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AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria AnimaliaFungiProtistaPlantae 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 1500 0 1000 Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria AnimaliaFungiProtistaPlantae 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 500 1500 0 1000 Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AP Biology BacteriaArchae- bacteria AnimaliaFungiProtistaPlantae Formation of earth Molten-hot surface of earth becomes cooler Oldest definite fossils of prokaryotes Appearance of oxygen in atmosphere Oldest definite fossils of eukaryotes First multicellular organisms Appearance of animals and land plants Colonization of land by animals Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic Millions of years ago ARCHEAN PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. 1. Fossils 2. Genetics 3. Physiology The evolutionary tree of life can be documented with evidence. 1. Fossils 2. Genetics 3. Physiology

3 AP Biology Archaebacteria & Bacteria Classification  Old 5 Kingdom system  Monera  Protists  Plants  Fungi  Animals Prokaryote Eukaryote

4 AP Biology Classifying Life  Molecular data challenges 5 Kingdoms  Monera was too diverse  2 distinct lineages of prokaryotes  Protists are still too diverse  not yet sorted out

5 AP Biology 3 Domain system  Domains = “Super” Kingdoms  Bacteria  Archaea  extremophiles = live in extreme environments  methanogens  halogens  thermophiles  Eukarya  eukaryotes  protists  fungi  plants  animals

6 AP Biology Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom Bacteria

7 AP Biology Prokaryotes Domain Bacteria Domain Archaebacteria Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Common ancestor

8 AP Biology Bacteria live EVERYWHERE!  Bacteria live in all ecosystems  on plants & animals  in plants & animals  in the soil  in depths of the oceans  in extreme cold  in extreme hot  in extreme salt  on the living  on the dead

9 AP Biology Bacterial diversity rods and spheres and spirals… Oh My!

10 AP Biology Prokaryote Structure  Unicellular  bacilli, cocci, spirilli  Size  1/10 size of eukaryote cell  1 micron (1um)  Internal structure  no internal compartments  no membrane-bound organelles  only ribosomes  circular, naked DNA  not wrapped around proteins prokaryote cell eukaryote cell

11 AP Biology Variations in Cell Interior aerobic bacterium cyanobacterium (photosythetic) bacterium internal membranes for photosynthesis like a chloroplast (thylakoids) internal membranes for respiration like a mitochondrion (cristae)

12 AP Biology Prokaryote Cell Wall Structure peptide side chains cell wall peptidoglycan plasma membrane protein Gram-positive bacteria Gram-negative bacteria peptidoglycan plasma membrane outer membrane outer membrane of lipopolysaccharides cell wall peptidoglycan = polysaccharides + amino acid chains lipopolysaccharides = lipids + polysaccharides

13 AP Biology Prokaryotic metabolism  How do bacteria acquire their energy & nutrients?  photoautotrophs  photosynthetic bacteria  chemoautotrophs  oxidize inorganic compounds  nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen…  heterotrophs  live on plant & animal matter  decomposers & pathogens

14 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria  Mutations  bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes  binary fission  error rate in copying DNA  1 in every 200 bacteria has a mutation  Genetic recombination  bacteria swap genes  plasmids  small supplemental circles of DNA

15 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Transformation  Taking in DNA from the environment  Cell surface receptors recognize closely related DNA and take it in! Griffith experiment, showing genetic material could be transferred

16 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria  Transduction  Bacteriophages  Specialized viruses that infect bacteria only  Take DNA from one bacteria to another  Like a mosquito carrying a parasite

17 AP Biology Genetic variation in bacteria Conjugation  Two bacteria are temporarily joined by a pilus  One way only

18 AP Biology Bacteria as pathogens  Disease-causing microbes  plant diseases  wilts, fruit rot, blights  animal diseases  tooth decay, ulcers  anthrax, botulism  plague, leprosy, “flesh-eating” disease  STDs: gonorrhea, chlamydia  typhoid, cholera  TB, pneumonia  lyme disease

19 AP Biology Bacteria as beneficial (& necessary)  Life on Earth is dependent on bacteria  decomposers  recycling of nutrients from dead to living  nitrogen fixation  only organisms that can fix N from atmosphere  needed for synthesis of proteins & nucleic acids  plant root nodules  help in digestion (E. coli)  digest cellulose for herbivores  cellulase enzyme  produce vitamins K & B 12 for humans  produce foods & medicines  from yogurt to insulin

20 AP Biology Any Questions??


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