PUERTO RICO (a Spanish possession.)
Many Americans felt they had a moral obligation to help the Cuban people in their struggle for independence from Spain. America’s Founding Fathers signing the Declaration of Independence from Great Britain.
Reasons for War: Cuban Independence, U.S. military and economic interests in Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, and the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine.
Publishers like William Heart and Joseph Pulitzer sensationalized news events to sell newspapers. Their newspapers deliberately distorted the news from Cuba with exaggerated stories of atrocities. William Randolph Hearst
Front Page “Hearst” newspaper illustration: “Male Spanish officials strip search an American woman tourist in Cuba looking for messages from rebels.” Illustrations such as the one on the right was printed to elicit anger from American readers.
De Lome Letter The Spanish ambassador called President McKinley “weak” in a private letter that was published in the press. De Lome’s letter angered Americans against Spain. De Lome President McKinley
The American government sought to protect American investments (example: sugar & rum) in Cuba and to block any interruption of U.S. trade with Cuba. Cuban Sugar Industry
January 25, The U.S.S. Maine enters Havana harbor, about three weeks later it mysteriously explodes. “Remember the Maine”
The battleship U.S.S Maine was mysteriously blown up in Havana in February, The press blamed the explosion on Spanish sabotage, enraging American public opinion.
In 1898, President William McKinley, finding it difficult to resist the public outcry after the destruction of the U.S.S Maine, asks Congress for a declaration of war against Spain. On April 20 th, the United States declares war. President McKinley
In the Caribbean, hostilities began with a naval blockade of Cuba. The Spanish fleet is effectively sealed up in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba.
The Spanish fleet tries to escape the American blockade at Santiago harbor. A naval battle ensues, and the Spanish fleet is destroyed.
Attempted Escape of Spanish Fleet
In June 1898, American forces landed in Cuba. American forces begin to converge on the port city of Santiago. The army consisted of 17,000 soldiers, including four African-American regiments (called Buffalo soldiers) of regular army and the volunteer Rough Riders, a cavalry unit. The key to capturing the city of Santiago was controlling the high grounds of San Juan Hill.
On the way to secure San Juan Hill, a bloody and dramatic charge took place on nearby Kettle Hill. Without direct orders, Teddy Roosevelt, the Rough Riders, and two African-American regiments attacked and took Kettle Hill.
The battle of San Juan Hill is the bloodiest and most popular of all battles during the Spanish-American war.
Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders
“Speak softly and carry a big stick. You will go far.” - Teddy Roosevelt
Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders conducting regimental drills in San Antonio, Texas, prior to fighting the Spanish in Cuba.
Rough Riders in San Antonio
Rough Rider Reunion 1902, San Antonio, Texas At the 1902 reunion in San Antonio, the Rough Rider veterans agreed to purchase an artificial leg for Private Charles Buckholdt, who had lost his leg in a fight.
Rough Riders charging up San Juan Hill
American forces quickly overcame the Spanish navy in the Philippines and defeated Spanish troops in Cuba. Skirmish lines in Cuba
As a result of the war, the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam. Guam in the Pacific Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Philippines in the Pacific
The victory of San Juan Hill boasts morale and pride of the American people. Spain loses control of its possessions in the Caribbean. Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders emerge as national heroes. San Juan Hill catapults Roosevelt’s political career. Consequences of San Juan Hill
Political Cartoon: American Imperialism The cartoon displays Uncle Sam showing off in front of other world powers, while balancing the “primitives” of its newly acquired territories...Notice the racial tone and arrogance of the political cartoon.
The U.S. insisted that Cuba add to its new Constitution, the Platt Amendment, commanding Cuba to stay out of debt and giving U.S. the right to intervene in the country and the right to buy or lease Cuban land for naval and fueling stations.
Guantánamo Bay Naval Base at the southeastern end of Cuba has been used by the United States Navy for more than a century, and is the oldest overseas U.S. Navy Base and the only one in a country with which the United States does not have diplomatic relations. CubaUnited States NavyUnited States
After the brief war, the United States emerges from the war in possession of an overseas empire. Presidential Campaign Poster for Mckinley-Roosevelt
National Hero After the war with Spain, Roosevelt returned a hero and was soon elected governor of New York and then later won the vice-presidency.
American Expansionism & the Panama Canal
Imperialism Defined as the domination of one country by another. European imperialists had seized vast territories in Africa and Asia. Many Americans felt that the moment was now right for U.S. imperialism. With the closing of the American frontier, the nation continued its expansion overseas.
Some advocates argued that since the United States was now an industrial power, colonies could provide needed raw materials for American factories and a guaranteed market of U.S. manufacturers.
Others saw colonial expansion as a way of showing that the United States was a great nation, arguing the country should grab a few colonies before nothing was left. Inspired by Manifest Destiny.
In particular, these voices favored American control of the Caribbean, building a canal through Panama, and the acquisition of islands in the Pacific as coaling stations for ships trading with Asia.
Opponents felt that imperialism violated America’s democratic principles. They reminded citizens that America was also once a colony and had fought a war with Great Britain to break the chains of imperialism.
During these Imperialist years, the United States acquired a colonial empire in the Pacific consisting of the Philippines, Guam, Hawaii, Samoa, and Midway.
Formerly part of the Spanish empire, the Philippines came under U.S. rule after the Spanish-American War. Filipino rebels had expected independence and fought against U.S. control until they were defeated in Filipino Rebels
In the mid-19 th century, American settlers built sugar and pineapple plantations on Hawaii. These settlers overthrew the Hawaiian queen in After the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, Congress voted in favor of the annexation of Hawaii in
The U.S. announced the Open Door Policy, favoring equal trading rights for all foreign nations in China. In 1900, the Box Rebellion threatened foreigners in China. An international army, with U.S. participation, crushed the rebellion, but Americans opposed any attempt by other nations to use the rebellion to dismember China. Boxer Rebel
Gunship Diplomacy In 1853, the United States had forced open an isolationist Japan to Western trade and influence when Commodore Matthew Perry landed there with American navy.
Panama Canal Military importance: Naval strategists believed that the United States needed a large navy and a canal through Central America to establish itself as a world sea power.
President Roosevelt took steps to build a canal that would allow ships to cross between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans without circling South America. The Isthmus of Panama, the narrowest point in Central America, was a natural place to build the canal, but posed may challenges.
Natures Challenges and the Panama Canal Tropical climate Disease-carrying mosquitoes Mountains
When Panamanian rebels declared their independence from Columbia in 1903, Roosevelt sent U.S. warships to protect them.
In return for U.S. protection, the new government of Panama gave the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone, a ten-mile wide strip of land through the center of Panama.
Construction of the canal began in To prevent malaria and yellow fever, the U.S. Army cleaned up swamps where infected mosquitoes had bred.
They built a series of locks that raised shops to an artificial lake, across the central highland, and then lowered them back to sea level on the other side.
It took the Army Corps of Engineers ten years to build the enormous locks and to remove millions of tons of earth to complete the canal.
In the early 20 th century, the U.S. government extended the Monroe Doctrine through the Roosevelt Corollary.
In 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt declared that the U.S. would act as an “international police power” in Latin America. Rather than let European nations intervene to collect their debts, the U.S. would act for them.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was used to justify sending troops into Haiti, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In this way, the United States protected its interests in the Panama Canal. Later, President Wilson intervened in both the Caribbean region and Mexico.