Presentation on theme: "Objectives #1 - #3 Students will be able to identify the origins of US Government. Students will be able to identify the structure and powers of government."— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives #1 - #3Students will be able to identify the origins of US Government.Students will be able to identify the structure and powers of government provided by the US Constitution.Students will be able to identify the Rights given to American citizens in the Bill of Rights.
2Warm Up1. What movement spreading rapidly throughout the world (especially Europe) in the 1700s influenced the Declaration of Independence?2. Why was Great Britain considered to be a tyrant by the colonists?3. What is the Social Contract? What thinkers championed the term?
3Americans win independence I. Americans win independencea Declaration of IndependenceJefferson main author used Enlightened Ideas (Preamble: Gov’t. power is derived from people)
5Preamble to Declaration of Independence We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator, with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
6Influence of Enlightened Ideas Thomas Paine – Common SenseBritain was a tyrant who had broken social contractThe Social ContractWritten by Rousseau, popularized by Hobbes and LockeColonists had committed treason in eyes of kingb. Despite being outnumbered and outgunned colonists win revolutionary war.
8Social Contract Jean Jacques Rousseau Describes the relationship of man with society.The state of nature is a brutish condition without law or morality, and that there are good men only as a result of society's presence.Because he can be more successful facing threats by joining with other men, he joins together with his fellow men to form a "society.""The Social Contract" is the agreement among men that sets the conditions for membership in society.
10Social Contract John Locke Government’s main purpose is to carry out the will of its people and protect their natural rightsAny government which does not do this is therefore not legitimateAnd the people have the right to revolt and change itGreatly influenced Thomas Jefferson and Declaration of Independence
12John Locke Quotes“The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and enlarge freedom. For in all the states of created beings capable of law, where there is no law, there is no freedom. ““The reason why men enter into society is the preservation of their property. “
13A CRITICAL PERIOD JUST AFTER THE REVOLUTION AMERICAN REVOLUTION BASICALLY ENDS WITH LORD CORNWALLIS’ SURRENDER AT YORKTOWN OCT. 1781Continental Congress Forms During WarArticles of Confederation (Nov. 15, 1777)
14ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Creates only a legislative branch of governmentNo judicial, no executive branches or powersSTRENGTHS- Provides for the settlement of the west (Land Ordinance of 1785 and Northwest Ordinance of 1787)WEAKNESSES- no tax, weak defense, no power to regulate trade between states, 1 vote per state (9-13 to pass laws), no executive or judicial branch
15America’s New Government Concept: Our founding fathers created a “weak” government under the Articles of Confed.First constitution of US = Created a weak national government that loosely connected the states into a union.Why would they do this?Do you think a weaker federal government (in terms of power) is a positive or negative? Explain why.
16Articles of Confederation No executive or judicial branches created. (John Hanson first Pres.)Only Congress is created, each state had 1 vote in congress regardless of population.could declare war = but no army without statesCould enter into treaties, and coin money = but so could statesno power to tax or regulate trade without consent of states9 out of 13 votes needed to pass anything – difficult13 out of 13 to amend – nearly impossible
17John Hanson – First President of the United States?
18Shay’s RebellionShay’s Rebellion prompts need for stronger national governmentFarmer’s rebelled against Mass. State Gov’t. Over huge debt, heavy taxes, & foreclosuresFederal Gov.t could not act, MA Gov.t needed helpShay’s forces attack the Springfield federal armory (rifles)Eventually rebellion was put down by Boston & Springfield Militia1,000 arrested
19Shays and dozens of others would be condemned to death. He was later pardoned in 1788.How could this event prompt the need for a stronger government?
21Problems that led to Shays Rebellion States taxed each others goods or even banned trade (like a tariff)States printed their own money (often without anything backing it).Economic chaos – prices soared, sound credit vanished, debt rose – public and private both went unpaid.Violence broke out all over, not just MA.Demand for stronger national government to solve problems rose.
22PHILADELPHIA CONVENTION “Framers” of the US Constitution55 MENWHITEEDUCATEDPHILADELPHIAMEET ON MAY 25, 1787EACH ARRIVED WITH GOALS AND RESPONSIBILITY TO SATISFY THE PEOPLE BACK HOME.
23METHOD OF DECISION MAKING ALL WAS TO BE DONE IN SECRETDISCUSSION, COMPROMISE, CONSENSUSCONSENSUS – 100% AGREEMENTWHAT ARE THE POSITIVES AND NEGATIVES RELATED TO THIS TYPE OF DECISION-MAKING?
24GREAT DEBATES WHO WOULD HAVE POWER? CENTRAL or LOCAL? FEDERALISM (Division of Power)Representation; BIG STATES or SMALL STATES?BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE (Senate/House)WITHIN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT?SEP. OF POWERS/ CHECKS & BALANCESPEOPLE AND THE GOVERNMENT?BILL OF RIGHTS/AMENDMENTS
25The Philadelphia Convention I. The Constitutional Convention Creates a new Constitutiona. Great Compromise – two house legislature created (Bicameral)Upper house all state equal representationLower house based on population of stateb. Three Fifths CompromiseIn response to southern slave population
26Federalism c. Separation of Powers Distrust for powerful central governmentLegislative, executive, and judicialChecks and balancesDivision of federal and state governmentsPowers Granted – Example of FederalismBill of rightsTo protect rights of citizens; majority rule vs. minority rights10 Amendmentsd. Government based on law not royal power or divine right. Religion never even mentioned. God, but no specific religion.
27DefineFEDERALISM-a system of government that shares power between a central government and local governments.BICAMERAL LEGISLATURE-a 2 house legislature.SEPERATION OF POWER-The 3 functions of government are each the responsibility of a different branchLIMITED GOVERNMENT-The government is restricted in what it can do, by the will of the people.
28US Constitution 7 Articles, 27 Amendments Worlds Oldest and shortest ConstitutionArticle I – Powers of CongressArticle II – Powers of PresidentArticle III – Judicial PowersArticle IV – Relationships among statesArticle V – Adding an AmendmentArticle VI – Public debts, supremacy of national government over state and local, oaths of officeArticle VII – Provisions for ratification of Constitution
29RATIFICATION RATIFY TO FORMALLY APROVE A DOCUMENT. GREAT DEBATES FINALLY COME TO CONCLUSIONSBICAMERAL LEGISLATURE A GREAT EXAMPLE OF WHY SOME CALL THE CONSTITUTION…“A BUNDLE OF COMPROMISES”.
30RatificationConstitution not officially ratified until June of 1788 (Convention starts in Sept. 1787).Should have been after New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratifyNew York and Virginia were missing – Key StatesThese states would ratify in June and July 1788With 11 of 13 the constitution goes into effectNorth Carolina and Rhode Island still not “on board” but would eventually ratify.
31EFFECTS OF RATIFICATION LED TO THE EMERGENCE OF POLITICAL PARTIESTHE FEDERALISTS – G. WASHINGTON, A. HAMILTON, J. ADAMS, J. MADISON. Those that favored ratification. Supported strong central government.Stressed weakness of Articles of Confed.THE ANTI- FEDERALISTS – T. JEFFERSON, P. HENRY, J. HANCOCK, S. ADAMS Those who opposed ratification.Stressed concern over increased power of government and lack of Bill of rights.“I look upon that paper as the most fatal plan that could possibly be conceived to enslave a free people” – Patrick HenrySENT TO THE STATES FOR APPROVAL.
32FEDERALIST PAPERS LOGICAL ARGUMENTS WERE MADE WHY A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS NEEDEDDESCRIBE THE STRUCTURE THEY DEVELOPEDWHY THE PEOPLE SHOULD RATIFYMAIN AUTHORSALEXANDER HAMILTON, JAMES MADISON, JOHN JAYFederalists #10 and #51
33RATIFICATION THE FINAL GREAT DEBATE PROTECTION FROM A TOO POWERFULL GOVERNMENTWHAT IS USED TODAY AS THE ULTIMATE PROTECTION FOR PEOPLE, OFTEN PEOPLE IN A MINORITY?THE BILL OF RIGHTSNOT ADOPTED UNTIL 1791 (AFTER CONSTITUTION WAS RATIFIED AND IN EFFECT)
34Quotes"A bill of rights is what the people are entitled to against every government on earth, general or particular; and what no just government should refuse, or rest on inferences." --Thomas Jefferson“The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government — lest it come to dominate our lives and interests”.– PATRICK HENRY
35CONSTITUTION A NEW CONGRESS MEETS MARCH 4, 1789 New York City Becomes our Capital, and to decide on presidencyNEW PRESIDENT APRIL 6, 1789Washington sworn in April 30thAll 69 electors vote him inJohn Adams is runner = VP
36The Constitution was written with 6 Basic principles and the founding fathers were quite proud.
376 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT Popular SovereigntyLimited GovernmentSeparation of PowersChecks and BalancesJudicial ReviewFederalism
38Thomas Jefferson“These principles form the bright constellation which has gone before us and guided our steps through an age of Revolution and Reformation”.
39Popular SovereigntyIn our democracy, people are the only source of power. The power of the government comes form the consent of the people.It’s in the Preamble
40The government may only do what the people have given it power to do. 2. Limited GovernmentThe government may only do what the people have given it power to do.Where do the ideas of Popular Sovereignty and Limited Government come from?Social Contract
41Who came up with this concept? 3. Separation of PowersAs stated in the 47th Federalist paper, power held in many hands is less likely to be corrupted.Who came up with this concept?
42Write down an example of checks and balances in our government. The 3 branches are not truly separate as each has power over the other.Write down an example of checks and balances in our government.Look at page 68
43Is a government action unconstitutional? 5. Judicial ReviewThe power of the court to judge if the action of the government follows the principles of the constitution.Judicial ReviewIs a government action unconstitutional?
44ConstitutionalismGovernment must be conducted according to constitutional principlesRule of Law –Government and its officers are always subject to – never above – the law.
45Marbury vs. Madison 1803Jefferson wins the election of 1800 and Democratic-Republicans (one political party) controlled both houses of CongressThe outgoing Federalists tried to “pack” the courts/judiciary with party members the night before leaving office (Adams)William Marbury appointed justice of the peace in Wash, DC March 3, 1801.The next day March 4, 1801 Jefferson become president and tells Sec. of State James Madison to not allow “midnight justices” appointments to go through
46Marbury vs. MadisonMarbury goes to the Supreme Court seeking a writ of mandamus (force Jefferson to allow appointments)Chief Justice John Marshall refused Marbury’s requestMarbury’s request was in ruled to be unconstitutionalSupreme Court has right to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
476. FederalismThe national government holds some power and the 50 state hold the rest of the power.Why Federalism?
48AMENDMENTS FORMAL ADDITIONS Which Article sets up the Amendment process?Article V27 TOTAL1-10 –BILL OF RIGHTS – adopted in 179113-15 – SETTLE THE SLAVE ISSUE
49FORMAL AMENDMENT PROCESS METHOD 1 – 2/3 VOTE IN EACH HOUSE AND RATIFIED BY ¾ OF THE STATE LEGISLATURES.38 States Leg., 26 of 27 Amendments this wayMETHOD 2 – 2/3 VOTE IN EACH HOUSE AND RATIFIED BY ¾ OF STATE CONVENTIONSOnly the 21st AmendmentMETHOD 3 - PROPOSED BY NATIONAL CONVENTION AND RATIFIED BY ¾ OF STATE LEGISLATURESMETHOD 4 - PROPOSED BY NATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND RATIFIED BY ¾ OF STATE CONVENTIONS.This is how the Constitution itself was ratified
50AMENDMENTS SEVERAL EXPANDED OR CLARIFIED THE RIGHT TO VOTE AMENDMENTS SEVERAL EXPANDED OR CLARIFIED THE RIGHT TO VOTE. 19TH-WOMEN’S SUFFERAGE, ND-PRESIDENT’S TERM LIMITED -, RD-WASH. DC ELECTORS, TH-PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSION, TH-18 YEAR OLD VOTE, TH- CONGRESSIONAL PAY,-1992
51Interesting Factoids about Amendments Over 4,000 proposed, only 30 some went to states to be voted on.Most proposed Amendments:Flag Burning ban 7 timesAbortion ban 5 times (most common surgical procedure – 1 mill./year)Often used as political tool for votes
52Interesting Factoids about Amendments Most writers of Constitution were deists, agnostics, and UnitariansFeared Christian takeover of governmentBottom line…liberals and conservatives both wanted separation of church and state!
53Great Quote“When a nation has only one religion they have tyranny. When they have two, they have civil war. When they have many they have peace and tolerance, as in the United States!”Alexis De Tocqueville
54Bill of RightsThe compromise between the Federalists and Anti-FederalistsWritten to protect the minority against the tyranny of the majority.Majority Rule vs. Minority RightsCivil Liberties – Protects you from the governmentExample: 4th Amen. Protection for illegal searchesCivil Rights – Protection provided for you by the governmentExample: discrimination
55The Bill of Rights First Amendment A. Fundamental rights of life, liberty, pursuit of happiness1. Freedom of religion2. Speech3. Press4. Peaceful assembly5. Right to petition
561st AmendmentHas any of your First Amendment rights ever been violated?If so, how and which one?How did you respond? What was the outcome?If not, which amendment first amendment right do you think is most important? Explain.
57Bill of RightsSecond Amendment1. Right to bear arms
582nd AmendmentIs this Amendment outdated? Explain. (Keep in mind that the US leads all modern industrialized nations in homicides by guns per year.) Canada and England have very strict gun laws, and have significantly less gun violence. Also, have much smaller populations.
59Bill of Rights Third Amendment No solider can take quarter in ones home without consent of the owner in times of peace or warPrivacy Laws
60What 5 main liberties are protected in the first Amendment? Not all freedom of speech protected by the first Amendment. Give an example of a limit to your freedom of speech.What liberty is protected in the 2nd Amendment? What limits are there on this right?Although considered somewhat outdated, the 3rd Amendment has become a protection of what for American citizens?
61How young is too young to hate? Should the law allow parents to teach their children to discriminate and hate others based on race, religion, or sexual preference?Is this a basic first Amendment right? Explain.Should laws be passed prohibiting parents from teaching children to hate? Explain.What limits (if any) are you ok with on your first Amendment right to freedom of speech? Explain.Should the Westboro Baptist Church of Topeka, KN have the right to practice and preach their religion in this manner? Is this a basic 1st Amendment right or are they endangering themselves or others in their community?
62Bill of Rights Fourth Amendment The privacy amendment Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures.Requires probable cause (reasonable suspicion) and a warrant.Evidence discovered illegally cannot be used in court.
634th AmendmentIs the State of Arizona breaking this Amendment by giving its police officers more “leeway” in questioning and potentially apprehending or harassing potential illegal's? Explain.
645th & 6th AmendmentHave you ever been accused of doing something you were innocent of?How did it feel?What was the outcome? Did “Due process of law” clear your name?
65Bill of Rights Fifth Amendment Innocent until proven guilty Rules about trials for serious crimes.Rules against taking life, liberty, and property without due process of law.No double jeopardyPrivate property cannot be taken without just compensation (Eminent Domain)Due process – everyone has the same rights under law.Self Incrimination – Cannot be forced to testify against self.
66Bill of Rights Sixth Amendment (Criminal Proceedings) Rights of the accusedInnocent until proven guiltySpeedy trial (90 days from arrest, unless waived)Public trialDefense lawyerRight to hear chargesCall witnessesBe present when witnesses speak in a courtJury of Peers (beyond reasonable doubt)
67Bill of Rights Seventh Amendment Civil Trials (no jail time) 1. When suing for money, or an apology or retraction of some sort only ¾ of jury has to agree and you only have to prove it could have happened.
68Bill of Rights Eighth Amendment Punishment must fit the crime 1. Protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments
69Bill of Rights Ninth Amendment 1. Just because a right is not mentioned in the first 8 amendments does not mean that you do not have more rights protected by law2. Rights are not limited to the Bill of Rights
70Bill of Rights Tenth Amendment Powers not delegated to the U.S. Government and are not prohibited to states are reserved to states and to the people.ANY POWER NOT GIVEN TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT OR DENIED TO THE STATES IS ASSUMED HELD BY THE STATES.
71FEDERALISMSTATE POWERS BOTH NATIONAL POWERS RESERVED SHARED DELEGATED CONCURRENT MARRIAGE COIN MONEY DRINKING AGE TAX REGULATE TRADE SCHOOLS COURTS ARMED FORCES
72FEDERALISMWhile each of the 50 states has its own constitution, all provisions of state constitutions must comply with the U.S. Constitution. For example, a state constitution cannot deny accused criminals the right to a trial by jury, as assured by the U.S. Constitution's 6th Amendment.
73THE BALANCE OF POWER HAS CHANGED. TODAY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT HAS GROWN IT’S POWER .GRANTS & SUBSIDIES USED TO EXERT INFLUENCE, GROWN SINCE THE ADOPTATION OF THE INCOME TAX.
74New AmendmentYou are to write your own Amendment. This can be a completely new Amendment or a change or improvement on an existing one.You need to be prepared to explain it for a class discussionYou must also justify how your Amendment protects, makes society better and/or keeps the government off our backs!