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The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers

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Presentation on theme: "The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers

2 Category 1 of 1 Question: Check Your answer
Galileo thought that _________ __________ created the tides. This shows that even someone known as “the father of modern science” can make a mistake. (p. 300) Check Your answer

3 Category 1 of 1 Answer: Earth’s rotation Back to the game board

4 Category 2 of 1 Question: Check Your answer
Ulug Bek’s ________ was the best in the world during his time. (p. 296) Check Your answer

5 Category 2 of 1 Answer: observatory Back to the game board

6 Category 3 of 1 Question: Check Your answer
The _______ ________ is an immense spherical cloud. It surrounds the solar system and reaches about three light-years from the sun. (p. 294) Check Your answer

7 Category 3 of 1 Answer: Oort Cloud Back to the game board

8 Category 4 of 1 Question: Check Your answer
The _____________ Belt is a vast region extending beyond Neptune. (p. 294) Check Your answer

9 Category 4 of 1 Answer: Edgeworth-Kuiper Back to the game board

10 Category 5 of 1 Question: Check Your answer
___________ draw close to the sun and then fly far out into space. (p. 294) Check Your answer

11 Category 5 of 1 Answer: Comets Back to the game board

12 Category 1 of 2 Question: Check Your answer
Most ___________ are in a belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter. (p. 294) Check Your answer

13 Category 1 of 2 Answer: asteroids Back to the game board

14 Category 2 of 2 Question: Check Your answer
On 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “___________.” (p. 293)  Check Your answer

15 Category 2 of 2 Answer: dwarf planet Back to the game board

16 Category 3 of 2 Question: Check Your answer
Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered _______ on 18 February For seven months he had searched for something he knew had to be there: a heavenly body that tugged on Neptune, just as Neptune tugged on Uranus. (p. 293) Check Your answer

17 Category 3 of 2 Answer: Pluto Back to the game board

18 Category 4 of 2 Question: Check Your answer
Although he didn’t have a ___________, Copernicus did have other instruments to study the sky. (p. 288) Check Your answer

19 Category 4 of 2 Answer: telescope Back to the game board

20 Category 5 of 2 Question: Check Your answer
Astronomers believed for centuries that the ________ was the center of the solar system. This belief was even part of church doctrine. (p. 286 ) Check Your answer

21 Category 5 of 2 Answer: Earth Back to the game board

22 Category 1 of 3 Question: Check Your answer
This “Red Planet” is visible to the naked eye as a reddish dot in the sky. (p. 291) Check Your answer

23 Category 1 of 3 Answer: Mars Back to the game board

24 Category 2 of 3 Question: Check Your answer
By far the largest planet, this gas giant has 16 known moons. (p. 291) Check Your answer

25 Category 2 of 3 Answer: Jupiter Back to the game board

26 DAILY DOUBLE

27 Category 3 of 3 Question: Check Your answer
This planet, the second largest in the solar system, is known as the “ringed planet.” (p. 292) Check Your answer

28 Category 3 of 3 Answer: Saturn Back to the game board

29 DAILY DOUBLE

30 Category 4 of 3 Question: Check Your answer
This planet, the third largest, is a ringed planet, and it spins on its side. (p. 292) Check Your answer

31 Category 4 of 3 Answer: Uranus Back to the game board

32 DAILY DOUBLE

33 Category 5 of 3 Question: Check Your answer
Astronomers discovered this planet after noticing that some body was exerting a gravitational tug on Uranus. (p. 293) Check Your answer

34 Category 5 of 3 Answer: Neptune Back to the game board

35 Category 1 of 4 Question: Check Your answer
The largest object in the solar system. (p. 289) Check Your answer

36 Category 1 of 4 Answer: The sun Back to the game board

37 Category 2 of 4 Question: Check Your answer
The smallest planet, and the one closest to the sun. (p. 289). Check Your answer

38 Category 2 of 4 Answer: Mercury Back to the game board

39 Category 3 of 4 Question: Check Your answer
This planet is cloaked in a thick layer of clouds made up of water and sulfuric acid. (p. 290 Check Your answer

40 Category 3 of 4 Answer: Venus Back to the game board

41 Category 4 of 4 Question: Check Your answer
The only planet to sustain life as far as we know. (p. 290) Check Your answer

42 Category 4 of 4 Answer: Earth Back to the game board

43 Category 5 of 4 Question: Check Your answer
The gravity of this body creates the tides on Earth. (p. 290) Check Your answer

44 Category 5 of 4 Answer: The moon Back to the game board

45 Category 1 of 5 Question: Check Your answer
Who discovered four “stars” near Jupiter and decided they were moons? (p. 299) Check Your answer

46 Category 1 of 5 Answer: Galileo Back to the game board

47 Category 2 of 5 Question: Check Your answer
Which early astronomer showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals? (p. 299) Check Your answer

48 Category 2 of 5 Answer: Kepler Back to the game board

49 Category 3 of 5 Question: Check Your answer
Who was one of the first to use the modern scientific method? (p. 298) Check Your answer

50 Category 3 of 5 Answer: Kepler Back to the game board

51 Category 4 of 5 Question: Check Your answer
Which early astronomer published the first major catalog of stars since Ptolemy’s? (p. 297) Check Your answer

52 Category 4 of 5 Answer: Ulug Bek Back to the game board

53 Category 5 of 5 Question: Check Your answer
Which early astronomer is known not for his own work but for the way he combined other astronomers’ ideas? (p. 295) Check Your answer

54 Category 5 of 5 Answer: Ptolemy Back to the game board

55 Chapter Overview The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers
Rocketry and the Space Race Chapter 7, Lesson 1

56 Lesson Overview The objects in the solar system
The significant contributions of key early astronomers Chapter 7, Lesson 1

57 Why did Copernicus take so long to publish his important book?
Quick Write Why did Copernicus take so long to publish his important book? Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Paul Almasy/Corbis

58 The Solar System The solar system includes eight planets, their moons, and many other objects Each of the planets revolves, or circles in an orbit, around the sun An orbit is the path of a celestial body as it revolves around another body In addition, each planet rotates, or spins on its axis Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

59 The Sun The sun is the largest object in the solar system
It contains more than 99.8 percent of the total mass—the “stuff”—of the solar system It is one of 100 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy A galaxy is a huge mass of stars, gas, and dust clouds that exists in one area of space Chapter 7, Lesson 1

60 The Planets and Gravity
Galaxies and the solar system hold together because of gravity Gravity is an invisible force that pulls all objects toward one another The gravity of the sun holds the planets in place as they revolve around it Likewise, the gravity of a planet holds its moons in place Chapter 7, Lesson 1

61 Mercury Mercury is the smallest planet
It’s also the one closest to the sun It has a rocky, cratered surface Mercury revolves around the sun every 88 Earth days Mercury rotates very slowly—it takes 59 Earth days to make a rotation Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

62 Venus At 67 million miles from the sun, Venus is the planet closest to Earth It’s also closest to Earth in terms of size Its “year”—the time it takes to orbit around the sun— lasts 225 Earth days Its “day” — the time it takes to make one rotation— is 243 Earth days Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

63 Earth Earth is the only planet to sustain life as far as we know
The clouds of Earth’s atmosphere help protect the planet from the sun’s radiation More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered with water Earth makes a complete rotation every 24 hours It completes an orbit around the sun every 365¼ days Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

64 Earth’s Moon The moon has no atmosphere to protect it, and as a result, it has extreme temperatures and a rough surface The moon revolves around Earth in an elliptical orbit—an orbit shaped like an oval, not a circle The moon orbits Earth in a little less than 28 days The pull of the moon’s gravity creates tides on Earth Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

65 Mars Mars, the Red Planet, is visible to the naked eye as a reddish dot in the sky The color comes from the iron that makes up much of the planet’s core Mars is covered with deserts, mountains, craters, and volcanoes A day on Mars is a little longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 37 minutes Mars takes 687 Earth days to orbit the sun Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

66 Jupiter Jupiter is by far the largest planet
It rotates quickly—about once every 10 hours This speed flattens it at the top and makes it bulge in the middle Jupiter has windy, stormy weather Astronomers call Jupiter a “gas giant” The liquids of Jupiter’s outer core mix with the gases in its atmosphere to form swift-moving belts of colorful clouds Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

67 Saturn The second-largest planet in the solar system, Saturn is called the “ringed planet” Its seven rings are made of icy chunks of rocks The rings extend about 250,000 miles out from the planet Like Jupiter, Saturn is a gas giant, and rotates quickly It has stormy weather and 18 known moons Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

68 Uranus Uranus, the third-largest planet, is another gas giant
Its main claim to fame is that it spins on its side Scientists think that a long time ago, it may have collided with some other body that tilted it Space probes of the 1970s discovered rings around Uranus, but they aren’t as impressive as Saturn’s Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY / Photo Researchers, Inc.

69 Neptune Neptune is Uranus’s smaller twin
Neptune is the windiest planet in the solar system Its winds blow up to 1,500 miles an hour Like Jupiter, it has several dark storms, the largest of which is the Great Dark Spot Neptune has eight moons Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

70 Pluto and the Dwarf Planets
Pluto is very small and very far away Its career as a planet had a clearly marked beginning—and end Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered Pluto on 18 February 1930 But on 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “dwarf planet” Pluto and its moon Charon Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

71 Pluto and the Dwarf Planets
Pluto doesn’t dominate its moon, Charon, as a planet should Besides, Pluto’s orbit is not fixed Sometimes it loops inside Neptune’s As a dwarf planet, Pluto has lots of company Scientists have identified more than 40 dwarfs and they expect to find more Chapter 7, Lesson 1

72 The Asteroids An asteroid is a rocky and metallic object orbiting the sun Most asteroids are in a belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter Astronomers have found and catalogued more than 15,000 asteroids Some asteroids are no bigger than pebbles The largest asteroid is Ceres, which has a diameter of 623 miles Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

73 Comets A comet is a small, odd-shaped body with a center of ice, rock, and frozen gas Comets have elliptical orbits They draw close to the sun and then fly far out into space After enough trips to the sun, the ice melts, and a comet becomes just another rocky object in space Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

74 The Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt
The Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt is a vast region extending beyond Neptune Scientists think there are millions of small, rocky or icy objects orbiting there Pluto and Charon may be part of the belt NASA hopes to visit this region around 2010 with its Pluto-Kuiper Express Chapter 7, Lesson 1

75 The Oort Cloud The Oort Cloud is an immense spherical cloud
It surrounds the solar system and reaches about three light-years from the sun A light-year is the distance light travels in a year Astronomers think this distance is the outer limit of the sun’s gravitational influence The estimated mass of the Oort Cloud is 40 times that of Earth Chapter 7, Lesson 1

76 Meteoroids, Meteorites, and Meteors
A meteoroid is a piece of rock or metal that travels in space Meteoroids are the smallest objects in the solar system They may be chunks of rock melting away from comets as they approach the sun A meteorite is a meteoroid that lands on Earth’s surface A meteor is a meteoroid passing through Earth’s atmosphere, leaving a visible trail Chapter 7, Lesson 1

77 Astronomy The history of astronomy is the story of humanity’s attempts to make sense of the heavens All peoples have looked up to the skies and wondered about the movements of the sun, moon, and stars As time passed, people learned that heavenly bodies obey the same laws that objects on Earth do Chapter 7, Lesson 1

78 Contributions of Ptolemy
The earliest widely known astronomer is Claudius Ptolemy, often known as Ptolemy of Alexandria Ptolemy lived from around AD 85 until AD 165 Ptolemy is known not for his own work but for the way he combined other astronomers’ ideas The system he came up with, called the Ptolemaic system, put Earth at the center of the universe Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of the Library of Congress

79 Contributions of Ptolemy
Ptolemy was the first astronomer to make scientific maps of the heavens He also developed a catalog listing 48 constellations A constellation is a group of stars people think of as forming a picture in the sky Scientists still use Ptolemy’s catalog Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Clipart.com

80 Contributions of Ulug Bek
Ulug Bek was a mathematician and an astronomer He had an observatory, or a building designed to observe the stars, in what is today Uzbekistan He made detailed observations and calculations In 1437 Ulug Bek published a catalog of the stars (Zij-i Sultani) that gave the positions of 992 stars Chapter 7, Lesson 1

81 Contributions of Ulug Bek
Ulug Bek also discovered several errors in Ptolemy’s calculations No one had ever before questioned Ptolemy’s work Using data he’d recorded in his observatory, Ulug Bek calculated the length of the year as 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 15 seconds He also produced data for the movements of the sun, the moon, and the planets Chapter 7, Lesson 1

82 Contributions of Copernicus
Copernicus had access to records of the observations made over centuries, beginning with the ancient Greeks He combined his study of those records with his own observations to come up with his own ideas The tower at Frauenburg Cathedral where Copernicus conducted his observations Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY

83 Contributions of Copernicus
He never explained what inspired him to propose a heliocentric solar system The Copernican system had fewer circles, and also had a unity and a logic that the Ptolemaic system lacked Early heliocentric model Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

84 Contributions of Kepler
Johannes Kepler studied the work of Copernicus in Germany late in the 16th century Kepler also improved on the Copernican theory He showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals He also formulated three laws of planetary motion that astronomers still use today Chapter 7, Lesson 1

85 Contributions of Galileo
Galileo was among the first to appreciate the importance of the telescope He read about the Dutch telescopes and soon started building his own Galileo was also the first to use the telescope to methodically observe the sky He was the first to see the moon’s craters Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of Bettmann/Corbis

86 Contributions of Galileo
Galileo also turned his telescope on Venus and saw that it goes through phases, just as Earth’s moon does He spotted four “stars” near Jupiter and decided they were moons that circled that planet For Galileo, this was further confirmation that Copernicus’s view of the solar system was correct Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

87 Review The solar system includes eight planets, their moons, and many other objects A galaxy is a huge mass of stars, gas, and dust clouds that exists in one area of space Galaxies and the solar system hold together because of gravity The gravity of the sun holds the planets in place as they revolve around it Chapter 7, Lesson 1

88 Review Earth is the only planet to sustain life as far as we know
On 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “dwarf planet” A comet is a small, odd-shaped body with a center of ice, rock, and frozen gas A meteoroid is a piece of rock or metal that travels in space Chapter 7, Lesson 1

89 Review Ptolemy was the first astronomer to make scientific maps of the heavens In 1437 Ulug Bek published a catalog of the stars (Zij-i Sultani) Copernicus never explained what inspired him to propose a heliocentric solar system Kepler showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals Galileo was among the first to appreciate the importance of the telescope Chapter 7, Lesson 1

90 Summary The objects in the solar system
The significant contributions of key early astronomers Chapter 7, Lesson 1

91 Next…. Done—the solar system and some early astronomers
Next—rocketry and the space race V-2 Rocket Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA


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