Presentation on theme: "Ms. Berndt (Cavell). Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains."— Presentation transcript:
Ms. Berndt (Cavell)
Section 1: Cultures Clash On The Prairie Main Idea: The cattle industry boomed in the late 1800’s, as the culture of the Plains Indians declined. Why it Matters Now: Today, ranchers and Plains Indians work to preserve their cultural traditions. Key Terms: Great Plains Treaty of Fort Laramie Assimilation Dawes Act Battle of Wounded Knee Key Terms / Names: Sitting Bull George A. Custer
By the end of this lesson I will be able to: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers. Section 1: Objectives
SECTION 1: CULTURES CLASH ON THE PRAIRIE The Indians had little contact with the “white man” Great Plains – the grassland extending through the west-central portion of the US. The Great Plains were hunting grounds for the Indians THE GREAT PLAINS
THE BUFFALO The Spanish had brought buffalo to America The Indians hunted the buffalo Uses: 1. Food 2. Clothing 3. Bones for tools and weapons BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
FAMILY LIFE ON THE PLAINS Men were hunters, while women helped butcher the game and prepare it This is called a hunter-gatherer community. Tribes were very spiritual and no one “owned” the land….Until the “white man” came
SETTLERS PUSH WESTWARD The white settlers began to push Westward in search of land to start a living Since no one “owned” the land – they took it! Soon, gold was discovered in Colorado This lead hundreds of thousands of settlers west into the Great Plains Most of these settlers lived in filthy conditions with the hopes of striking it rich.
THE GOVERNMENT RESTRICTS NATIVES The U.S. government backed the settlers in disputes with the Indians Railroad companies began to lay track right through Indian lands Soon, the government would allow any white settler 160 acres of land to start a living. The Indians will soon begin to fight back RAILROADS GREATLY IMPACTED NATIVE LIFE
1. How would you feel as a Native American if a white settler “claimed” your land? 2. Do you think the settlers had a right to take the land since no one legally owned it? 3. If you were the President at this time, would you have let the settlers claim the land from the Indians? 4. If you were a Native American Indian, would you have fought back against the settlers? 5. Do you think there might have been a way in which both the Native Americans and the settlers could have been happy instead of what happened? Small Group Discussion:
By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. 2. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers. Lesson One: Objectives (cont.)
NATIVES AND SETTLERS CLASH Initially, the government set aside land for the Indians Then they went back on their decision and had their military enforce the law Massacre at Sand Creek ; US military attack killing 150 native women and children Sand Creek was the first major attack on the Indians
Death On The Bozeman Trail: Bozeman Trail – traveling trail that ran directly through Indian hunting grounds. Whites and Indians fought over this land. The Treaty of Fort Laramie closed the trail and moved the Indians to a reservation. Sitting Bull - the leader of the Sioux Indians, didn’t sign the treaty.
OTHER CONFLICTS AND BATTLES Custer’s Last Stand occurred in early 1876 when Colonel George A. Custer - leader of the 7 th Calvary) reached Little Big Horn Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the natives crushed Custer’s troops They won because they knew the “lay of the land” ONE OF THE FEW NATIVE VICTORIES WAS LITTLE BIG HORN
The Battle of Little Big Horn
THE DAWES ACT White settlers wanted the Indians to be more like them Assimilation – A plan under which Native Americans would give up their beliefs and way of life and become a part of the white culture. The Dawes Act called for the break up of reservations and the introduction of natives into American life Most Indian land would soon become white land FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
NATIVE LANDS BY 1894
THE DESTRUCTION OF THE BUFFALO Whites began to hunt buffalo for fur and sport (sometimes from trains) – they would only take the fur 1800: 65 million buffalo roamed the plains 1890: less than 1000 remained Indians saw this as a insult and a waste of resources
BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE The Seventh Cavalry (Custer’s old regiment) rounded up 350 Sioux and took them to Wounded Knee, S.D. A shot was fired – within minutes the Seventh Cavalry slaughtered 300 unarmed Natives This became known as the Battle of Wounded Knee. HUNDREDS OF CORPSES WERE LEFT TO FREEZE ON THE GROUND
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You: 1. Contrast the cultures of Native Americans and white settlers and explain why white settlers moved west. 2. Identify restrictions imposed by the government on Native Americans and describe the consequences. 3. Identify the government’s policy of assimilation as well as continuing conflicts between Native Americans and settlers.
Section 2: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
Section 2: Settling On The Great Plains Main Idea: Settlers on the Great Plains transformed the land despite great hardships. Why it Matters Now: The Great Plains region remains the breadbasket of the United States. Key Terms: Homestead Act Key Terms: Transcontinental Railroad Bonanza Farm
SECTION 2: SETTLING ON THE GREAT PLAINS The West was expanding rapidly – the transcontinental railroad (connected East and West of the USA) helped this 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household”
The transcontinental railroad was completed in The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
SETTLERS ENCOUNTER HARDSHIPS The frontier settlers faced extreme hardships – droughts, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and bandits Even so, 50 years later 30% of Americans lived west of the Mississippi River. – only 1% in 19=850. Dugout and Soddies Trees very scarce Settlers dug their own homes Soddies - homes built out of sod Homes in the sides of ravines or hillsides
INCREASED TECHNOLOGY HELPS FARMERS 1837 – John Deere invented a steel plow that could slice through heavy soil 1847 – Cyrus McCormick mass-produced a reaping machine Other inventions included a grain drill to plant seed, barbed wire, and corn binder JOHN DEERE’S STEEL PLOW HAD TO BE PULLED BY A HORSE OR MULE
ECONOMIC DISTRESS HITS FARMERS Between 1867 and 1887 the price of a bushel of wheat fell from $2.00 to 68 cents WHY? Railroad companies charged the farmers high prices to ship grain to buyers In response, a new type of farm emerged called a Bonanza farm. BONANZA Farm – huge single-crop farms of 15,000 – 50,000 acres.
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You: 1. Explain the rapid settlement of the Great Plains due to homesteading. 2. Describe how early settlers survived on the plains and transformed them into profitable farm land.
Section 3: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them. 2. Explain the rise and fall of the Populist Party.
Section 3: Farmers And The Populist Movement Main Idea: Farmers united to address their economic problems, giving rise to the Populist movement. Why it Matters Now: Many of the Populist reform issues, such as income tax and legally protected rights of workers, are now taken for granted. Key Terms: Grange Farmers’ Alliances Populism Bimetallism Gold Standard Key Names: Oliver Hudson Kelley William McKinley William Jennings Bryan
Lesson Two Review: 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free acres to any “head of household” Many flocked to the “open range” to start their lives – huge farms Since so many were producing excess crops, prices fell drastically Railroads also started to charge extremely high prices for crop transportation Farmers couldn’t keep up and fell into great debt In addition, bad weather spells were wreaking havoc on the crops Who will help the farmers? Let’s find out!
FARMERS ORGANIZE FOR CHANGE The Grange - was created to fight the railroad abuses Soon the Grange and other Farmer Alliances – (Those who supported the farmers) numbered over 4 million members Exoduster – African Americans who migrated to the Great Plains (former slaves)
1.They weren’t traveling to their towns 2.The seats were uncomfortable 3.They were charging high prices to use their services. 4.None of the above Why were the farmers fighting the Railroads? 30
POPULIST PARTY IS BORN How do you get something changed? – GET POLITICAL!!! Populism – the movement of the people The Populist or People’s Party was formed THIS POLITICAL CARTOON SHOWS A POPULIST CLUBBING A RAILROAD CAR Vanderbilt
1.To protect the people (farmers) from unjust business practices 2.To enhance their own political power 3.To try to run the Railroad companies out of business 4.To build cities What was the main goal of the populist party? 30
POPULIST REFORMS What did the Populists want????? 1. A rise in crop prices 2. Lower taxes 3. Loans for farmers 4. 8-hr. workday Political Reforms 1. Direct election of senators 2. Single terms for presidents
1.8 hour workday 2.Direct election of senators 3.Lower taxes 4.More land 5.Increase of money supply Which reform was NOT a part of the populist party’s movement? 30
Silverites vs. Gold Bugs The central issue of the 1896 Presidential campaign – how is our money backed? Bimetallism - those who favored using both gold and silver Gold Standard – American dollar would be backed just by gold Morrill Act - granted federally owned land to be developed for high education purposes Why did it matter? People regarded paper money as worthless unless it could be exchanged for gold or silver.
BRYAN AND THE “CROSS OF GOLD” Republicans favored the Gold standard and nominated William McKinley Democrats favored Bimetallism and nominated William Jennings Bryan Despite Bryan’s stirring words, “You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold,” McKinley won the 1896 election BRYAN’S CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH
THE END OF POPULISM! With McKinley’s election victory, Populism collapsed, burying the hopes of the farmer Populism left two important legacies: 1) A message downtrodden can organize and be heard and 2) Agenda of reforms many enacted in the 20 th century The People’s Party Ended But Left An Important Legacy Leading to Progressivism
Trail of Broken Treaties - cross-country protest in It was designed to bring attention to American Indian issues, such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housing Trail of Tears - name given to the relocation and forced march/movement of Native Americans from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830 Occupy Alcatraz – (Following the Treaty of Fort Laramie) Native Americans began to occupy the island of Alcatraz located off the shores of California by the Indians of All Tribes. The occupation last for a year and seven months but was forcibly ended by the U.S. government. They felt this was their right to occupy Alcatraz because the treaty stated all unused federal property be returned to the Native Americans and Alcatraz had been shut down.
Did We Meet Our Objectives? Can You? 1. Identify the problems farmers faced and their cooperative efforts to solve them. What was the importance of the Populist Party?