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AP Biology Chapter 39. Plant Response AP Biology Plant Reactions  Stimuli & a Stationary Life  animals respond to stimuli by changing behavior  move.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Chapter 39. Plant Response AP Biology Plant Reactions  Stimuli & a Stationary Life  animals respond to stimuli by changing behavior  move."— Presentation transcript:


2 AP Biology Chapter 39. Plant Response

3 AP Biology Plant Reactions  Stimuli & a Stationary Life  animals respond to stimuli by changing behavior  move toward positive stimuli  move away from negative stimuli  plants respond to stimuli by adjusting growth & development

4 AP Biology What mechanism causes this response? grown in dark1 week exposure to light

5 AP Biology Signal Transduction Pathway model  signal triggers receptor  receptor triggers internal cellular messengers & then cellular response  receptor  signal pathway (2° messengers)  response What kinds of molecules are the receptors?

6 AP Biology Signal Transduction Pathway example 1. Light signal is detected by the phytochrome receptor, which then activates at least 2 signal transduction pathways 2. One pathway uses cGMP as a 2nd messenger to activate a protein kinase. The other pathway involves increases in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ that activates a different protein kinase. 3. Both pathways lead to expression of genes for proteins that function in greening response of plant.

7 AP Biology Plant hormones  Chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism  only minute amounts are required  produced by 1 part of body  transported to another part  binds to specific receptor  triggers response in target cells & tissues

8 AP Biology Plant hormones  auxins  cytokinins  gibberellins  brassinosteroids  abscisic acid  ethylene

9 AP Biology Phototropism  Growth towards light Went 1926

10 AP Biology Auxin  Indolacetic acid (IAA)  stimulates cell elongation  near apical meristems  enhances apical dominance  classical explanation of phototropism  asymmetrical distribution of auxin  cells on darker side elongate faster than cells on brighter side

11 AP Biology Zones of meristem growth shootroot

12 AP Biology Polarity of auxin transport 1.Auxin picks up H+ between cells & is neutralized 2.Neutral auxin passes through membrane 3.Cellular pH 7 causes auxin to ionize & is trapped in cell 4.Auxin stimulates proton pump 5.Auxin leaves through carriers

13 AP Biology Auxin response Acid growth hypothesis

14 AP Biology Cytokinins  Family of hormones  modified forms of adenine  produced in roots, fruits & embryos  Effects  control of cell division & differentiation  enhances apical dominance  interaction of auxin & cytokinins

15 AP Biology Gibberellins  Family of hormones  over 100 different gibberellins identified  Effects  stem elongation  fruit growth  seed germination

16 AP Biology Brassinosteroids  Steroids  Effects  similar to auxins  cell elongation & division in shoots & seedlings

17 AP Biology Abscisic acid (ABA)  Effects  slows growth  seed dormancy  high concentrations of ABA  germination only after ABA is inactivated down or leeched out  survival value: seed will germinate only under optimal conditions  light, temperature, moisture  drought tolerance  rapid stomate closing

18 AP Biology Ethylene  Ethylene is a gas released by plant cells  Multiple effects  response to mechanical stress  triple response  slow stem elongation  thickening of stem  curvature to horizontal growth  apoptosis  leaf abscission  fruit ripening

19 AP Biology Apoptosis & Leaf abscission What is the evolutionary advantage of loss of leaves in autumn?  Balance of ethylene & auxin  many events in plants involve pre-programmed cell death  death of annual plant after flowering  differentiation of xylem vessels  loss of cytosol  shedding of autumn leaves

20 AP Biology Fruit ripening  Hard, tart fruit protects developing seed from herbivores  Ripe, sweet, soft fruit attracts animals to disperse seed  burst of ethylene triggers ripening process  breakdown of cell wall = softening  conversion of starch to sugar = sweetening  positive feedback system  ethylene triggers ripening  ripening stimulates more ethylene production

21 AP Biology Applications  Truth in folk wisdom!  one bad apple spoils the whole bunch  ripening apple releases ethylene to speed ripening of fruit nearby  Ripen green bananas by bagging them with an apple  Climate control storage of apples  high CO 2 storage = reduces ethylene production

22 AP Biology Responses to light  Photomorphogenesis  effect of light on plant growth  Light detection  intensity  direction  wavelength  blue-light receptors  phytochromes (red-light receptors) Why does it make “biological sense” that red & blue light have greater effects on plants response that other wavelengths?

23 AP Biology Phytochrome photoreceptors  Molecular switch reaction to red light  conversion of P r  P fr in sunlight stimulates germination, flowering, branching…  conversion of P fr  P r in dark inhibits response, & stimulates other responses: growth in height Light induced Phytochrome Chromophore Photorecptor Kinase activity Response: Vertical growth Phytochrome

24 AP Biology Practical Application  Why do you plant lettuce seed by scattering them on the ground instead of burying seed?  What is the evolutionary advantage to lettuce seeds?

25 AP Biology Flowering Response Short-day plantsLong-day plants  Triggered by photoperiod  relative lengths of day & night  night length—“critical period”— is trigger Plant is sensitive to red light exposure What is the evolutionary advantage of photoperiodism? Synchronizes plant responses to season

26 AP Biology Is there a flowering hormone?  Plant on left is induced to flower & then grafted onto plant on right  plant on right is triggered to flower What can you conclude?

27 AP Biology Circadian rhythms  Internal (endogenous) 24-hour cycles Morning glory 4 O’clock NoonMidnight

28 AP Biology Responses to gravity  How does a sprouting shoot “know” to grow towards the surface from underground?  environmental cues?  roots = positive gravitropism  shoots = negative gravitropism  settling of statoliths (dense starch grains) may detect gravity

29 AP Biology Responses to touch  Thigmotropism Mimosa (Sensitive plant) closes leaves in response to touch Caused by changes in osmotic pressure = rapid loss of K + = rapid loss of H 2 O = loss of turgor in cells

30 AP Biology Plant defenses  Defenses against herbivores

31 AP Biology Plant defenses  Defenses against herbivores Parasitoid wasp larvae emerging from a caterpillar

32 AP Biology Plant defenses  Defenses against pathogens

33 AP Biology Help Me!!!

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