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The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers Category 1 of 1 Question: Galileo thought that _________ __________ created the tides. This shows that even.

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Presentation on theme: "The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers Category 1 of 1 Question: Galileo thought that _________ __________ created the tides. This shows that even."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers

3 Category 1 of 1 Question: Galileo thought that _________ __________ created the tides. This shows that even someone known as “the father of modern science” can make a mistake. (p. 300) Check Your answer

4 Category 1 of 1 Answer: Earth’s rotation Back to the game board

5 Category 2 of 1 Question: Ulug Bek’s ________ was the best in the world during his time. (p. 296) Check Your answer

6 Category 2 of 1 Answer: observatory Back to the game board

7 Category 3 of 1 Question: The _______ ________ is an immense spherical cloud. It surrounds the solar system and reaches about three light- years from the sun. (p. 294) Check Your answer

8 Category 3 of 1 Answer: Oort Cloud Back to the game board

9 Category 4 of 1 Question: The _____________ Belt is a vast region extending beyond Neptune. (p. 294) Check Your answer

10 Category 4 of 1 Answer: Edgeworth-Kuiper Back to the game board

11 Category 5 of 1 Question: ___________ draw close to the sun and then fly far out into space. (p. 294) Check Your answer

12 Category 5 of 1 Answer: Comets Back to the game board

13 Category 1 of 2 Question: Most ___________ are in a belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter. (p. 294) Check Your answer

14 Category 1 of 2 Answer: asteroids Back to the game board

15 Category 2 of 2 Question: On 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “___________.” (p. 293) Check Your answer

16 Category 2 of 2 Answer: dwarf planet Back to the game board

17 Category 3 of 2 Question: Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered _______ on 18 February For seven months he had searched for something he knew had to be there: a heavenly body that tugged on Neptune, just as Neptune tugged on Uranus. (p. 293) Check Your answer

18 Category 3 of 2 Answer: Pluto Back to the game board

19 Category 4 of 2 Question: Although he didn’t have a ___________, Copernicus did have other instruments to study the sky. (p. 288) Check Your answer

20 Category 4 of 2 Answer: telescope Back to the game board

21 Category 5 of 2 Question: Astronomers believed for centuries that the ________ was the center of the solar system. This belief was even part of church doctrine. (p. 286 ) Check Your answer

22 Category 5 of 2 Answer: Earth Back to the game board

23 Category 1 of 3 Question: This “Red Planet” is visible to the naked eye as a reddish dot in the sky. (p. 291) Check Your answer

24 Category 1 of 3 Answer: Mars Back to the game board

25 Category 2 of 3 Question: By far the largest planet, this gas giant has 16 known moons. (p. 291) Check Your answer

26 Category 2 of 3 Answer: Jupiter Back to the game board

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28 Category 3 of 3 Question: This planet, the second largest in the solar system, is known as the “ringed planet.” (p. 292) Check Your answer

29 Category 3 of 3 Answer: Saturn Back to the game board

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31 Category 4 of 3 Question: This planet, the third largest, is a ringed planet, and it spins on its side. (p. 292) Check Your answer

32 Category 4 of 3 Answer: Uranus Back to the game board

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34 Category 5 of 3 Question: Astronomers discovered this planet after noticing that some body was exerting a gravitational tug on Uranus. (p. 293) Check Your answer

35 Category 5 of 3 Answer: Neptune Back to the game board

36 Category 1 of 4 Question: The largest object in the solar system. (p. 289) Check Your answer

37 Category 1 of 4 Answer: The sun Back to the game board

38 Category 2 of 4 Question: The smallest planet, and the one closest to the sun. (p. 289). Check Your answer

39 Category 2 of 4 Answer: Mercury Back to the game board

40 Category 3 of 4 Question: This planet is cloaked in a thick layer of clouds made up of water and sulfuric acid. (p. 290 Check Your answer

41 Category 3 of 4 Answer: Venus Back to the game board

42 Category 4 of 4 Question: The only planet to sustain life as far as we know. (p. 290) Check Your answer

43 Category 4 of 4 Answer: Earth Back to the game board

44 Category 5 of 4 Question: The gravity of this body creates the tides on Earth. (p. 290) Check Your answer

45 Category 5 of 4 Answer: The moon Back to the game board

46 Category 1 of 5 Question: Who discovered four “stars” near Jupiter and decided they were moons? (p. 299) Check Your answer

47 Category 1 of 5 Answer: Galileo Back to the game board

48 Category 2 of 5 Question: Which early astronomer showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals? (p. 299) Check Your answer

49 Category 2 of 5 Answer: Kepler Back to the game board

50 Category 3 of 5 Question: Who was one of the first to use the modern scientific method? (p. 298) Check Your answer

51 Category 3 of 5 Answer: Kepler Back to the game board

52 Category 4 of 5 Question: Which early astronomer published the first major catalog of stars since Ptolemy’s? (p. 297) Check Your answer

53 Category 4 of 5 Answer: Ulug Bek Back to the game board

54 Category 5 of 5 Question: Which early astronomer is known not for his own work but for the way he combined other astronomers’ ideas? (p. 295) Check Your answer

55 Category 5 of 5 Answer: Ptolemy Back to the game board

56 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Chapter Overview  The Solar System and Some Early Astronomers  Rocketry and the Space Race

57 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Lesson Overview  The objects in the solar system  The significant contributions of key early astronomers

58 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Quick Write Why did Copernicus take so long to publish his important book? Courtesy of Paul Almasy/Corbis

59 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Solar System  The solar system includes eight planets, their moons, and many other objects revolves  Each of the planets revolves, or circles in an orbit, around the sun orbit  An orbit is the path of a celestial body as it revolves around another body rotates  In addition, each planet rotates, or spins on its axis Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

60 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Sun  The sun is the largest object in the solar system  It contains more than 99.8 percent of the total mass—the “stuff”—of the solar system  It is one of 100 billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy galaxy  A galaxy is a huge mass of stars, gas, and dust clouds that exists in one area of space

61 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Planets and Gravity  Galaxies and the solar system hold together because of gravity  Gravity  Gravity is an invisible force that pulls all objects toward one another  The gravity of the sun holds the planets in place as they revolve around it  Likewise, the gravity of a planet holds its moons in place

62 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 MercuryMercury  Mercury is the smallest planet  It’s also the one closest to the sun  It has a rocky, cratered surface  Mercury revolves around the sun every 88 Earth days  Mercury rotates very slowly—it takes 59 Earth days to make a rotation Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

63 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 VenusVenus  At 67 million miles from the sun, Venus is the planet closest to Earth  It’s also closest to Earth in terms of size  Its “year”—the time it takes to orbit around the sun— lasts 225 Earth days  Its “day” — the time it takes to make one rotation— is 243 Earth days Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

64 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 EarthEarth  Earth is the only planet to sustain life as far as we know  The clouds of Earth’s atmosphere help protect the planet from the sun’s radiation  More than 70 percent of Earth’s surface is covered with water  Earth makes a complete rotation every 24 hours  It completes an orbit around the sun every 365¼ days Courtesy of NASA

65 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Earth’s Moon  The moon has no atmosphere to protect it, and as a result, it has extreme temperatures and a rough surface elliptical  The moon revolves around Earth in an elliptical orbit—an orbit shaped like an oval, not a circle  The moon orbits Earth in a little less than 28 days  The pull of the moon’s gravity creates tides on Earth Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

66 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 MarsMars  Mars, the Red Planet, is visible to the naked eye as a reddish dot in the sky  The color comes from the iron that makes up much of the planet’s core  Mars is covered with deserts, mountains, craters, and volcanoes  A day on Mars is a little longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 37 minutes  Mars takes 687 Earth days to orbit the sun Courtesy of USGS Astrogeology Research Program

67 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 JupiterJupiter  Jupiter is by far the largest planet  It rotates quickly—about once every 10 hours  This speed flattens it at the top and makes it bulge in the middle  Jupiter has windy, stormy weather  Astronomers call Jupiter a “gas giant”  The liquids of Jupiter’s outer core mix with the gases in its atmosphere to form swift-moving belts of colorful clouds Courtesy of NASA

68 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 SaturnSaturn  The second-largest planet in the solar system, Saturn is called the “ringed planet”  Its seven rings are made of icy chunks of rocks  The rings extend about 250,000 miles out from the planet  Like Jupiter, Saturn is a gas giant, and rotates quickly  It has stormy weather and 18 known moons Courtesy of NASA

69 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 UranusUranus  Uranus, the third-largest planet, is another gas giant  Its main claim to fame is that it spins on its side  Scientists think that a long time ago, it may have collided with some other body that tilted it  Space probes of the 1970s discovered rings around Uranus, but they aren’t as impressive as Saturn’s Courtesy of CALIFORNIA ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY / Photo Researchers, Inc.

70 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 NeptuneNeptune  Neptune is Uranus’s smaller twin  Neptune is the windiest planet in the solar system  Its winds blow up to 1,500 miles an hour  Like Jupiter, it has several dark storms, the largest of which is the Great Dark Spot  Neptune has eight moons Courtesy of NASA

71 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Pluto and the Dwarf Planets Pluto and the Dwarf Planets  Pluto is very small and very far away  Its career as a planet had a clearly marked beginning—and end  Clyde W. Tombaugh discovered Pluto on 18 February 1930  But on 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “dwarf planet” Pluto and its moon Charon Courtesy of NASA

72 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Pluto and the Dwarf Planets Pluto and the Dwarf Planets  Pluto doesn’t dominate its moon, Charon, as a planet should  Besides, Pluto’s orbit is not fixed  Sometimes it loops inside Neptune’s  As a dwarf planet, Pluto has lots of company  Scientists have identified more than 40 dwarfs and they expect to find more

73 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Asteroids asteroid  An asteroid is a rocky and metallic object orbiting the sun  Most asteroids are in a belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter  Astronomers have found and catalogued more than 15,000 asteroids  Some asteroids are no bigger than pebbles  The largest asteroid is Ceres, which has a diameter of 623 miles Courtesy of NASA

74 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 CometsComets comet  A comet is a small, odd-shaped body with a center of ice, rock, and frozen gas  Comets have elliptical orbits  They draw close to the sun and then fly far out into space  After enough trips to the sun, the ice melts, and a comet becomes just another rocky object in space Courtesy of NASA

75 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt The Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt  The Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt is a vast region extending beyond Neptune  Scientists think there are millions of small, rocky or icy objects orbiting there  Pluto and Charon may be part of the belt  NASA hopes to visit this region around 2010 with its Pluto-Kuiper Express

76 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 The Oort Cloud  The Oort Cloud is an immense spherical cloud  It surrounds the solar system and reaches about three light-years from the sun light-year  A light-year is the distance light travels in a year  Astronomers think this distance is the outer limit of the sun’s gravitational influence  The estimated mass of the Oort Cloud is 40 times that of Earth

77 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Meteoroids, Meteorites, and Meteors meteoroid  A meteoroid is a piece of rock or metal that travels in space  Meteoroids are the smallest objects in the solar system  They may be chunks of rock melting away from comets as they approach the sun meteorite  A meteorite is a meteoroid that lands on Earth’s surface meteor  A meteor is a meteoroid passing through Earth’s atmosphere, leaving a visible trail

78 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 AstronomyAstronomy  The history of astronomy is the story of humanity’s attempts to make sense of the heavens  All peoples have looked up to the skies and wondered about the movements of the sun, moon, and stars  As time passed, people learned that heavenly bodies obey the same laws that objects on Earth do

79 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Ptolemy  The earliest widely known astronomer is Claudius Ptolemy, often known as Ptolemy of Alexandria  Ptolemy lived from around AD 85 until AD 165  Ptolemy is known not for his own work but for the way he combined other astronomers’ ideas  The system he came up with, called the Ptolemaic system, put Earth at the center of the universe Courtesy of the Library of Congress

80 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Ptolemy  Ptolemy was the first astronomer to make scientific maps of the heavens  He also developed a catalog listing 48 constellations constellation  A constellation is a group of stars people think of as forming a picture in the sky  Scientists still use Ptolemy’s catalog Courtesy of Clipart.com

81 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Ulug Bek  Ulug Bek was a mathematician and an astronomer observatory  He had an observatory, or a building designed to observe the stars, in what is today Uzbekistan  He made detailed observations and calculations  In 1437 Ulug Bek published a catalog of the stars (Zij-i Sultani) that gave the positions of 992 stars

82 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Ulug Bek  Ulug Bek also discovered several errors in Ptolemy’s calculations  No one had ever before questioned Ptolemy’s work  Using data he’d recorded in his observatory, Ulug Bek calculated the length of the year as 365 days, 5 hours, 49 minutes, and 15 seconds  He also produced data for the movements of the sun, the moon, and the planets

83 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Copernicus Contributions of Copernicus  Copernicus had access to records of the observations made over centuries, beginning with the ancient Greeks  He combined his study of those records with his own observations to come up with his own ideas Courtesy of Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY The tower at Frauenburg Cathedral where Copernicus conducted his observations

84 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Copernicus Contributions of Copernicus  He never explained what inspired him to propose a heliocentric solar system  The Copernican system had fewer circles, and also had a unity and a logic that the Ptolemaic system lacked Early heliocentric model Courtesy of NASA

85 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Kepler  Johannes Kepler studied the work of Copernicus in Germany late in the 16th century  Kepler also improved on the Copernican theory  He showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals  He also formulated three laws of planetary motion that astronomers still use today

86 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Galileo Contributions of Galileo  Galileo was among the first to appreciate the importance of the telescope  He read about the Dutch telescopes and soon started building his own  Galileo was also the first to use the telescope to methodically observe the sky  He was the first to see the moon’s craters Courtesy of Bettmann/Corbis

87 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Contributions of Galileo  Galileo also turned his telescope on Venus and saw that it goes through phases, just as Earth’s moon does  He spotted four “stars” near Jupiter and decided they were moons that circled that planet  For Galileo, this was further confirmation that Copernicus’s view of the solar system was correct Courtesy of NASA

88 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 ReviewReview  The solar system includes eight planets, their moons, and many other objects  A galaxy is a huge mass of stars, gas, and dust clouds that exists in one area of space  Galaxies and the solar system hold together because of gravity  The gravity of the sun holds the planets in place as they revolve around it

89 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 ReviewReview  Earth is the only planet to sustain life as far as we know  On 24 August 2006 the International Astronomical Union voted to reclassify Pluto as a “dwarf planet”  A comet is a small, odd-shaped body with a center of ice, rock, and frozen gas  A meteoroid is a piece of rock or metal that travels in space

90 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 ReviewReview  Ptolemy was the first astronomer to make scientific maps of the heavens  In 1437 Ulug Bek published a catalog of the stars (Zij-i Sultani)  Copernicus never explained what inspired him to propose a heliocentric solar system  Kepler showed that orbits of the planets weren’t perfect circles, but ellipses, or ovals  Galileo was among the first to appreciate the importance of the telescope

91 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 SummarySummary  The objects in the solar system  The significant contributions of key early astronomers

92 Chapter 7, Lesson 1 Next….Next….  Done—the solar system and some early astronomers  Next—rocketry and the space race V-2 Rocket Courtesy of NASA


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