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Unit 2 Forming a New Nation

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1 Unit 2 Forming a New Nation

2 What do you know about life in “America” at this point?
Warm-up What do you know about life in “America” at this point? (It is about 1750)

3 Answer: 13 British colonies French and Spanish colonies too 13 colonies can be divided into 3 regions; New England, Middle, and Southern colonies Different economic systems, cultures, and religions for each of the 3 regions The colonies are starting to form their own governments


5 WHO FOUGHT? Britain & Colonists VS. France & Indians British
French settlers (and Native Americans)

6 Also known as the Seven Years’ War….. Why?
This war involved over 2o nations and was fought in Europe and Africa. It lasted 7 years. Americans call it the French and Indian War because we only participated in the part that took place in North America.

7 Control of the Americas

8 WHY THEY FOUGHT? 1) Fertile Soil in the Ohio Valley
3)France and Britain have fought for centuries 2) Fur to trade

The Indians helped the French because they had better relationships and they believed that the French would win.

10 Ben Franklin’s 1754 cartoon was a plea for unity in defending the colonies during the French and Indian War. His plan for unity was called the Albany Plan of Union

They knew the land They were local soldiers Guerilla fighting style

12 HOW DID THE WAR BEGIN? French controlled most of the land in North America. The English wanted to expand their territory... westward. Because the English were starting to move into French territory, the French attacked. Both groups were fighting over the Ohio River Valley

13 WHEN AND WHERE? Ft. Necessity-set up by George Washington and militia (civilians trained to fight) Washington was outnumbered, so he surrendered French took over the fort and later burned it

After Washington was defeated at Ft. Necessity, England appointed General Edward Braddock became commander in chief of the British.

15 WHEN AND WHERE? On July 9, 1755 the French and Native Americans ambushed the British at Ft. Duquesne. They fired from behind trees, aiming at the bright uniforms. The British were confused and frightened. Braddock called for a retreat. Braddock was killed along with many others. British lost this battle Washington claimed he was more scared during the ambush at Ft. Duquesne than at any other point in his life.

The first years of the war were disastrous for the British and the American colonies. The Native Americans destroyed and burned many homes. Great Britain’s fortunes improved after William Pitt came to power as Secretary of State and then Prime Minister (of England). He sent British troops to North America under the command of Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe. Jeffrey Amherst James Wolfe

17 THE FALL OF NEW FRANCE British troops attacked Quebec. James Wolfe finds a poorly guarded path, surprises and defeats the French (dies in the battle) A year later, Jeffery Amherst captures Montreal This brought an end to the war

18 Treaty of Paris (1763) Officially ended the French and Indian War
French can keep sugar producing islands in the West Indies, but must give up Canada, and the land east of the Mississippi to Great Britain French agreed not to own any of the colonies

19 FYI: In the midst of the French and Indian War Ben Franklin suggested the Albany Plan of Union. This plan called for a council that would have authority over the western settlements, relations with the Natives, and other urgent matters. It could also organize armies and collect taxes. The plan was rejected because each colony wanted to maintain control.

20 This is a map of America after the war
Warm-up Who fought in the French and Indian War and why did they fight? What was the outcome? This is a map of America after the war

21 France and the Native Americans
Answer: Who fought Why 1) fertile soil 2) fur to trade 3) France and Britain have fought for centuries Outcome Treaty of Paris, England & Colonists win England/ Colonists- now Americans France and the Native Americans

22 Section 5.2 The Colonists Resist Tighter Control
King George III England had finally pushed the French out, but they had gone into debt due to the war. The English government decided to make the Americans pay for the war with taxes. This would cause them to rebel. However, the colonists had bigger problems. They were also still fighting with the Native Americans.

23 Conflict with Native Americans
PONTIAC’S WAR Ottawa Chief who brought together numerous tribes to fight the colonists They tormented the settlers (esp. west) He could not obtain Fort Detroit, Fort Pitt, or Fort Niagara

24 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 To stop the vicious fighting between the colonists and Native Americans, George III declared the Appalachian Mountains to be the western boundary for the colonies. This angered many colonists who believed they had the right to reside wherever they wanted. The proclamation was widely ignored and proved impossible for the British to enforce. The 1763 "Proclamation line" is the red line

25 British Rule Leads to Conflict
Although the colonies had started to unite, the 13 colonies were still divided in many ways But, they saw themselves as different from people living in Britain The British, however saw things differently. They thought the colonists should pay for their part in the war. This difference in opinion leads to problems between the colonists and England. The 1763 "Proclamation line" is the red line

26 The Sugar Act Sugar Act – Import tax on molasses (& other products)
It actually lowered the Molasses Act tax so it was intended to stop the smuggling (Navigation Acts) 1764 King George

27 The Quartering Act This act was an indirect tax for the colonists. Under the law, the colonists had to give quarters (a home), food, and transportation to the British soldiers. 

28 November 1 ,1765 (takes effect)
The Stamp Act Colonists had to buy special stamps and place them on newspapers, wills, licenses, insurance policies, land titles, contracts, & other documents. November 1 ,1765 (takes effect)

29 Stamp Act protesters burned homes of officials in protest
Patrick Henry Patrick Henry was one of the most outspoken opponents of the Stamp Act He convinced colonists to act together against the acts which led to a boycott of British goods and violence in the colonies. Stamp Act protesters burned homes of officials in protest

30 Colonists sent a petition to the King and Parliament that demanded the end to both the Sugar Act and the Stamp Act. The protests worked and Parliament repealed the Stamp Act. Left: Tarring and feathering of a British excise man by a Liberty Tree. Right: A tax collector being tarred and feathered in 1774.

31 Townshend Acts Set up a system to tax items coming into the colonies
Taxes were placed on glass, paint, lead, paper, and tea imported into the colonies Passed by Parliament on June 1767 Britain hoped these taxes would not upset the colonists

32 Writs of Assistance - This allowed British soldiers search houses, ships and warehouses for smuggled goods They were legalized by the Townshend Act of 1767.

33 The Boston Massacre What was the cause of the Boston Massacre?
Colonists rioting because of taxes. On March 5, 1770, a crowd of rowdy Bostonians gathered around a small group of British soldiers guarding the Boston Customs House. The soldiers were being harassed by the colonists. Colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at the soldiers. The frightened soldiers fired into the crowd. Their shots hit and killed a number of civilians .

34 5 colonists were killed 6 colonists were wounded Crispus Attucks, a free African American sailor was the first to die at the massacre.

35 The Boston Massacre Paul Revere created an engraving that was used as propaganda to influence colonists against the British. Propaganda is an item used to influence opinion


37 Here is how the article appeared in newspapers and what was written in the article printed with Paul Revere’s engraving.


39 Which do you think is closer to what really happened?

40 As protests spread, groups began to organize against England
Sam Adams As protests spread, groups began to organize against England Sons of Liberty: Organized protests (often violent) against British acts and policies

41 Abigail Adams Daughters of Liberty: Organized boycotts against British products. Found ways to make needed items.

42 Committee of Correspondence
Created after the Boston Massacre by Samuel Adams Created to keep colonists informed of British actions. Wrote letters and pamphlets.

43 Warm-up What was the Stamp Act and how did the colonists respond to it?

44 This placed a tax on paper products. (Wills, licenses, deeds, etc)
Tarring and feathering, and burning tax collectors homes were responses.

45 Section 5.3 Protest to Rebellion

46 The Tea Act was the only piece of the Townshend
British East India Tea Company could sell tea in America without paying tax on it (cheapest tea in town) This put many other tea sellers out of business, especially the smugglers The Tea Act was the only piece of the Townshend Acts not to be repealed. They called it by a new name so the colonists would not get mad. But many of the colonists were still upset because it meant that only British tea could be sold in the colonies. This led to the Boston Tea Party.

47 Intolerable Acts As a result of the Boston Tea Party the English Parliament passed the… Intolerable Acts – Included the Boston Port Bill, Quartering Act (part 2) and the Massachusetts Government Act. Make colonists pay for the tea. (also known as the Coercive Acts)

48 Boston Port Bill – Closed Boston Harbor to all shipping

49 Quartering Act – Each colony had to provide a place for British troops to live, again! (colonists had ignored this law that was already in place)

50 Massachusetts Government Act- 1. Increased the power of the royal
Massachusetts Government Act- 1. Increased the power of the royal governor 2. Abolished the upper house of the Massachusetts legislature Cut the powers of town meetings


52 Many colonists viewed the acts as a violation of their rights, and in 1774 they organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate a protest. Congress included Patrick Henry, George Washington, Sam Adams and John Adams. In all, there were 56 men who attended the 1st Continental Congress

53 The First Continental Congress WHAT DID THE CONGRESS DO?
Took place in September and October 1774 12 of the 13 colonies sent delegates (No Georgia) WHAT DID THE CONGRESS DO? 1)Asked Britain to repeal various acts that they didn’t agree on 2) Called for the colonies to boycott British goods 3) Formed colonial militias to protect in case of violence

54 The Shot Heard Round the World
The British government had no intention of meeting the demands of the First Continental Congress The colonists realized they might have to prepare for a fight so they set up minutemen and organized weapons Lexington and Concord-read passage on pages

55 What were the Intolerable Acts?
Warm-up What were the Intolerable Acts?

56 Answer: Included the Boston Port Bill Quartering Act (part 2)
The Massachusetts Government Act (also known as the Coercive Acts)

57 Liberty Kids

58 Warm-up: Why was the Battle of Lexington known as the “shot heard ‘round the world?”

59 It started the American Revolution- People around the world wondered if other colonies would follow

60 Group notes based on class presentations- use handout “Important Events of the Early Revolution”

61 Warm-up: Why was the Olive Branch Petition important?

62 Answer: It was the last attempt by the colonies to make peace with England. The Continental Congress did not want war, but after the Olive Branch Petition was ignored they felt they had no choice.

63 Second Continental Congress
May (Phily) 1775 1st government of the colonies Led by Hancock, Jefferson, Franklin Major Decisions: Formed an army (led by G.W.) Print paper $$$ in the colonies 2nd C.C. acted like a government

64 Patriots vs. Loyalists Patriots: Favored independence
Took control of local governments Loyalists: Remained loyal to Britain and its policies 1/3 of colonists Many African-Americans (who hoped to gain freedom) Many Natives (who were afraid of losing land)

65 Fort Ticonderoga May 1775 (N.Y.)
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys attacked a British fort 42 British troops surrendered almost immediately Why did the Patriots want the fort? It was the main route between Canada & the Hudson River Valley The fort held valuable weapons

66 Battle of Bunker Hill June 1775
After Lexington and Concord, the Patriot militia controlled the hills surrounding Boston. The Patriots heard through their spies that the British were planning to attack Bunker Hill. The Patriots sent 1600 men to set up fortifications on Breed's Hill, which was closer to Boston. British General Howe led 2600 British soldiers up Breed's Hill. The Americans held off two British charges, but were finally forced to retreat on the third charge. The British suffered heavy losses. The British gained control of Breed's Hill. Seen as a Patriot victory because of British casualties.

67 The Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 The 2nd C.C. continued to try and restore peace with Britain. The petition said that the colonists were loyal to king and asked him to stop fighting. King completely ignored the petition and said the colonists were “in open rebellion.”

68 Section 5.4 The War Begins

69 Patriots vs. British

British Flag REBELS COLONISTS PATRIOTS YANKEES -BRITISH -ENGLISH -LOYALISTS -LOBSTERBACKS -RED COATS The Grand Union Flag was first used at sea, and then by Washington and is considered the first American flag Colonists could mean either, but more often would be included on the rebel side. An estimated 1/3 of the colonists stayed loyal to Britain during the war!

71 Fight to keep economic resource
CAUSE: Patriots – Fighting to protect life (Lifestyle) British- Fighting to keep control of the colonies British – Fight to keep economic resource (1600 miles away)

72 Forces… Patriots often wore blue. They were called Yankees because of the song “Yankee Doodle”, which was created to poke fun at the colonists. It became a rallying cry for the colonists. The British were very confident in their military forces. They were so sure of their training that they wore red because it would easily allow them to tell who was not on their side, and they felt their training was superior and would supersede any other factor, which was often the case.

73 Forces … Patriots (Positives) – Know the land Guerilla War
Close supplies Patriots (Negatives) – -Few numbers -Poor training -Short terms -no Navy British (Positives) – -Large numbers -Expert training -Great, experienced generals -The best Navy in the world Britain (Negatives)– -Unfamiliar Land -Traditional Style Fighting -Further to Travel

74 -King to make decisions (fast & easy)
X – Factors: Patriots – -Weak Govt. - Little Money Women Free African Americans - George Washington British – -King to make decisions (fast & easy) -Loyalists (unorganized, but wealthy) -Lots of Money - Enslaved Africans

75 FYI: Washington lost more battles than he won during the revolution, but he never lost one that would be costly enough to end the war. He survived attempts to overthrow and even poison him. Still, he never abused his position, and continued to listen to the Continental Congress throughout. Sometimes the C.C. even doubted his ability and thought to take him out of the Commander of the Continental Armed Forces position.

76 Warm-up What was another name for the British?
What was one X-factor for the British? What was another name for the Patriots? What was one X-factor for the Patriots?

-ENGLISH -LOYALISTS -LOBSTERBACKS -RED COATS X – Factors… Rebels – -Weak Govt. - Little Money Women Free African Americans - George Washington British – -King to make decisions (fast & easy) -Loyalists (unorganized, but wealthy) -Lots of Money - Enslaved Americans

78 Chapter 5 NPQ

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