Presentation on theme: "CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER"— Presentation transcript:
1CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER Ms. Berndt (Cavell)
2Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined.Why it Matters Now: Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions.Key Terms:Great PlainsTreaty of Fort LaramieAssimilationDawes ActBattle of Wounded KneeKey Terms / Names:Sitting BullGeorge A. Custer
3Section 1: Objectives By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.
5SECTION 1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE The Indians had little contact with the “white man”Great Plains – the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US.The Great Plains were hunting grounds for the IndiansTHE GREAT PLAINS
7BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING THE BUFFALOThe Spanish had brought buffalo to AmericaThe Indians hunted the buffaloUses:1. Food2. Clothing3. Bones for tools and weaponsBUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
9FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Men were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare itThis is called a hunter-gatherer community.Tribes were very spiritual and no one “owned” the land….Until the “white man” came
10SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers began to push Westward in search of land to start a livingSince no one “owned” the land – they took it!Soon, gold was discovered in ColoradoThis lead hundreds of thousands of settlers west into the Great PlainsMost of these settlers lived in filthy conditions with the hopes of striking it rich.
11THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES The U.S. government backed the settlers in disputes with the IndiansRailroad companies began to lay track right through Indian landsSoon, the government would allow any white settler 160 acres of land to start a living.The Indians will soon begin to fight backRAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
12Small Group Discussion: 1. How would you feel as a Native American if a white settler “claimed” your land?2. Do you think the settlers had a right to take the land since no one legally owned it?3. If you were the President at this time, would you have let the settlers claim the land from the Indians?4. If you were a Native American Indian, would you have fought back against the settlers?5. Do you think there might have been a way in which both the Native Americans and the settlers could have been happy instead of what happened?
13Lesson One: Objectives (cont.) By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:1. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.2. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.
14NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH Initially, the government set aside land for the IndiansThen they went back on their decision and had their military enforce the lawMassacre at Sand Creek; US military attack killing 150 native women and childrenSand Creek was the first major attack on the Indians
15Death On The Bozeman Trail: Bozeman Trail – traveling trail that ran directly through Indian hunting grounds.Whites and Indians fought over this land.The Treaty of Fort Laramie closed the trail and moved the Indians to a reservation.Sitting Bull - the leader of the Sioux Indians, didn’t sign the treaty.
17OTHER CONFLICTS AND BATTLES Custer’s Last Stand occurred in early 1876 when Colonel George A. Custer - leader of the 7th Calvary) reached Little Big HornLed by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the natives crushed Custer’s troopsThey won because they knew the “lay of the land”ONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN
21FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE THE DAWES ACTWhite settlers wanted the Indians to be more like themAssimilation – A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become a part of the white culture.The Dawes Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American lifeMost Indian land would soon become white landFAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
23THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO Whites began to hunt buffalo for fur and sport (sometimes from trains) – they would only take the fur1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains1890: less than 1000 remainedIndians saw this as a insult and a waste of resources
25HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEEThe Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D.A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed NativesThis became known as the Battle of Wounded Knee.HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
27Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west.2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences.3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.
28Section 2: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading.2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
29Section 2: Settling On The Great Plains Main Idea: Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships.Why it Matters Now: The Great Plains region remains the breadbasket of the United States.Key Terms:Homestead ActKey Terms:Transcontinental RailroadBonanza Farm
30SECTION 2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS The West was expanding rapidly – the transcontinental railroad (connected East and West of the USA) helped this1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”
31The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868 The transcontinental railroad was completed in The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
32SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and banditsEven so, 50 years later 30% of Americans lived west of the Mississippi River. – only 1% in 19=850.Dugout and SoddiesTrees very scarceSettlers dug their own homes Soddies - homes built out of sodHomes in the sides of ravines or hillsides
33INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machineOther inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binderJOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE
34ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 centsWHY?Railroad companies charged the farmers high prices to ship grain to buyersIn response, a new type of farm emerged called a Bonanza farm.BONANZA Farm – huge single-crop farms of 15,000 – 50,000 acres.
35Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You:1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading.2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
36Section 3: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them.2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.
37Section 3: Farmers And The Populist Movement Main Idea: Farmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement.Why it Matters Now: Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted.Key Terms:GrangeFarmers’ AlliancesPopulismBimetallismGold StandardKey Names:Oliver Hudson KelleyWilliam McKinleyWilliam Jennings Bryan
38Lesson Two Review:1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”Many flocked to the “open range” to start their lives – huge farmsSince so many were producing excess crops, prices fell drasticallyRailroads also started to charge extremely high prices for crop transportationFarmers couldn’t keep up and fell into great debtIn addition, bad weather spells were wreaking havoc on the cropsWho will help the farmers? Let’s find out!
39FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE The Grange - was created to fight the railroad abusesSoon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances – (Those who supported the farmers) numbered over 4 million membersExoduster – African Americans who migrated to the Great Plains (former slaves)
40Why were the farmers fighting the Railroads? They weren’t traveling to their townsThe seats were uncomfortableThey were charging high prices to use their services.None of the above30
41THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR POPULIST PARTY IS BORNHow do you get something changed? – GET POLITICAL!!!Populism – the movement of the peopleThe Populist or People’s Party was formedTHIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CARVanderbilt
43What was the main goal of the populist party? To protect the people (farmers) from unjust business practicesTo enhance their own political powerTo try to run the Railroad companies out of businessTo build cities30
44What did the Populists want????? POPULIST REFORMSWhat did the Populists want?????1. A rise in crop prices2. Lower taxes3. Loans for farmers4. 8-hr. workdayPolitical Reforms1. Direct election of senators2. Single terms for presidents
45Which reform was NOT a part of the populist party’s movement? 8 hour workdayDirect election of senatorsLower taxesMore landIncrease of money supply30
47Silverites vs. Gold Bugs The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign – how is our money backed?Bimetallism - those who favored using both gold and silverGold Standard – American dollar would be backed just by goldMorrill Act - granted federally owned land to be developed for high education purposesWhy did it matter?People regarded paper money as worthless unless it could be exchanged for gold or silver.
48BRYAN AND THE “CROSS OF GOLD” Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinleyDemocrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings BryanDespite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 electionBRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
51Populism left two important legacies: THE END OF POPULISM!With McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, burying the hopes of the farmerPopulism left two important legacies:1) A messagedowntrodden can organize and be heard and2) Agenda of reformsmany enacted in the 20th centuryThe People’s Party Ended But Left An Important Legacy Leading to Progressivism
52Trail of Broken Treaties - cross-country protest in 1972. It was designed to bring attention to American Indian issues, such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housingTrail of Tears - name given to the relocation and forced march/movement of Native Americans from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830Occupy Alcatraz – (Following the Treaty of Fort Laramie)Native Americans began to occupy the island of Alcatraz located off the shores of California by the Indians of All Tribes.The occupation last for a year and seven months but was forcibly ended by the U.S. government.They felt this was their right to occupy Alcatraz because the treaty stated all unused federal property be returned to the Native Americans and Alcatraz had been shut down.
53Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You?1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them.What was the importance of the Populist Party?