Presentation on theme: "Life At The Turn Of The 20th Century"— Presentation transcript:
1Life At The Turn Of The 20th Century Honors US HistoryMr. Basich
2Section 1: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe the impact of technological advances on turn of the century urban planning.2. Summarize turn of the century communication innovations.
3Section 1: Science and Urban Life Main Idea: Advances in science and technology helped solve urban problems, including overcrowding.Why it Matters Now: American cities continue to depend on the results of scientific and technological research.Key Names:Louis SullivanDaniel BurnhamFrederick Law OlmstedKey Names: (cont)Orville and Wilbur WrightGeorge Eastman
4This is how I feel today: GreatGoodAverageNot so goodHorrible20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
5Science and Urban Life: By the turn of the 20th century, four out of ten Americans lived in citiesIn response to urbanization, technological advances began to meet communication, transportation, and space demands
6Skyscrapers:Skyscrapers emerged after two critical inventions: elevators & steel skeletons that bear weightFamous examples include; Daniel Burnham’s Flatiron Building in NYC, Louis Sullivan’s Wainwright Building in St. LouisThe skyscraper was America’s greatest contribution to architecture and solved the issue of how to best use limited and expensive space
7Why were skyscrapers important for city growth? They were a great use of spaceThey were inexpensiveThe people liked the look of themAll of the above20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
8Electric Transit:Changes in transportation allowed cities to spread outwardBy the turn of the century, intricate networks of electric streetcars – also called trolley cars –ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices & stores
9El’s and Subways:A few large cities moved their streetcars far above street level, creating elevated or “el” trainsOther cities built subways by moving their rail lines underground
11Bridges and Parks:Steel-cable suspension bridges, like the Brooklyn Bridge, also brought cities’ sections closerSome urban planners sought to include landscaped areas & parksFrederick Law Olmsted was instrumental in drawing up plans for Central park, NYC.
13More About: Central Park The park officially opened in 1876 and is made up of 840 acres of land (in the middle of NYC!!!)It was designed to be a haven in the center of a busy city.Millions of people every year now use the park as a place to get away from it all.
14Why is Central Park important to the residents of New York City? It offers them a place to “get away from it all”It conserves the land in the center of the cityIt is much different than the area that surrounds itAll of the above are true:20123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930
15City Planning: Chicago Daniel Burnham oversaw the transformation of Chicago’s lakefront from swampy wasteland to elegant parks strung along Lake MichiganToday Chicago’s lakefront is one of the most beautiful shorelines in North America (good planning)
16New Technologies:New developments in communication brought the nation closerAdvances in printing, aviation, and photography helped speed the transfer of information
17A Revolution in Printing: By 1890, the literacy rate in the U.S. was nearly 90%American mills began to produce huge quantities of cheap paper from wood pulpElectrical web-perfecting presses printed on both sides of paper at the same timeFaster production and lower costs made newspapers and magazines more affordable (most papers sold for 1 cent)
18Photography Explosion: Before 1880, photography was a professional activitySubjects could not move and the film had to be developed immediatelyGeorge Eastman invented lighter weight equipment and more versatile filmIn 1888, Eastman introduced his Kodak CameraThe $25 camera came with 100-picture roll of film1888 Kodak Camera
19Airplanes:In the early 20th century, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, experimented with engines and aircraftsThey commissioned a four-cylinder internal combustion engine, chose a propeller, and built a biplaneOn December 17, 1903 they flew their plane for 12 seconds covering 120 feetWithin two years the brothers were making 30 minute flightsBy 1920, the U.S. was using airmail flights regularly
21Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Describe the impact of technological advances on turn of the century urban planning.2. Summarize turn of the century communication innovations.
22Section 2: Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Analyze the expansion of public education at the turn of the 20th century.2. Describe the growth of higher education.
23Section 2: Expanding Public Education: Main Idea: Reforms in public education led to a rise in national literacy and the promotion of public education.Why it Matters Now: The public education system is the foundation of the democratic ideals of American society.Key Terms:Tuskegee Normal and Industrial InstituteNiagara MovementKey Names:Booker T. WashingtonW.E.B. Dubois
24Expanding Public Education: Between 1865 and 1895, states passed laws requiring 12 to 16 weeks of annual education for students ages 8-14, but the curriculum was poor and the teachers were usually not qualifiedHowever, the number of kindergartens expanded from 200 in 1880 to 3,000 in 1900
25High School Enrollment Soars: High schools expanded their curriculum to include science, civics and social studiesBy 1900, 500,000 teen-agers were enrolled in high schoolsThey had both vocational schools and traditional high schools.
26Education For Immigrants: Unlike African Americans, immigrants were encouraged to go to schoolMost immigrants sent their children to public schoolsAlso, thousands of adult immigrants attended night schools to learn English
27Expanding Higher Education: In 1900, less than 3% of America’s youth attended collegeBetween 1880 and 1920 college enrollments more than quadrupledProfessional schools were established for law and medicine
28Today’s Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe several of the key players in the educational reform movement.2. Identify how W.E.B. Dubois and Booker T. Washington pushed for increased schooling for African Americans.
29Racial Discrimination: African Americans were mostly excluded from secondary educationIn 1890 less than 1% attended high schoolBy 1910 that figured had reached only 3%
30African American Universities Formed: After the Civil War, thousands of African Americans pursued higher education despite being excluded from white institutionsBlacks founded Howard, Fisk, and Tuskegee Universities (founded by Booker T. Washington)W.E.B. Dubois founded the Niagara Movement, which sought liberal arts educations for all blacksBooker T. Washington
32Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Analyze the expansion of public education at the turn of the 20th century.2. Describe the growth of higher education.
33Section 3 Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Trace the historical underpinnings of legalized segregation and the African American struggle against racism in the United States.2. Summarize the turn of the 20th Century race relations in the North and the South.3. Identify discrimination against minorities in the American West.
34Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination: Main Idea: African Americans led the fight against voting restrictions and Jim Crow laws.Why it Matters Now: Today, African Americans have the legacy of a century long battle to civil rights.Key Terms:Poll TaxGrandfather ClauseSegregationJim Crow LawsDebt PeonageKey Terms / Cases:Plessy vs. FergusonLynching
35Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination: By the turn of the 20th century, Southern States had adopted a broad system of legal discriminationBlacks had to deal with voting restrictions, Jim Crow laws, Supreme Court set-backs, and physical violence
36What is Discrimination? Discrimination involves:Beliefs : "This group of people is inferior because"Emotions : "I hate this group of people."Actions : "I will deny opportunity/hurt/kill members of this group."
37Voting Restrictions:All Southern states imposed new voting restrictions and denied legal equality to African AmericansSome states limited the vote to those who could read, other states had a poll tax which had to be paid prior to voting
38More Voting Restrictions: Since there were some white men that couldn’t pass the simple “watered down” literacy test, a Grandfather Clause was created.Grandfather Clause – Men were allowed to vote if he, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible to vote before January 1, 1867.This date is important because before that time, freed slaves did not have the right to vote yet.This clause helped only the illiterate white male.
39Jim Crow Laws:Southern states passed Segregation laws to separate white and black people in public and private facilitiesThese laws came to be known as “Jim Crow Laws”, named after an old minstrel songRacial segregation was put into effect in schools, hospitals, parks, and transportation systems throughout the South
40Plessy vs. Ferguson:Eventually a legal case reached the U.S. Supreme Court to test the constitutionality of segregationIn 1896, in Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation of races was legal and did not violate the 14th Amendment“Separate but equal”This decision permitted legalized racial segregation for almost 60 years.
42Race Relations:Blacks faced legal discrimination as well as informal rules and customsMeant to humiliate these “rules” included;1. Whites never shaking the hand of an African American2. Blacks had to yield the sidewalk to whites3. Blacks also had to remove their hats in the presence of whites
43Violence:African Americans who did not follow the racial etiquette could face severe punishment or deathBetween , more than 1,400 black men and women were shot, burned, or lynchedLynching (illegal executions) peaked in the 1880s and 90s but continued well into the 20th centuryVIDEO
44Discrimination in the North: While most African Americans lived in the segregated South, many blacks had migrated to the North in hopes of better jobs & equalityHowever, the North had its own brand of racism as blacks got low paying jobs and lived in segregated neighborhoods
45Discrimination in the West: Discrimination in the west was most often directed against Mexican and Asian immigrantsMexicans were often forced in Debt Peonage – a system of forced labor due to debtAsians were increasingly excluded from mainstream society
46Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Trace the historical underpinnings of legalized segregation and the African American struggle against racism in the United States.2. Summarize the turn of the 20th Century race relations in the North and the South.3. Identify discrimination against minorities in the American West.
47Section 4: Objectives: By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Give examples of turn of the century leisure activities and popular sports.2. Analyze the spread of mass culture in the United States at the turn of the 20th Century.3. Describe turn of the century innovations in marketing and advertising.
48Section 4: The Dawn of Mass Culture: Main Idea: As Americans had more time for leisure activities, a modern mass culture emerged.Why it Matters Now: Today, the United States has a worldwide impact on mass culture.Key Terms:Joseph PulitzerWilliam Randolph HearstMark TwainKey Names:Ashcan SchoolRural Free Delivery (RFD)
49Section 4: Dawn of Mass Culture: Many middle class Americans fought off city congestion and dull industrial work by enjoying amusement parks, bicycling, tennis and spectator sportsAmerican leisure was developing into a multi-million dollar industry
50Amusement Parks:To meet the recreational needs of city dwellers, Chicago, NYC and other cities began setting aside land for parksAmusement parks were constructed on the outskirts of citiesThese parks had picnic grounds and a variety of rides
51Bicycling and Tennis:After the introduction of the “safety bike” in 1885, Americans increasingly enjoyed bikingBy 1890, 312 companies made over 10,000,000 bikesTennis also was very popular in the late 19th century
52Spectator Sports:Americans not only participated in new sports, but became avid fans of spectator sportsBaseball and boxing became profitable businessesMark Twain called baseball, “the very symbol of the booming 19th century”
53Mass Circulation Newspapers: Mass-production printing techniques led to the publication of millions of books, magazines, and newspapersJoseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were two leading publishers whose competition led to more and more sensational newspaper reporting (yellow journalism)HearstPulitzer
54Here is an example of Yellow Journalism Here is an example of Yellow Journalism. The aim was to try to outdo the competition
55Promoting the Fine Arts: By 1900, free circulating Public libraries numbered in the thousandsBy 1900, most major cities had art galleriesIn the early 20th century, the Ashcan School of American Art painted urban lifeTitle: Dempsey and Firpo, 1924 Artist: George Wesley Bellows
56Popular Fiction: Mark Twain “Dime” novels were popular & inexpensive Most of these focused on adventure tales and heroes of the westSome readers preferred a more realistic portrayal from authors Mark Twain and Jack LondonThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is famed as one of the classics.Mark Twain
57Growing Consumerism:The turn of the century witnessed the beginnings of the:1. Shopping center2. Department and chain stores3. The birth of modern advertising
58The Department Store:Marshall Field of Chicago brought the first department store to AmericaField’s motto was “Give the lady what she wants”Field also pioneered the “bargain basement” concept – less expensive but reliable.
59Chain Stores:In the 1870s, F.W. Woolworth found that if he offered an item at a low price, “the consumer would purchase it on the spur of the moment”By 1911, the Woolworth chain had 596 stores and sold $1,000,000 per week
60Advertising:Expenditures for advertising was under $10 million a year in 1865, but increased to $95 million by 1900Ads appeared in newspapers, magazines and on billboards
61Catalogs and Rural Free Delivery: Montgomery Ward and Sears were two pioneers in catalog salesBy 1910, 10 million Americans shopped by mailIn 1896 the Post Office introduced a Rural free delivery (RFD) - system that brought packages directly to every home
62Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Give examples of turn of the century leisure activities and popular sports.2. Analyze the spread of mass culture in the United States at the turn of the 20th Century.3. Describe turn of the century innovations in marketing and advertising.