Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 The American Revolution. Warm-up There were two Continental Congresses, what were the accomplishments of both?"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6 The American Revolution
Warm-up There were two Continental Congresses, what were the accomplishments of both?
Answer 1 st C.C.- (Sept. & Oct. 1774) 1.Convinced all colonies to boycott British goods (in response to the taxes) 2.Asked Britain to repeal unfair policies 3.Started for form militias and minutemen 4.Plan for the meeting of the 2 nd C.C. in May 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord take place 2 nd C.C.- (starts May 1775) 1.Created the Continental Army (G.W. in charge) 2.Sent the Olive Branch Petition 3.After O.P.B.-started to print money and prepare for war The Congress continued to meet and soon drafted the Declaration of Independence (July 1776)
Dates and meetings of the 2 nd Continental Congress May 10, 1775 – December 12, 1776, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania December 20, 1776 – March 4, 1777, Baltimore, MarylandBaltimore, Maryland March 5, 1777 – September 18, 1777, Philadelphia September 27, 1777 (one day only), Lancaster, PennsylvaniaLancaster, Pennsylvania September 30, 1777 – June 27, 1778, York, PennsylvaniaYork, Pennsylvania July 2, 1778 – March 1, 1781, Philadelphia
6.1 A Nation Declares Independence
In the Colonies… The Continental Congress started to govern the colonies and organize the Continental Army. The Olive Branch Petition-was a final offer to the king to avoid war with the colonies. King said NO! Thomas Paine published “Common Sense.” It argued that the colonies should break away from the king. Millions read it. He also wrote “The Crisis.”
Richard Henry Lee’s Big Idea He wrote a Resolution for Independence— This was the first time someone mentioned the concept of separation from Great Britain (June 7, 1776) Richard Henry Lee
The Declaration of Independence In June of 1776, the Committee of Five (Members from The Second Continental Congress) decided to draft The Declaration of Independence. They assigned Thomas Jefferson to write the first draft. John Adams- Mass Benjamin Franklin-Penn Thomas Jefferson-Virginia Robert Livingston-N.Y. Roger Sherman-Conn. * The "Committee of Five"
The Declaration of Independence Four Parts of the Declaration 1) Preamble (Introduction) Explain: This justified the rebellionExplain: This justified the rebellion
2 ) Rights (What We Want): Explain: All men are created equal! Explain: Life, Liberty & Pursuit of Happiness Explain: Be Able to Vote! The Declaration of Independence
3) Complaints against Great Britain (What We DO NOT Like): Explain: Taxes, or Acts without a voice in Parliament Explain: One judge, no jury The Declaration of Independence
4) Proclamation of a New Nation (Conclusion) Explain: We consider ourselves a separate nation (U.S.A.) Explain: We will sacrifice everything (lives/ fortunes) for freedom! "Spirit of '76." Copy of a painting by Archibald M. Willard, 1876. The Declaration of Independence
Changes: Thomas Jefferson did not write the Declaration of Independence in one sitting, nor were the ideas solely his. After writing the initial draft, 16 changes were made by J. Adams and B. Franklin. Then, the other two members of The Committee of Five, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman, met with Jefferson, Adams and Franklin, and made 31 more changes. Finally, it was taken to the 2 nd Continental Congress where they added and subtracted whole paragraphs (including one that blamed the King for the continued use of slaves in the colonies). In all, the 2 nd Continental Congress made 39 more changes before the annoyance of horseflies and hot July weather convinced them to call it quits on July 4th, 1776. That was a total of 86 changes from what Thomas Jefferson created to the final product!
Declaring Independence America declares themselves an independent nation,but this begins a new chapter of hardships for the colonists.
Interesting… When the congress met again on July 2, there had been a marked change in attitude. Recent actions by the British had inflamed passions. Lee's motion for a declaration of independence was brought back before the assembly and this time passed without a single dissenting vote. That night, John Adams penned the following sentiments in a letter to his wife, Abigail, back in Boston: “The Second day of July, 1776, will be the most memorable in the history of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the Great Anniversary Celebration.” On July 4, the Continental Congress met for only one item of business. Thomas Jefferson had written an official Declaration of Independence, and the delegates were there to debate its contents and approve the final wording. Jefferson's Declaration had been widely discussed prior to the meeting, and it seemed everyone had something to add or delete. As the session got underway, both the rhetoric [discussion] and the temperature began to heat up inside Independence Hall. One congressman wanted to change the phrasing of a particular sentence. Another wanted to eliminate a direct reference to the King of England. It was humid in Philadelphia that day, and as the delegates debated and mopped their brows, the windows of Independence Hall were opened to catch any breeze that might stir. Instead of a breeze, through the windows came an invasion of giant horseflies from a nearby stable. As the hungry horseflies descended on the founding fathers, debate ceased. A tormented delegate rose to suggest that Jefferson’s declaration seemed suitable to him. Others in the assembly agreed. A motion of approval was made and quickly passed. The delegates just as quickly exited the building, swatting at horseflies.
Warm-up What are the 4 parts of the Declaration of Independence?
Answer 1)Preamble (introduction) 2)Rights (what we want) 3)Complaints (what we do not like) 4)Proclamation of a New Nation (conclusion)
6.2 A Critical Time
Britain wants to split the colonies in half for these reasons: 1)Stop communication 2)Stop goods from moving 3)Stop troop movement
Battle Details: Patriots (outnumbered; outmaneuvered) are beaten badly forced to retreat to PA and NJ Did you know? To make things more simple, soldiers were issued “common shoes” that fit either foot! Long Island/New York (Summer 1776)
Battle Details: Patriots (outnumbered; outmaneuvered) are beaten badly forced to retreat to PA and NJ Blue: Patriots led by G. Washington Red: British army chasing
Impact of the Patriots losing Long Island/New York: Britain has NYC! Colonists are short on supplies, weary as winter hits! (Deserters)
Interesting: Nathan Hale: “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my Country!”
Battle of Trenton (December 24-26, 1776)
- The soldiers terms end in a week Battle Details:
Washington decides he has no choice but to use the troops while he has them. He plans an overnight crossing of the Delaware in frigid temperatures.
The British, meanwhile, are playing cards and having fun… it was Christmas you know!
Washington surprises partying British at Trenton on the morning after Christmas! (December 26 th )
900 Hessians are captured The colonists hold onto the Middle Colonies and It’s inspiring for the Patriots Impact: The Patriots WIN!
As the British Army moved towards Trenton, Washington takes Princeton by surprise shortly after!
Many soldiers reenlist to fight, and others begin to join thinking their may still be hope for the Patriot cause. European powers begin to think the Patriots can compete with the British
Continental Army recruiting poster
Washington Crossing the Delaware - Emanuel Leutze, 1851
Warm-up Describe what happened at the Battle of Trenton.
Answer Washington surprises partying British at Trenton the morning after Christmas! ( 900 Hessians captured; Colonists hold onto the Middle Colonies; and it was inspiring for the colonists!)
6.2 A Critical Time (cont.)
(Oct 7, 1777) The Battle Of Saratoga Goal of the British: Cut New England off from the rest of the colonies
Battle Details: 1) John Burgoyne moves South YES! (But it wasn’t easy) 2) Forces from the West Help NO! Benedict Arnold cuts off St. Leger at Ft. Stanwix 3) W. Howe to help from Philly NO! Howe heads back to Philly to fight Washington
Burgoyne (British) is forced to surrender at Saratoga (to Gates)
October 7, 1777) turning point of the war! The British pushed south, supplies were running short. Americans were rushing to block the British. By September, gates had 6000 men ready to fight. The Americans surrounded the British at Saratoga. The British surrendered. The recent Americans victories have stopped the British from dividing the colonies. Saratoga is considered to be turning point of the American Revolution (in favor of the Patriots.) Saratoga Turning point of the war!
1) British attempt to cut colonies in half fails! (still move troops, info, supplies) 2) Colonists gain help from Europe, especially France! **Major Turning Point of the war** Impact of Patriot win at Saratoga:
European volunteers France, the Netherlands and Spain came to the aid of the colonists. Marquis de Lafayette- high ranking officer in Washington’s army (French) Thaddeus Kosciusko-engineer at West Point (Polish) Casimir Pulaski-trained the cavalry (Polish) Friedrich von Steuben-trained the recruits (German)
Interesting: Burgoyne toasts Washington (who is not present) as Patriots play “Yankee Doodle” at a dinner where British troops lay down their arms!
Britain will now try to move the war south. General Howe (British) aims to take Philadelphia (the Patriot capital).
Washington loses at Brandywine and Germantown (Sept and Oct ‘77)
SUCCESS!!!!! Howe resigned in 1778, and, on May 20, Sir Henry Clinton took over as commander-in-chief of British armies in America. The British troops move into Philadelphia and try and relax for the winter.
Philadelphia, 1776. By the 1770s Philadelphia had become a highly cultured and prosperous city, the largest in America. Howe and his troops are 18 miles away from George Washington (at Valley Forge) after taking over Philly
Valley Forge- Fall of 1777- Winter of 1778
Washington selected Valley Forge because it was close enough to keep an eye on the British!
No Battle was fought! BUT… 2,500 die and 2,000 desert
There were positives…. Washington lived among his troops in a tent until they could build cabins that look like this. (Commanding officers didn’t live with the soldiers.) Soldiers begin to respect Washington for living like them!
Martha Washington brought supplies. (Women get involved in the war effort) Some of the most famous women at V.F.- Catherine Littlefield Greene Lucy Knox Martha Washington Lady Stirling Kitty Stirling Rebecca Biddle
Troops TRAIN and BOND together!
After Valley Forge, Washington led his army into battle at Monmouth. The large battle was a draw but it proved that the army was stronger and they could defend themselves!
Warm up What were 2 reasons why the Patriot’s victory at Saratoga was so important?
Answers 1)Stopped the colonies from being split in half! 2)Brought aid from Europe, especially France 3) Turning point of the war
6.3 The War Widens
African Americans in the War (free & slaves) African Americans-fought on both sides of the American Revolution Americans-Washington at first refused to accept African American soldiers. But the British offer of freedom to enslaved people made Washington change his policy. By the end of the war 7,000 African Americans had served, including 2,000 in the navy. British-offered freedom to enslaved people who deserted and joined the British. Many did this. They served in support roles as cooks, blacksmiths, and teamsters.
War at Home Women: Took over many duties of the men (crops, livestock) Some accompanied their husbands to military camps Some even took up arms and fought side by side with the men Finance: Paying for the war was very difficult Congress had to plea with colonies for money Congress printed continentals (paper money) but the more they printed, the less the money was worth By the end of the war, paper money had lost almost all its value Enrichment: What is it called when $ loses its value?
Fighting in the West Native Americans: Americans tried to keep the Native Americans neutral (offered money to groups willing to remain at peace) Many Native American groups sided with Britain because they feared that an American victory would mean more settlers moving west or south onto Native American lands. George Rogers Clark-and his American forces attacked British forces throughout the Ohio River Valley. His most famous victory was at Vincennes.
Foreign Aid: Help From Spain Wanted to expand their empire Even before they declared war against Britain in 1779, they secretly provided money and munitions to George Rogers Clark and other Americans
BERNARDO DE GALVEZ Governor of the Spanish colony of Louisiana from 1775-1783. When Spain declared war on Britain in 1779, Galvez was made a brigadier general. Because of his military victories against Britain, he won for Spain the colonies of East and West Florida when the war was over. His army was for everyman, including Creoles, Africans, Indians. The town of Galveston, Texas is named for him.
Foreign Aid: Help From France Angered by the loss in French and Indian War to Britain, France declared war on England Sent money, equipment and troops to Patriots FYI: The Netherlands also helped the Patriots by selling cheap supplies
British set up a blockade!!! Stops reinforcements and supplies from coming into the colonies. U.S. Navy fails (13 ships go unfinished or destroyed) WAR AT SEA:
The U.S. has to hire… Privateers: Privately owned merchant ships that seized cargoes of rum, wool and furs Capture more British Ships than the U.S. Navy!!
THE BONHOMME RICHARD vs. THE SERAPIS The most famous naval battle Took place off the coast of England
John Paul Jones was the naval officer for the American ship called the Bonhomme Richard
Cannon and musket fire ripped the sails of both ships to shreds and blasted holes in their wooden sides. Jones refused to give up, “ I have not yet begun to fight. ” Finally, after dozens of sailors dead on each side, the captain of the serapis surrendered. Cannon and musket fire ripped the sails of both ships to shreds and blasted holes in their wooden sides. Jones refused to give up, “I have not yet begun to fight.” The Battle
Finally, after dozens of sailors dead on each side, the captain of the (British Ship The Serapis surrendered. Richard sinks; but John Paul Jones was considered a hero! Serapis Flag This flag was raised by Captain John Paul Jones on the British frigate Serapis after the victory.
Warm-up What foreign nations helped the Americans during the war?
Answers Spain-money and munitions France-money, equipment and troops The Netherlands-sold the Patriots cheap supplies
The End of the War Section 6.4
Fighting moves south The British took control of Georgia The British capture Charles Town and then the rest of the state The Americans started using guerilla tactics Francis Marion led his troops through the swamps (Swamp Fox)
The Battle of Yorktown
Summary of Yorktown… 4 groups surrounded and attacked the British post at Yorktown. They were Washington, Wayne, Rochambeau (the American French Army) and de Grasse (the French fleet) The British (under Cornwallis) were cut off from reinforcements and were forced to surrender The British decided to end the war
Yorktown shows war is too costly for British to pursue.
The surrender of the British at Yorktown on October 19, 1781, ended the Revolutionary War. Trumbull placed American General Benjamin Lincoln at the center on a white horse, with French officers on the left and Americans on the right, led by General Washington on the brown horse. The British are represented by British officers, but Lord Cornwallis himself was not present. Cornwallis feigned illness and sent a junior officer to sign the surrender treaty. Trumbull was proud of the fact that he had painted portraits of the French officers while in France; he included a self portrait in the group under the American flag.
The Treaty of Paris September 3, 1783
Treaty of Paris (unfinished painting -- from left to right) John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. The British commissioners refused to pose, and the picture was never finished. April 1782 – John Jay, Ben Franklin, & John Adams represent the U.S. (Six Months to agree!)
1) Great Britain recognizes the U.S. as a free nation
2)Land Includes: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River Up to Canada, down to Spanish Florida
3) British withdraw troops from the colonies
4) British merchants can collect $ Americans owe
How the Colonists Felt!! Now that the British troops are leaving, how will the remaining Americans lives change?
I. Native Americans Land west of App. Mountains is given to army veterans
II. African Americans As a result…Some NE and Middle colonies abolished slavery but it still existed in the south
Whites feared loss of jobs As a result…African Americans were limited by law
Revolutionary ideas increased the criticism of slavery. “All men are created equal!” It wasn’t fair that African Americans fought side by side with the whites and were now seen as slaves in parts of the nation. Side by side in war… side by side in freedom?
JAMES ARMISTEAD LAFAYETTE 1748-1830 While a slave in Virginia, he volunteered to fight for the American cause. He spied on the British army for the Americans and reported his findings to General Lafayette. When the British General Cornwallis asked him to spy on the Americans, he became a double agent, giving Cornwallis misinformation from Washington. The information he sent to Lafayette resulted in the French fleet blocking the entrance to Chesapeake Bay. This blockade prevented Cornwallis from receiving supplies and reinforcements, which forced him to surrender at Yorktown. For his services during the war, he was granted his freedom by the Virginia Legislature. He took the name of Lafayette because of his strong admiration for the French General, Marquis de Lafayette.
The war did little to advance the status of women III. Women
Because of wartime experience, some women began to challenge traditional roles.
IV. Loyalists The vast majority of the white Loyalists (450-500,000) remained where they lived during and after the war. About 10- 15 percent of the Loyalists left, an estimated 62,000 Loyalists, or about 2 percent of the total US population. They have to decide whether to leave the new nation or stay and become American citizens.
Interesting… Although most flag historians do not believe Betsy Ross to be the maker of the first American flag, the Betsy Ross story has become publicized and common, accepted by many Americans. According to the legend, the original Betsy Ross flag was made in 1776, when a small committee including George Washington and George Ross, a relative, visited Betsy and discussed the need for a new American flag. Betsy's contribution to the design was a 5- pointed star (instead of a 6-pointed star, as Francis Hopkinson used), and she accepted the job to sew the first.
Warm up: The Treaty of Paris was signed to end the American Revolution. What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
Answer: - British troops leave the colonies -U.S. gains land East of Miss. River, up to Canada, and down to Spanish Florida -U.S. repays prewar debt to merchants -U.S. is a country
Warm up: Name the British general and the battle where the British surrendered to end the American Revolution.