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Using Context Clues to Predict the Meanings of Unfamiliar Words.

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Presentation on theme: "Using Context Clues to Predict the Meanings of Unfamiliar Words."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Context Clues to Predict the Meanings of Unfamiliar Words

2 Strategies How to figure out unfamiliar words… 1. Look them up in the dictionary and find the definition that makes the most sense. 2. Use word parts (prefixes, root/base words, suffixes). 3. Use context clues.

3 Pre-Assessment Results 1. breadwinner (3 of 7) 2. magistrate (3 of 12) 3. skilly (0 of 5) 4. fetid (0 of 1) 5. typhus (4 of 4) No one could list the six methods. You rated your context clues skills as 3.27.

4 Gist (General Idea) Clue Method: Look at other words and sentences around the unknown word for clues. Then, use your general knowledge to put the clues together to figure out the unknown word’s meaning. Example: The wedding reception meal was a disaster. The potatoes were too briny, and the punch was too sour to quench my thirst. Definition of briny = salty

5 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition breadwinner Ordinarily, a family applied to enter the workhouse when the chief breadwinner was sick or injured, and all other resources had been exhausted. The primary person who works to earn money for a family family chief workhouse sick or injured a person who earns a livelihood, especially one who also supports dependents

6 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition magistrateHe was arrested, taken before the magistrate the next day, and committed to 14 days’ hard labor for the crime of attempting to feed his children. Judge or court official arrested taken before crime a public officer concerned with the administration of law

7 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition skillyOne dish was “skilly,” a foul concoction of cornmeal boiled in water. A nasty soup-like mixture made from cornmeal foul dish concoction cornmeal boiled water a thin soup or gruel or porridge

8 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

9 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

10 Comparison (Synonym) Clue Suggests the meaning of the word by telling what it is like

11 Comparison (Synonym) Clue Signal words: like, as, similar to, not unlike, resembling, reminiscent, similarly Punctuation: none Example: Like the chirps from a bird, the soprano’s notes twittered above the orchestra. Definition of twittered = to utter a succession of small, tremulous (quivering & trembling) sounds, as a bird

12 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

13 Contrast (Antonym) Clue Suggests the meaning of the word by describing what it is unlike

14 Contrast (Antonym) Clue Signal words: unlike, but, in contrast to, different from, instead, on the other hand, except for Punctuation: none Example: When faced with last minute changes, Tom is flexible, but Li is doctrinaire and won’t accept them. Definition of doctrinaire = unyielding, inflexible, rigid

15 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

16 Cause and Effect Clue Describes the cause or effect related to the word

17 Cause and Effect Clue Signal words: since, because, so, as a result, due to, thus Punctuation: Comma, Colon : Example: Because Gary looked so sullen, we asked how we might improve his mood. Definition of sullen = showing irritation or ill humor by a gloomy silence

18 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

19 Restatement Clue Restates the meaning of the word in easier language

20 Restatement Clue Signal words: is, are, meaning, in other words Punctuation: Comma, Dash — Parentheses ( ) Colon : Example: The business downturn of the Great Depression was pervasive—it affected all sectors of the economy. Definition of pervasive = spread throughout, widespread

21 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

22 Example Clue Suggests a word meaning with one or more examples

23 Example Clue Signal words: such as, especially, like, for instance, for example, including Punctuation: Dash — Colon : Example: At the old house, signs of dilapidation included a sagging porch, broken windows, and flaking paint. Definition of dilapidation = disrepair or ruin, shabbiness

24 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

25 Definition (Explanation) Clue Directly tells the meaning of the word in the sentence

26 Definition (Explanation) Clue Signal words: this means, that is, or, also, known as, also called, defined as Punctuation: Comma, Dash — Example: Nanotechnology, or the process of creating microminiature equipment by manipulating atoms and molecules, is fascinating. Definition of nanotechnology = process of creating microminiature equipment by manipulating atoms and molecules

27 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition

28 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition bread- winner Ordinarily, a family applied to enter the workhouse when the chief breadwinner was sick or injured, and all other resources had been exhausted. The primary person who works to earn money for a family family chief workhouse sick or injured a person who earns a livelihood, especially one who also supports dependents Which of the six context clues methods (Triple C RED) and/or gist was used to determine the meaning of breadwinner?

29 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition Type of context clues: 1.Comparison 2.Contrast 3.Cause /effect 4.Restatement 5.Example 6.Definition 7.Gist bread- winner Ordinarily, a family applied to enter the workhouse when the chief breadwinner was sick or injured, and all other resources had been exhausted. The primary person who works to earn money for a family family chief workhouse sick or injured a person who earns a livelihood, especially one who also supports dependents Cause / effect Gist

30 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition magistrateHe was arrested, taken before the magistrate the next day, and committed to 14 days’ hard labor for the crime of attempting to feed his children. Judge or court official arrested taken before crime a public officer concerned with the administration of law Which of the six context clues methods (Triple C RED) and/or gist was used to determine the meaning of magistrate?

31 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition Type of context clues: 1.Comparison 2.Contrast 3.Cause /effect 4.Restatement 5.Example 6.Definition 7.Gist magistrateHe was arrested, taken before the magistrate the next day, and committed to 14 days’ hard labor for the crime of attempting to feed his children. Judge or court official arrested taken before crime a public officer concerned with the administrati on of law Cause / effect Gist

32 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition skillyOne dish was “skilly,” a foul concoction of cornmeal boiled in water. A nasty soup-like mixture made from cornmeal foul dish concoction cornmeal boiled water a thin soup or gruel or porridge Which of the six context clues methods (Triple C RED) and/or gist was used to determine the meaning of skilly?

33 Unfamiliar Words WordSentenceWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Dictionary Definition Type of context clues: 1.Comparison 2.Contrast 3.Cause /effect 4.Restatement 5.Example 6.Definition 7.Gist skillyOne dish was “skilly,” a foul concoction of cornmeal boiled in water. A nasty soup-like mixture made from cornmeal foul dish concoction cornmeal boiled water definition a thin soup or gruel or porridge

34 Time to Practice “Overcrowding, fetid air, poor circulation, and lack of drainage created breeding grounds for diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and typhus.” WordWhat I think it meansClues that helped me Type of context clues: 1.Comparison 2.Contrast 3.Cause /effect 4.Restatement 5.Example 6.Definition 7.Gist fetid typhus

35 What type of context clue can you use? p. 653 – The common welfare was my business; charity, mercy, forbearance, benevolence, were, all, my business. What is the meaning of forbearance? Definition: patience; leniency Which context clue type did you use? Comparison (synonym)

36 What type of context clue can you use? p. 673 – I ain’t so fond of his company that I’d loiter about him for such things…. What is the meaning of loiter? Definition: hang around Which context clue type did you use? Cause and effect

37 Six Types of Context Clues Triple C RED C – comparison (synonym) C – contrast (antonym) C – cause and effect R – restatement E – example D – definition When Triple C RED doesn’t work, try to find the gist (general idea).

38 Using Gist (General Idea) Clues p I present him to you: Ebenezer Scrooge…England’s most tightfisted hand at the grindstone. Scrooge! A squeezing, wrenching, grasping, clutching, covetous, old sinner! What does covetous mean? greedy; envious

39 Using Gist (General Idea) Clues p. 645 – The cold within him freezes his old features, nips his pointed nose, shrivels his cheek, stiffens his gait; makes his eyes red, his thin lips blue; and speaks out shrewdly in his grating voice. What is the meaning of (a) shrewdly and (b) grating? a. sharply; piercingly b. harsh; rasping

40 Time to Practice “Overcrowding, fetid air, poor circulation, and lack of drainage created breeding grounds for diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and typhus.” WordActual DefinitionClues that helped me Type of context clues: 1.Comparison 2.Contrast 3.Cause /effect 4.Restatement 5.Example 6.Definition 7.Gist fetid having an offensive odor; stinking overcrowding poor circulation lack of draining diseases commas cause / effect comparison gist typhus an acute infectious disease characterized by high fever, skin rash, and severe headache diseases such as commas example

41 Exit Slip (Post-Assessment) On the back of the index card: 1. List the six context clues types. 2. If these six don’t work, use ________.


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